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rs *-*■ 



uatuor Soronatorum 




being the TRANSACTIONS of the 

QUATUOR CORONATI LODGE NO. 2076, LONDON. 



« 



— *-j»— ^* 



FROM THE ISABELLA MISSAL. 




QftlTISH MUSEUM, ADD, MS3. 16.651 
CIRCA, 1600 A.D, 



^ 



EDITED FOB THE COMMITTEE BY W. H. RYLANDS, F.S.A.tP.A.G.D.G. 



THE QUATUOE, CORONATI LODGE No. 2076, LONDON, 
was warranted on the SStH Ifovemher, 1884, in order 

1. — To provide a centre and bond of union for Masonic Students. 

2. — To attract intelligent, Masons to its meetings, in order to imbue them with, a love for Masonic research. 

3. — To submit the discoveries or conclusions of students to the judgment and criticism of their fellows by means of 
papers read in Lodge. 

4. — To submit these eomniumcatiaris and the discussions arising thereon to the general body of the Craft by publishing, 
at proper intervals, the Transactions of the Lodge in thoir entirety. 

6. — To tabulate concisely, in the printed Transactions of the Lodge, the progress of the Craft throughout the World. 

6. — To make the English-speaking Craft acquainted with the progress of Masonic study abroad, by translations (in 
whole or part) of foreign works. 

7. — To reprint scarce and valuable works on Freemasonry, and to publish Manuscripts, &o. 

8. — To form a Masonic Library and Museum. 

9. — To acquire permanent London premises, and open a reading-room for the members. 

The membership is limited to forty, in order to prevent the Lodge becoming unwieldy. 

No members are admitted without a high literary, artistic, or scientific qualification. 

The annual subscription is one guinea, and the fees for initiation and joining are twenty guineas and five guineas 
respectively. 

The funds are wholly devoted to Lodge and literary purposes, and no portion is spent in refreshment. The members 
usually dine together after the meetings, but at their own individual cost. Visitors, who are cordially welcome, enjoy the 
option of partaking — on the same terms — of a meal at the common table. 

The stated meetings are the first Friday in January, March, May, and October, St. John's Day (in Harvest), and the 
8th November, (Feast of the Quatuor Coronati). 

At every meeting an original paper is read which is followed by a discnsBion. 

The Transactions of the Lodge, Art Quatuor Coranatorum, are published towards the end of April, July, and Decerned 
in each year. They contain e Summary of tlie business of the Lodge, tlm full text of the papers read in Lodge together witl 
the discussions, many essays communicated by the brethren but for which no time can be found at the meetings, biographies, 
historical notes, reviews of* Masonic publications, notes and queries, obituary, and other matter. "They are profusely ilfustratec 
»nd handsomely printed. 

The Antiquarian Reprints of the Lodge, Quatuor OoTtmatoram A appear at undefined intervals, and consist oi 

facsimiles of documents of Masonic interest with commentaries or introductions by brothers well informed on the subject! 
treated of- 

The St. John's Card is a symbolic plate, conveying a greeting to the members, and is issued on or about th< 
27lih December of each year. It forms the frontispiece to a list of the members of the Lodge and of the Correspondence Circle 
with, their' Masonic rank and adilresses, and is of uniform size with the TnwssocWojw with which it is usually bound up as ai 
appendix . 

The Library has now been arranged in the new offices at No. 61, Lincoln's Inn Fields, London, where Members of botl 
Circloa may consult the books on application to the Assistant Secretary and Librarian. 
To the Lodge is attaohed an outer or 

CORRESPONDENCE CIRCLE. 
This was inaugurated 1 in January, 1887, and now numbers over 2900 members, comprising many of the most diBtin 
guished brethren of the Craft, such as Masonic Students and Writers wasters, Grand Secretaries, and more thai 

800 Grand Lodges, Supreme Councils, Private Lodges, Libraries and other corporate bodies. 
The members of our Correspondence Circle are placed on the following footing : — 

1. — The summonses convoking the meetings are posted to them regularly. They are entitled to attend all the meetiogi 
of the Lodge whenever convenient to themselves, but, unlike the members of the Inner Circle, their attendance is not evei 
morally obligatory. When present they are entitled to take part in the discussions on the papers read before the Lodge, and t< 
introduce their personal friends. They are not visitors at our Lodge meetings, hut rather associates of the Lodge. 
2. — The printed Tiv Dodge are posted to them as issued. 

3. — The St. John's Card is sent to them annually. 

4. — They are, equally with the full members, entitled to subscribe for the other publications of the Lodge, euoh as fchosi 
mentioned under No. 1 above. 

5, — Papers From Correspondence Members are gratefully accepted, and as far as possible, recorded in tlio Transaction* 
6. — They arc accorded free admittance to our Library and Reading Rooms. 

A Candidate for Membership in the Correspondence Circle is subject to no qualification, literary, artistic, or scientific 
His eleotiou takes place at the Lodge-meeting following the receipt of bis applio i 

He is subject to no joining fee at present, but it ia proposed to institute auch a fee after the end of the ■ 
(1907) financial ye 

The annual subscription is only half-a-guinea (10s. 6d.), and is renewable each December for the year next following 
Brethren joining us late in the year will suffer no disadvantage, as they will receive all the Transactions previously issued in tb 
same year. 

It will thus be seen >ut the payment of any joining fee and for only half the annual subscription, the member 

of the Correspondence Circle enjoy all the advantages of the full members, except the right of voting in lodge matters am 
holding office. 

Members of ho\ -'«? to favour the Secretary with eommwnicamom to he read in Loag 

guently ,-. ■! embers of foreign jurisdictions will, we trust, keep us posted from time to time in the current Masonic histor 

of their districts. Foreign members can render still further assistance by furnishing us at intervals with the names of nei 
Masonic Works published abroad, together with any printed reviews of such publications. Communications may he addressei 
to the Secretary in English, German or French. 

Members should also bear in mind that every additional member increases our power of doing good by publiahin 
matter of interest to them. Those therefore, who have already experienced the advantage of association with us, are urged t 
advocate our- cause to their personal friends, and to induce them to join us. Were each member annually to send us one nei 
member, we should soon be in a position to offer them many more advan I we already provide. Those who can help a 

in no other way, can do so in this. 

Every Mason in good standing throughout the Universe, and all Lodges, Chapters, and Libraries or other corporat 
bodies are eligible as Members of the Correspondence Circle. 

LIFE MEMBERSHIP.— By the paymanfcfaie v years Su in advance, i.e., six guinea 

individual Brethren may qualify as Life Members of the Correspondi ■-. Corpora uaalify as Life Membei 

by a similar payment of Twenty-five years Subscription. Expulsion from the Graft will naturally entail a forfeiture of Membei 
ship in the Correspondence Circle, and the Lodge also reserves to itself the full power of excluding any Corresponded 
Member whom it may deem to be Masonically (or otherwise) unworthy of oautinued membership. 



BEING THE TRANSACTIONS OF THE 

Quatuor Coronati Lodge of A. F. & A.M., London, 



No. 2076. 



VOLUME XX. 



FRIDAY, 11th JANUARY, 1907, 




HE Lodge met at Freemasons' Hall, at 5 p.m. Present :— Bros. Hamon le Strange, 
Prov.G.M., Norfolk, W.M.; W. M. Bywater, P.G.S.B., D.C., as I.P.M. • E. Armitage, 
P.D.G.D.C., S.W.; J. P. Simpson, as J.W.; W. H. Eylands, P.A.G.D.C, Treasurer; 
W. John Songhurst, Secretary; Canon J". W. Horsley, Grand Chaplain; G. Greiner, 
P.A.G.D.C, as I.G.j W. Wynn Westcott, P.G.D., P.M.; S. T. Klein, P.M.; 
E. H. Dring and E. L. Hawkins.' " 



Also the following members of the Correspondence Circle : — Bros. W. Howard 
Flanders, Thomas Cohu, P.G.St.B., W. H. S. Humphries, "Walter Lawrance, Asst.G.Sup.W., A. J. 
Solomon, H. 0. Price, Cecil Powell, W. H. Harris, M. P. Percival, Arthur W. Chapman, Harry Guy, 
C. W. Holingbery, F. Inskipp, H. H. Montague Smith, W. B. Hextall, Bev. W. E. Scott-Hall, 
W. E. Soltau, F. J. Burgoyne, C. Letch Mason, F. W. Levander, E. J. W. Hider, C. T. Morgan, 
Will Burton, P. J. Dudgeon, George Eobson, W. Wonnacott, G. H. Luetchford, Sir John E.Bingham, 
Chas. H. Bestow, H. Hyde, W. C. P. Tapper, Eobert A. Gowan, M. Thomson, J. Johnson, Percy T. 
Goodman, F. Mella, W. E. A. Smith, Frank E. Lemon, S. Walshe Owen, Major John Hose, Leonard 
Danielsson, W. E. Phelps, D. Bock, H. P. White, Chas. F. Sach, G. Vogeler, W. H. Fox, H. A. James, 
R. J. Harrison, Hugh James, W. S. Lincoln, and Herbert Burrows. 

Also the following visitors :— Bros. Charles A. Kennett, Hiram Lodge No. 2416 ; Edward Phillips, 
P.M., Amity Lodge No. 161; J. C. Kersey, J.W., Citadel Lodge No. 1897; J. H. Guyton, P.M., Great 
City Lodge No. 1426; Roland Y. Mayell, All Soul's Lodge No. 170; and John M. Lanacher, Sir James 
Ferguson Lodge. No. 566. 



Letters of apology for non-attendance were received from Bros. Sir Charles Warren, P.Dist.G.M., 
E.Arch.; R. F. Gould, P.G.D. ; J. P.Rylauds; Col. S. C. Pratt ; W. J. Hughan, P.G.D.; T. B. Whytehead] 
P.G.S.B.; Dr. W. J. Chetwode Crawley, G.Treas., Ireland; F. H. Goldney, P.G.D. ; Sir A. H. Markham, 
P.Dist.G.M., Malta; L. A. de Malczovich ; E. Conder, jun. ; G. L. Shackles; F. J. W. Crowe, P.G.O. ; 
J. T. Thorp, P.A.G.D.C; H. Sadler, Grand Tyler; R. Hovenden, P.G.Steward; W. Watson; and 
E. J. Castle, P.Dep.G.Reg. 

Four Lodges and sixty-nine Brethren were admitted to the membership of the Correspondence 
Circle. 

1 Ey an unfo:rtuIiate accident no reference to Bro. B. L. Hawkins was made in the Report of the Meeting held 
8tn November, 1906, when he was unanimously re-elected a joining member of the Lodge. Our apologies are due to 
B>o, Hawkins for this omission, r 



3-1 



^ : " 






2 Transactions of the Quatuor Goronati Lodge. 

The W.M. then alluded to the fact that Bro. W. M. Bywater had recently completed his sixtieth 
year of Masonic life, and that it had been the intention of Bro. G. L. Shackles to move a resolution 
expressing the congratulations and good wishes of the members of the Lodge. In the unavoidable 
absence of Bro. Shackles he had the greatest possible pleasure in moving the following resolution : 

" That the Members of this Lodge having heard that Worshipful Brother Witham 
Matthew Bywater, P.M., Past Grand Standard Bearer, has recently attained the 
60th anniversary of his Masonic life, desire to offer him their most sincere con- 
gratulations on his attaining such an exceptional event, and trust that he may be 
spared many years to attend the Meetings of the Lodge of which he was one of the 
earliest joining members." 

The proposition was seconded by the S.W., and carried with acclamation, and it was further 
resolved : — 

" That this resolution be suitably illuminated and duly presented to Bro. Bywater." 

The document having been signed by the W.M. and officers, was then presented to Bro. Bywater, who 
thanked the Brethren for their kind wishes. 



The Report of the Audit Committee as follows was approved and ordered to be entered upon 
the Minutes. 

PERMANENT AND AUDIT COMMITTEE. 

The Committee met at the Holborn Restaurant, on Monday, the 7th day of January, 1907, at 
5.30 p.m. 

Present: — Bros. W. H. Bylands, in the Chair, G. Greiner, P.M., J. P. Simpson, W. J. Songhurst, 
Secretary, and A. S. Gedge, Auditor. 

The Secretary produced his books and the Treasurer's accounts and vouchers, which had been 
examined by the Auditor, and certified as being correct. 

The Committee agreed upon the following 



REPORT FOR THE YEAR 1906. 
Brethren, 

In presenting our Annual Report, we must again congratulate you upon the work done during 
the past year. 

We have had to deplore the loss by death of Brother E. A. T. Breed, a member of the Lodge : on 
the other hand, four members have been admitted, bringing the total number to 35. In the Corres- 
pondence Circle, death has also removed a number of valued members, prominent among whom may be 
mentioned Bro. Dr. Robert Smailes, of Leeds, Bro. G. P. Rupp, of Philadelphia, and Bro. W. H. Upton, 
of Walla Walla, who had done most excellent work as Local Secretaries of their respective districts. 
No new appointments have yet been made in the districts of Pennsylvania and Washington, but in the 
large province of West Yorkshire, Bro. J. Banks Fearnley will have the co-operation of Bro. John Pyrah, 
of Huddersfield, and Bro. R. H. Lindsay, of Bradford, in addition to Bros. J. Binney, at Sheffield, and 
C. Greenwood, at Halifax. 

Four hundred and thirty-seven new names have been added to the Correspondence Circle 
making the total at the end of the year 3116, the largest number ever on the Roll. 

As foreshadowed in our last report the office at Bromley has now been entirely closed, and 
additional accommodation secured at 61, Lincoln's Inn Fields, for the increased clerical staff. This 
important change has necessarily caused a considerable expenditure, and, added to the fact that there 
are now oyer £700 arrears of subscriptions still owing, renders the accounts not so satisfactory as they 
should be. 

We must, therefore, again urge upon all members the desirability of paying their subscriptions 
promptly. It will be noticed that £378 9s. 9d. is still outstanding on last year's account alone, and in 
order to continue the work" of the Lodge, it is absolutely essential that the brethren should bear in 



transactions of the Quatuor Goronati Lodge* 



a 



mind their obligation in this respect. A number of members have kindly facilitated the task of 
collection by giving instructions to their bankers to pay their subscriptions annually as they become 
due, others have commuted their payments and appear in the list as life members, while others again 
remit for two years in advance at one time, and so obviate the necessity of making small payments. 

It has been suggested that the subscription of 10s. 6d. might with advantage be increased, but 
we are of opinion that such a course is not at present advisable. We would, however, recommend the 
Permanent Committee to take into their consideration the desirability of instituting a joining fee of, 
say £1 Is., for all members admitted to the Correspondence Circle after the end of 1907. 

The Assets comprised in the Accounts given below, as in former years, do not include the stock 
of Transactions, of Antiquarian Eeprints, of facsimiles of vaiious copies of the Old Constitutions, nor 
the Library and Museum, upon which alone nearly a thousand pounds has been expended. 

We desire to call the special attention of members to the large stock of the publications of the 
Lodge, of which full particulars are given on the covers of the Transactions. The sale of these books 
would thus establish a fund which would enable the Lodge to greatly extend its operations. 



For the Committee, 



W. H. RYLANDS, in the Chair. 



BALANCE SHEET— 30th November, 1906. 



Liabilities. 



£ s. d. 



To Life Members' Fund 

(143 Members) ... 

,, Whymper Fund ... 



936 6 
105 15 



Payments received in advance ... 
Correspondence Circle for 1906. 

Balance in hand 
Outstanding Subscriptions as per 

contra ... 
Summer Outing— Balance 

Sundry Creditors 

Sundry Publications 

Lodge Account — 

Beceipts 50 8 

Payments ... 28 6 



1042 1 1 
100 11 9 

307 16 3 



Add Credit Balance, 1905 



22 2 
10 17 1 



711 15 
18 16 
11 5 

re 



32 19 1 



£2243 5 3 



£ s. d. 
By Cash at London and 
County Banking Co., 
Oxford Street 
„ £1300 Consols at 89 per cent. ... 
,, Sundry Debtors for Subscriptions 
in arrear — 



1906 
1905 
1904 
1903 
1902 
1901 



378 9 

162 6 

105 14 

51 9 

10 12 

3 3 



Sundry Debtors for Publications 
Sundry Publications 
Profit and Loss, Deficiency 



58 16 
1157 



9 
11 
6 






711 15 

26 17 

124 17 

163 18 



£2243 5 3 



This Balance Sheet does not include the value of the Library and Museum, Stock of Transactions 
and Office Furniture, and is subject to the realization of Assets. 

I have examined the above Balance Sheet and Profit and Loss with the Books and Vouchers of 
the Lodge, and certify the same to be correct and in accordance therewith. 



3rd January, 1907. 



Alfred S. Gedge, 

Chartered Accountant^ 

3, Great James Street, 

Bedford Row, W»C. 



Transactions of the Quatttor Coronati Lodge. 



PROFIT AND LOSS.— For the year ending 30th November, 1906. 



I>*. 



To 



Salaries 

Rent... 

Gas and Firing 

Stationery ... 



Office Cleaning and 

Sundries ... 
Insurance 
Furniture 

Moving and Repairs 
Library ... ,., 



£ s. 


d. 


307 





174 6 


6 


16 19 


7 


77 13 


3 


262 15 


10 


45 16 


2 


9 10 


6 


27 8 


9 


10 7 


8 


42 17 


2 



974 15 5 



ffiv. 

£ s. d. 
By Balance brought forward from 

last year 
„ 1906 Correspondence 

Circle 500 

„ 1905 ditto 98 9 

„ 1904 ditto 38 6 6 

„ 1903 ditto 18 18 

„ 1902 ditto 5 14 6 

„ 1901 ditto 4 14 6 

„ 1900 ditto 1 11 6 

Back Subscriptions ... 1 11 6 

Sundry Publications ... 26 12 10 

Life Members 36 15 

Interest on Consols ... 30 17 8 

Discounts ... ... 13 7 5 



Balance carried to Balance Sheet 



£ s. d. 



33 18 4 



776 18 
163 18 



£974 15 5 



£974 15 5 



The W.M. referred to the recommendation of the Committee that a joining fee should be insti- 
tuted for all members elected to the Correspondence Circle after the end of the current Enancial 
year, and several Brethren having spoken on the subject, it was decided that an announcement of the 
proposal should be .made to all Members of both Circles with the view of obtaining their opinion 
thereon. 



EXHIBITS. 
By Bro. T. A. Withey, Leeds. 

Silver Collar Jewel, in the form of two interlaced triangles, made by E. Loewenstark, 37, 
Leicester Square, London, in 1863-4. The centre emblems are unfortunately missing, but it is probable 
that this was a jewel of the Ancient and Primitive Rite. Presented to the Lodge. 

Collar Jewel, square and compasses, set in paste, evidently French manufacture and probably 
made for an Irish Lodge. The centre emblem is missing. 

B.A. Breast Jewel, (obsolete pattern) set in paste. 

By Bro. A. S. Gedge, London. 

Wine-Glass, engraved with Masonic emblems. 

Certificate, issued to Bro. John Denny, on 19th June, 1802, by the Grand Lodge of England. 
W. White, Grand Secretary. 

Certificate, issued to John Denny, on the 15th June, 1802, by Lodge of Harmony No. 384 (now 
No. 255), held at the Toy Inn, Hampton Court, signed by Thos. Haverfield, R.W.M., Wm. Walton, 
Act.M., G. Peach, S.W., pro. tern., Thos. Chammey, J.W., pro. tem , Richard Benham, Secretary. 

Certificate, issued to Bro, Johnson Gedge, on 6th January, 1823, by the Grand Lodge of 
England. 




Aes Qcathor Coronatorum. 






\ 




Tobacco - Pipe, 
Exhibited by Bro. J. H. Williams. 







I 



Tobacco - Box, exhibited by Bro. W. H. Toye. 









The Secretary read the following paper :— ■ 






Transactions of the Quatuor Goronati todge. :, 

By Bro. J. C. Brookhousb, London. 

Carved Bone Snuff-box. Presented to the Lodge. 

By the Lodge. 

China Tray (Sunderland. ware). 

Jewel, worn by members of the Lodge working in " King Solomon's quarries." 

By Bro. Frank Latham, Penzance. 

Ashlar, made from a piece of stone from the walls of Canterbury Cathedral while fixing 
scaffolding preparatory to restoring the great Tower. On one side is a small piece of stone from the 
quarries at Jerusalem set in a Keystone-shape frame. Presented to the Lodge. 

Three Sheets of Masons' Marks at Canterbury Cathedral. Presented to the Lodge. 

By Bro. B. Loewy, New "York. 

Set of Four Medals (silver, bronze, copper, aluminium) commemorating the fiftieth anniversary , 

of the Adelphie Council No. 7 Royal and Select Masters, New York. Only twenty-five copies were f I 

struck in silver, and twenty in copper. Presented to the Lodge. 4 \ 

* 

By Bro. J. H. Williams, Ludlow. 

Soapstone Tobacco-pipe, found in 1847 in an ancient Indian Camp in Northern Canada by the 

father of the present owner. It was stated that the Camp had been used for summer huuting by a • 

tribe then long extinct, but it seems probable that the Sioux Indians who accompanied the finder 4 
"planted" the pipe where it was found, as there is no doubt that it is of fairly modern make. It is 

not possible to determine exactly the nature of the stone from which it is cut, as it is much stained by i 

tobacco. j 

* | 

By Bro. W. H. Toye, London. 

Tobacco Box, cast lead, dating probably from 1790. It must have been very handsome when 
first made, as there are still traces of colouring and gilding. <t ! 

B.A. Breast Jewel, made 1791, for John Burges, by Holder, Bartholomew Close. 

By Bro. Sydney E. Clarke, London. 

Portrait of the Earl of Zetland (" Vanity Fair" cartoon, December 4th, 1869). 

Portrait of the Duke of Sussex, published June 24th, 1813, for C. Rosenberg and Son, by § 

Colnaghi and Co., London. ' 

f 
Portrait (unidentified) of a Senior Grand Warden of the Grand Lodge of England, " painted and J 

drawn on stone by R. R. Scanlan." 1 




Transactions' of the Quatmr Goronati Lodge. 



JOHN COLE. 

BY BRO. W. JOHN SONGHURST, Secretary. 




I HE little engraving which I now exhibit seems to call for some 
explanation, not because it has reference to a disturbance among the 
dignitaries of the City of London, for that, although of general interest 
by reason of its happily infrequent occurrence, would hardly form a 
subject for enquiry from a Masonic standpoint. But the " Citizen and 
Liveryman " is represented as wearing a Masonic collar and jewels, 
and it is therefore reasonable that we should seek to know something more about the 
Brother, and the indignities to which he was subjected at the hands of a "person 
without legal authority." 

The print brings to mind another portrait forming the frontispiece of a little 
book published in 1801, and a comparison of this with the engraving now before us 
makes it quite clear that here we have once more our old friend, " A Past Master." 

But what a change in the face ! No doubt, many will be inclined to suggest that 
this is attributable to his connection with his Company of the Leathersellers, and to 
the many good dinners of which he must have partaken at their Hall, but in justice to 
the man, as well as to the Guild, it must be stated that he was a Liveryman in 1788, 
thirteen years before the first portrait was published, and we must therefore conclude 
that his apoplectic appearance is due to the disturbance in the Common Hall, which is 
commemorated by the later print. 

As Leathersellers' Hall was used on several occasions as a meeting" place for 
Grand Lodge, I may perhaps mention that it is situated on the east side of Bisbopsgate 
Street Within, on land originally belonging to a Priory which existed as early as 1180, 
and was dedicated to the mother of the Emperor Constantine. About 12J0 this was 
transformed into a Priory of Benedictine nuns, whose Hall formed the Common Hall of 
the Leathersellers' Company from the time they purchased the property, shortly after 
the dissolution, down to 1799. In that year the buildings were demolished in order to 
form St. Helen's Place, the present Hall being erected on the old crypts. 

The first meeting of Grand Lodge in Leathersellers' Hall appears to have been 
the "Assembly and Feast," on 3rd April, 1753, under the presidency of Lord Carysfort, 
Grand Master; others were held on' 10th May, 1756, and 18th May, 1757, with the 
Marquis of Carnarvon in the Chair; the last meeting being on 1st May, 1775, when, 
after laying the foundation stone of Freemasons' Hall, the Brethren, with Lord Petre 
at their head, repaired to the City in order to partake of dinner and transact other 
business usual on the occasion of the Annual Festival. 
The book to which I have referred is entitled : — 

" Illustrations of Masonry selected by Brother John Cole, Past Master 
" of Lodges No. 466, 249, 113, and 195, to which is prefixed, The Funeral 
" Service and a variety of other Masonic information. London : published 
" at the Masonic Printing Office, No. 18, Fore Street, Cripplegate : sold 
" also by H. D. Symonds, Paternoster Row ; Crosby and Letterman, 
" Stationers' Court; Barry, 106, Minories ; And by all Booksellers in the 
" United Kingdom of England and Ireland. 1801," 



AitS QUATDOE CORONATOEUM. 






FojRthait ofa CirzzEtf&ZiyEmMAK 

of the COMPACT ofLEATHERSELLERS. 

Wha-was Seiziih/ ike Cottar <z£&& &7nmcmIlall.Aftril2?J80Q 
fy a/u^emztriMtrtdleyal Aici&^ity.incmj&fut^offceifvrefi 
Aial)iaafrfir<rfaciw7i, 3oADiyfvifie<L (/Aarader wfo ttsas&naio : d. 
Ut. iA» Cff7wno7iMlUIrt/^ Vmvardr of J000 Persons i 




«*&«8fc» v ye«ft 



Tart pftTie-Tivfits etriaina f7~/77rvtAe Sale of this Jarirazi 
zeAZl, l>e aii/en- to ~ttzc.Jtfb7vefka Z//uria&£ Offuzr wAo Tefusct 







John Cole. 






It runs to 131 pages, and is dedicated to H.R.H. George, Prince of Wales, Right 
Worshipful Grand Master. The first twelve pages are devoted to the " Funeral Service," 
and then follow some "Monitorial" Notes, selected for the most part from Preston 
and Hutchinson. On page 57 we have an "Account of the Freemasons' Charity 
School " for Girls, which six years previously had been transferred from Somers Town 
to St. George's Fields. 1 Pages 69 to 78 give us an address presented to the King on 
his escape from death at the hands of James Hadfield. Then we have a list of Grand 
Officers, etc., for 1801, and on page 80 commences an account of the " Masonic Benefit 
Society" for indigent Masons, followed by the inevitable collection of songs, 3 the 
remainder of the book being taken up with particulars of the Boys' Charity. In the 
list of subscribers to this Charity of £5 5s., and upwards, we find the name of John 
Cole, and additional evidence of the fact that he was a charitably disposed man is 
afforded by the inscription under the frontispiece, which states that part of the profits 
arising from the publication of the book were " to go towards the fund of the Masonic 
Charity, for sons of Indigent Free Masons." In the list of subscribers of one Guinea 
we find the names of James Cole, of Tench Street, St. George's ; and Thomas and David 
Cole, whose addresses are not given. 

The book appears to have been issued in several forms. One has the portrait 
printed in colours, and also contains engravings of three tracing boards, as well as of 
the well-known " Freemason formed out of the materials of his Lodge," while another 
has only the portrait (printed in black) with the additional information engraved at the 
foot, " Sold at No. 18~, Fore Street. Price 3s. 6d. neatly bound." It also appeared 
with twelve double pages of engraved songs and music bound up at the end, and with 
these and the other four plates was sold for five shillings. 

We can get some information about John Cole from the book itself and the 
advertisements it contains. We find that he was the son of William Cole, Printer and 
Engraver, of Newgate Street, who in 1766 was appointed by Grand Lodge to print the 
" Lists of Lodges." We find also that for some time in addition to his " Pencil Ware- 
house" in Fore Street, he had a place at 12, Plumber's Street, City Road, and that 
eventually he moved to St. Agnes Circus, Old Street Road. 3 From this last address 
" A new selection " of his Illustrations was advertised, but I have not found that it was 
actually issued. It was to have been pnblished on " Saturday May 1," a combination 
which fixes the year as 1802. This is surprisingly close to the date of the first 
edition but the next possible year, 1813, is quite out of the question. He appears to 
have remained in St. Agnes Circus until 1807 when he returned to 18, Fore Street. 

William Cole continued to publish the Engraved Lists of Lodges until 1778 when 
they were superseded by the printed Calendars. From 1745 to 1766 the work had been 
entrusted to Benjamin Cole and although in the latter year his work as Official Engraver 
came to an end, he issued several unofficial lists in 1766 and 1767. Benjamin had been 
engaged on Masonic work as early as 1728 when he engraved and dedicated to the Earl 
of Kingston a copy of one of the " Old Charges." He put out a second issue in 1731 
erasing Lord Kingston's name from the plate and substituting that of Lord Lovel, the 

1 It will interest some Brethren to know that twenty-five Chairs presented by the Caledonian 
Lodge on the removal of the School to St. George's Fields, in 1795, are still in use at the present 
Institution at Battersea. 

2 " It has been the practice of almost every Author or Compiler of Publications on Masonry to 
affix to their books a larger or smaller collection of Masonic Poetry." (Stephen Jones. ■ Preface to 
Masonic Miscellanies. 1797.) 

3 This address is variously given in the records of the Leathersellers' Company as " No. 9, Circus, 
Old Street Koad," and " No. 9, Agnes Circus, Old Street Green." 



8 Transactions of the Quatuor Ooronati Lodge. 

then Grand Master. Two other editions appeared in 1751 and 1762 but they were 
printed from type. He was also the engraver of the frontispiece of the 1756 edition of 
the Book of Constitutions. 

I am greatly indebted to Mr. W. Arnold Hepburn, Clerk to the Leathersellers' 
Company, for information in regard to the members of the Cole family whose names are 
recorded in his books. I have already mentioned that John's name first appears in 
1788. He was made free by patrimony on the 19th February of that year, and admitted 
to the Livery three months later, being described as of Pye Corner, West Smithfield, the 
Fore Street address appearing for the first time in 1792 when he succeeded his father 
as Printer to the Company. During the year 1807 he served as Livery Warden, but in 
1808 financial difficulties overtook him and he obtained a return of his Livery fine. He 
was however employed as the Company's printer for one more year, having then an 
office in Newgate Street. The London Directory makes no mention of this further change 
of address but keeps him at 18, Fore Street until 1810, and after this his name dis- 
appears altogether. 

It is probable that his failure as a Copper-plate Printer was due to the intro- 
duction of Lithography, although there seems some ground for supposing that for a 
time he retired altogether from the business and was forced to return in consequence of 
the incompetency or bad luck of those whom he left in charge. He tried to retrieve his 
fortune by taking up an entirely new line, that of " Dealer in Piano-Fortes and Music 
in General," but was not able to avert bankruptcy. 

A very fine engraved bill-head is preserved in the Grand Lodge Library. It is 
particularly interesting as giving an indication that John Cole numbered members 
of the Order of Bucks among his customers. It does not bear the name of the designer 
or engraver, but the style and arrangement of the Masonic portion shew that it was 
copied or adapted from some of his father's work. 

I have not found anything actually engraved by John, but the business card 
he used at St. Agnes Circus is stated to have been designed by him. It was engraved 
by Harper. On the early stipple portrait we find the name of Adolphe as engraver, 1 the 
" Common Hall " portrait being the work of J". 0. Walker, while the Tracing boards are 
by F. Curtis. 

Benjamin was not at any time connected with the Leathersellers' Company, and 
I am still in the dark as to his relationship with William and John. William however 
was made free of the Company in 1754 as an apprentice of James Cole (1744) and 
admitted to the Livery three years later, serving as Master in 1786-7. He seems to have 
remained in Newgate Street down to about 1792, when he is described as of " Printing 
Office, Bank." In 1802 he was living at No. 15 Brayne's Row, Spa Fields, and he died 
before 6th April 1803, 2 when another son was admitted as a Freeman and Liveryman. 
This son, also named William, was described as a " Copper-Plate printer, Little Saffron 
Hill," but his connection with the Company was of short duration as four years later 
(2nd September 1807) his Livery fine was returned to him, he having " been very 
unfortunate in the choice of his residence." This period indeed seems to have been a 
disastrous one for the Cole family, as a few months later assistance was granted to a 

'A proof before letters of the stipple engraving was recently brought to me as a portrait of the 
Duke of Kent ! 

2 His Will was proved 4th February, 1803. John Cole benefited to the extent of £3 000, other 
legatees being his son William, a daughter Sarah, and a nephew William. I have not found any 
record of John's Will, but curiously enough there is one of another John proved 27th February, 1809 
He had resided in Baker's Buildings, Old Bethlem, and he left all he possessed (household furniture) to 
his wife Susannah. * - ' 



Aes Quatuob Cokonatoeum. 






pKiNTm& Oepicb5^18 Fore §tkeet Cripple gate 




C*^— Stationary "WkoiiESAEE sr Retail , 



Bill-Head of John Cole. 
From the Original in the Library of Grand Lodge. 






Aes Quatuor Coronatoetjm. 




AiliA^tf *VTjF 



-■" h Jy^w '■ V-riJ^ ! Mi -i 



Business Caed op John Cole. 
From the Original in the Library of Grand Lodge, 





John Cole 



Mrs. Holt, 1 daughter of Thomas Cole, formerly a member of the Court. There had been 
two members bearing the name Thomas, one made free in 1732 by patrimony as the son 
of Robert (free 6th June, 1 710) and the other made free by apprenticeship in 1733. There 
was also a Joseph Cole in 1750, another James in 1717; and in 1718 we even find a 
Susanna. 

It would be well-nigh impossible to trace the relationship which probably 
existed between these individuals. Bro. Rylands has kindly given me some notes on 
other members of the family, who seem to have settled in London at an early date, 
many of them taking up engraving as a profession. Thus we have : — 

Humphrey Cole, Goldsmith, 1592. Perhaps a brother of Peter Cole, 
Painter. Engraved Maps, etc. 

Peter Cole, 1663, etc. Engraved Portraits. (On 4th December, 1665, 
Peter Cole, bookseller and printer in Cornhill, hanged himself in his warehouse in 
Leadenhall). 

John Cole, of Holborn. Flourished about 1720. Engraver of Portraits 
and Book-plates : among them is a head of Thomas Puckle, prefixed to his dialogue 
called " The Club." Died 15th June, 1783, aged 86. 

John Cole, engraver. He was much employed by Booksellers on works 
of a low class, which he produced entirely with the graver. He etched 136 plates for a 
"History of Canterbury Cathedral and Westminster Abbey," published in 1727. 
(Redgrave's Bid. of Artists). 

Benjamin Cole, engraver. First part of eighteenth century. Chiefly portraits, 
e.g. Lords Kilmarnock, Cromarty, Balmarino, and Frazer of Lovat. 

James Cole, of Titchfield Street, died 1773. 

George Cole, engraver, of Great Kirby Street, Hatton Garden. Died 
January 1795, aged 72. 

We can get a few more names from the Grand Lodge lists, but no information 
which helps in any way in the task of identification. The 1725 list gives us Mr. Cole, 
Member of the Red Lion at Richmond ; while in the 1730 list we find — Mr. Cole, 
Master of the Yine Tavern, Holborn ; Mr. Benjamin Cole, Member of the Lodge at 
the King's Arms in St. Paul's Church Yard (evidently the Lodge of Antiquity) ; 
Mr. Benjamin Cole, member of the Queen's Arms in Newgate Street; and Mr. Charles 
Cole, S.W. of the Castle and Legg in Holborn. A Lawford Cole and a Theophilus 
Cole are also mentioned, but it seems probable that they did not belong to the same 
family. 

In fact, James Cole of Tench Street, St. George's, is the only one of whom 
anything can be said. I have no doubt that he was the Brother James Cole who acted 
as Secretary of the Girls' School from 1806 to 1812. He was a candidate for the post 
in 1804, on the death of Bro. Christopher Cuppage, but declined to submit to a ballot. 
Four years later, however, on the resignation of Bro. W. Dignam 2 he had a walk-over. 
He was the last to hold the combined offices of Secretary and Writing Master. 
He suddenly threw up the position in 1812, and the members of the House Committee 
were naturally much annoyed that he thus left them in the lurch. He had been 
admitted a member of the Chapter of St. James on 10th January, 1811, coming 
apparently from the Shakespear Lodge, and, although his name does not appear in the 

1 A Mr. Andrew Holt wag living at No. 8, Plumber's Row, City Road in 1805-06. 

- This brother was not a Mason at the time he applied for the post, but signified his intention, if 
elected, of being initiated " forthwith." 



10 



Transactions of the Quatuor Coronati Lodge. 



list of members as given by Bro. Ebblewhite in his History of that Lodge, the Minutes 
of 28th June, 1804, which he quotes, shew that on that day James Cole was appointed 
Assistant Secretary, at a salary of Twenty Guineas per annum. He is described as 
"M.M. and Master of the Saint Peter's Lodge No. 249," and as "a very deserving and 
industrious man with a wife and small family," but as he also was unfortunately in low 
water at this time we must suppose that he had resigned from the St. Peter's Lodge 
before he applied for admission to the Chapter of St. James, and considered the 
Assistant Secretaryship of the Shakespear was a sufficient qualification. A link with 
John Cole is found in the fact that he also was a Past Master of the St. Peter's Lodge. 1 

The Lodges of which John Cole was a member are stated to be Nos. 466, 249, 113 
and 195. The first of these was the " Friendly Lodge," warranted as No. 557 in 1790, 
which met at the Queen's Arms Tavern, Newgate Street, 1798-1810, and lapsed about 
1815, the number having been altered to 521 at the Union. No. 249 was the " St. 
Peter's Lodge" already referred to, meeting 1793-1805 at the King's Head, Walworth 
Road. At a later date it seems to have been in the hands of the notorious Finch, and 
met at his rooms in the New Cut. It made no returns after 1814, and was erased in 
1838. It is probable that James Asperne was a member of this Lodge at the same time 
as Cole. In 1795 Asperne was in business as a bookseller in Walworth, while from 
1803, to his death in 1820, he published the European Magazine at the Bible, Crown 
and Constitution, in Cornhill. One of the songs in Cole's little work is stated to have been 
" sung by Brother J.A., P.M. of St. Peter's Lodge," and his name appears in full as the 
writer of an introduction to the address presented to the King. No. 113 (the 
" Gloucester Lodge ") dated back to 1755, and met at various places in London until 
1800, when it removed to the Ship, High Road, Tottenham, returning, however, to 
London in 1805, where it languished for a few years, finally lapsing in 1808. It was 
while acting as Master of this Lodge that John Cole wrote two of the Masonic sonffs 
which appear in his book. 

All the above Lodges were warranted under the Grand Lodge of the " Moderns " 
but the last one on the list, No. 195, was an" Atholl" creation, meeting from 1800 at 
the " Hole in the Wall," Fleet Street. Although it lapsed in 1805 its warrant was 
revived by endorsement in the following year in favour of what is now the " Lodge of 
Prudent Brethren." 

A later impression of the portrait given in the "Illustrations" has had the 
lettering entirely altered. At the top now appears " Brother John Cole," and at the 
foot " Past Master, of the St. Peter's Lodge No. 249, the Friendly Lodge No. 466, the 
British Social Lodge No. 183, and the Gloucester Lodge No. 113. Seventh Time 
elected." He was evidently a favourite in the "Gloucester." The " British Social" 
was warranted in 1775. It became No. 222 at the Union and in 1821 united with the 
" Castle" Lodge, erased in 1854. 

The "Common Hall" portrait was re-engraved (or perhaps was itself a re- 
engraving), but strange to say without the collar and jewels. It gives us, however, the 
name of one more Lodge of which John Cole was not only a member but Master, namely 
" The Old Tuscan " No. 184, a " Modern " creation of 1765. It was erased in 1775 and 
reinstated in 1777; erased again in February, 1800, and again reinstated two months 

1 Bro. Ebblewhite also mentions a Thomas Cole who was a member of the Shakespear Lodge 
from 1774 to 1779. 




John Cole. 



ii 






later. It made no returns after 1814, and its third erasure in 1830 was final. It had 
been re-named the " Lusitanian " in 1811, and was one of the Lodges owning a Free- 
masons' Hall Medal. 1 

It may be noted that John Cole advertises for sale engraved Summonses and 
Certificates, "an apron prepared of fine leather, or satin, printed from an excellent 
Masonic design, of Faith, Hope and Charity" fan example was exhibited at 
this Lodge on 12th January, 1906), and portraits of William Preston and F. C. Daniet. 
This last was probably an earlier portrait than that facing page 66 of A.Q.G., vol. xviii. 
He was also a joint publisher in 1797 of the first edition of Stephen Jones's Masonic 
Miscellanies, as well as in 1799 of the Masonic Museum, which is stated to be " A select 
Collection of the Most Celebrated Songs, sung in all the Respectable Lodges." To this 
collection is added a list of Lodges of Instruction meeting under the "Regular" and 
" Atholl " Constitutions. A portrait of the Prince of Wales (to whom the book is 
dedicated forms the frontispiece, while the engraved title-page gives a view of the 
" Royal Cumberland Freemasons' School for Female Orphans." 

I first met with the statement that John Cole was connected with the publication 
of the 1797 edition of Masonic Miscellanies, in Bro. Lane's Handy Book to the Lists of 
Lodges (p. 107), but I had some difficulty in verifying it. The book is not particularly 
rare, but the copies which I was able to inspect bore only the names of Vernon and 
Hood. After considerable search I discovered in the Grand Lodge Library with Bro. 
Sadler's kind help a copy from which in all probability Bro. Lane got his information. 
It was formerly in the Irwin library and it gives John Cole's name on the title-page in 
addition to Vernon and Hood. It is evidently an early issue of the book (not a 
different edition), as there is no doubt that if Cole had been publishing it in 1801 he 
would have advertised the fact in his " Illustrations." I have since ascertained that a 
copy is also in the possession of Bro. P. R. Finnis, of Dover, and I have no doubt that 
others will be brought to light now that attention has been directed to the point. 

And now with regard to our print. The " row " which took place on All Fool's 
Day, 1809, was in connection with an incident, not Masonic and not particularly savoury, 
one moreover on which much has already been written. Perhaps the most concise 
account of the circumstances which led up to it is to be found in Dr. Reginald Sharpe's 
" London and the Kingdom," 2 and from vol. iii., p. 270 of that work, I extract the 
following : — 

" Early in the spring of 1809 the Duke of York, Commander-in-chief, was 
charged by a militia colonel named Wardle, member for Okehampton, 
with having allowed his mistress, Mrs. Clarke, to dispose of commissions, 
and having himself participated in the proceeds of this nefarious 
traffic. The scandal was aggravated by a public investigation before the 
entire House of Commons, and, although the Duke was eventually 
acquitted of personal corruption, he felt compelled to resign his post. His 
acquittal disgusted the Common Council, who desired to place on record 
their belief that it was greatly due to that 'preponderating influence,' of 
which they had formerly complained. On the other hand they voted 
Wardle the freedom of the City in a gold box (6 April) . In the course of 

1 John was proposed as a joining member of the Chapter of St. James on 14th September, 1797. 

2 " London and the Kingdom." A History derived mainly from the Archives at Guildhall in the 
custody of the Corporation of the City of London, by Reginald R. Sharps, D.C.L., Records Clerk in the 
Office of the Town Clerk of the City of London ; Editor of " Calendar of Wills enrolled in the Court of 
Husting," etc. In three volumes. Printed by order of the Corporation under the direction of the 
Library Committee. London : Longmans, Green and Co. ; aud New York, 15 East Sixteenth Street, 1895. 



I 



i 



' 



12 Transactions of the Quatuor Goronaii Lodge. 

a few months Wardle was himself sued by a tradesman for the price of 
goods with which he had furnished a house for Mrs. Clarke. This put a 
new aspect on the charges Wardle had brought, and greatly diminished 
the feeling against the Duke, who was soon afterwards restored to office. 
The City, however, still upheld Wardle, and not only refused to rescind 
their vote of the 6 April, but placed on record an elaborate statement 
showing how by his means, and in the face of unexampled threats and 
difficulties, a system of 'scandalous abuse and corruption not only in 
the Army, but in the various departments of the State ' had been brought - 
to light. This statement they ordered to be published in the morning 
and evening papers." 
The more one tries to get at the real meaning of the inscription on the 
eDgraving by the aid of this and other printed accounts of the proceedings, the greater 
are the difficulties which arise. 

There seems no doubt that it was purposely made obscure, and perhaps some 
allowance must also be made for the evident hurry to get the print published, the date 
at foot showing that this was effected in six days. 

I have not found any reference whatever to John Cole in the records, but 
perhaps this is not surprising, as the occurrence must have been to the reporter merely 
an incident at a meeting in which general uproar seems to have been the prominent 
feature. 

The " dignified character " is, no doubt, intended for the Lord Mayor (Sir Charles 
Flower), who was at first howled down and then compelled to put to the meeting a vote 
of censure upon himself "for disregarding the wishes of the Livery and for being 
unworthy of his fellow-citizens' confidence." This vote was carried by an enormous 
majority, only four hands being held up against it. The Lord Mayor was certainly 
much averse to the proposed resolutions against the Duke, and appears to have declined 
at first to act upon a requisition from the Liverymen for convening a meeting. It is 
possible that it was on this question that he fell foul of John Cole, though how the 
" person without legal authority " could have had the temerity to seize our friend by the 
collar in the presence of so many who were of his way of thinking is far from clear. 
But we must also bear in mind that Cole was scarcely correct in describing himself as a 
"Citizen and Liveryman" in 1809, as his name had been removed from the list in 
February of the previous year, and it may have been a refusal to admit him to the 
Guildhall which led to the assault. The point, however, is not of importance, although 
one would like to know something more about the "honest and upright officer," who, 
it may be hoped, received a good round sum as his share of the profits arising from the 
sale of the Portrait. 

With regard to the Collar jewel worn by John Cole, this was apparently the 
proper jewel of the period for a Past Master under the " Ancients." I say apparently, 
because, as I have already mentioned, John Cole was a Past Master of Lodges under 
both Constitutions. The Master's jewel of the " Ancients " was similar to that which 
he wears, but had the sun between the legs of the compasses. It may be, therefore, 
that the alteration marks a difference between the practice of the two Grand Lodges, or 
that the sun was raised above the compasses for a Brother who had passed the Chair. 
At an earlier date the jewel of the Past Master under the " Moderns " was of an entirely 
different form and pattern, as will be seen from the illustration given by Bro. Sadler 
in his recently published History of the Emulation Lodge, but as time went on there 
seems to have been a mutual appropriation of jewels by members of the rival bodies. 




John" vole. 



13 






Thus the " Emulation," when it followed the example of the " Ancients" and appointed 
Deacons, took also their "Mercury" collar jewels, while on the other hand the St. 

' Thomas' Lodge, originally warranted by the " Ancients," still invests its Past Master 
with a jewel similar to that referred to above as belonging to the " Moderns." 

In this connection it is interesting to compare the portrait of William Preston, 
engraved by Thomson in 1794. He is there described as a Past Master of the Lodge 
of Antiquity, and he wears a Collar jewel similar in design to that of John Cole. But 
when we examine other engravings of about the same period we find a singular lack of 
uniformity. In the well-known print, by Bartolozzi, shewing the procession of Girls in 
Freemasons' Hall, the Prince of Wales and Ruspini both have compasses hanging from 
their collars, • while William Forssteen has a square. In the portrait of the Prince of 
Wales as Grand Master, engraved in the same year (1802), by Edmund Scott, he is 
shewn with the Compasses and segment of a circle, and in the portrait of Ruspini, 
" Painted and engraved by I. Jenner, M.M.," we see a square with a sword on one limb. 
The sword probably indicates his rank as Grand Sword Bearer, an office which he held 
from 1791 to his death in 1813. It is impossible to say definitely what is on the other 
limb, as it is almost covered by his Star of the Order of the Golden Spur. We may 
also note that the portrait of James Asperne represents him as wearing a square 
suspended from a chain. This Brother was a Past Master of two Lodges under the 
" Moderns," but had probably resigned from both before the portrait was painted, as the 
numbers given are those of pre-Union times, while he wears his Apron of Grand 

•Steward, an office which he held in 1814. 

One other portrait I should like to mention is that of the Earl of Moiraas Acting 
Grand Master, engraved by C. Turner, after James Ramsey, in 1811. In this we have 
the Compasses again, but, instead of the segment, a crescent. It is so clearly drawn 
that I do not think it can be a mistake on the part of the painter or engraver, 
especially as the earlier portrait (1804), by Bartolozzi, engraved by H. Landseer, shews 
the compasses and segment most distinctly. Is it possible that the jewel may be 
intended to indicate some position in the Royal Arch P At first sight the suggestion 
does not seem reasonable, but it will be remembered that the seal of the " Grand Royal 
Arch Chapter, York," of 1780, had a crescent in combination with a rainbow and a 
triangle. It is evident, therefore, that the emblem had some significance in connection 
with the degree at York, and I would like to make a further suggestion, viz., that the 
crescent was not intended to represent a half-moon, but an Ark, of the same shape as 
that depicted on the counter-seal of the Grand Lodge at York (circa. 1776-1779). In 
the latter there is no doubt whatever that it is a representation of the Ark of the 
Covenant. The addition of staves and Cherubim makes this quite clear, and I cannot 
help thinking that in the Grand Chapter seal the device is meant to indicate Noah's 
Ark, an emblem much more appropriate than a half-moon when taken in conjunction 
with the rainbow. 

I must add a few words in regard to the place of publication of the print. " Old 
Bethlem " immediately suggests the Bethlehem Hospital for the Insane in St. George's 
Fields, Lambeth, commonly known as Bedlam, and although the suggestion is to a 
certain extent correet, we must look to the North of the City and not to the South for 
the place of abode of our publisher. In the year 1246 a Priory of the Star of Bethlehem 

'was founded on the east side of Moor Fields, in the parish of St. Botolph Without. 
In 1330 the religious house became known as a general hospital, and the City authorities 
took it under their protection, subsequently purchasing the whole of the property 
belonging to the establishment. Henry VIII. transferred to the care of the citizens of 






m 




14 



Transactions of the Quatuor Goronati iJoAge. 



London the inmates of an asylum for lunatics which had been established almost under 
his nose at Charing Cross, and in a fit of extreme generosity gave to the City the entire 
property it had already purchased. By 1675 the buildings had become so dilapidated 
that it was found necessary to erect a new hospital a little to the west but on the south 
side of Moor Fields, just without the City Wall. This became known as " New Bedlam," 
and is so marked on " a new map of London, revised by John Senex " x in 1720. At the 
beginning of the nineteenth century these buildings also were found to be in a state 
of decay, and in 1812-15 the institution was transferred to the new site at the junction 
of Lambeth Road and St. George's Road. It would seem that at the demolition of the 
original building a range of old tenements was allowed to remain with the name of " Old 
Bethlem " and it was here undoubtedly that the print was published. For the most 
part the houses were inhabited by vendors of " decayed upholstery," and enjoyed as evil 
a reputation as in our day was held by another street in the same neighbourhood. 
Shakespeare may be correct in his oft-quoted opinion about the unalterable qualities of 
the rose, but his remark would appear to lose its force when applied to the nomenclature 
of London Streets. Petticoat Lane is certainly much sweeter under its new name of 
Middlesex Street, and the present dwellers in Liverpool Street must surely be conscious 
of an air of dignity and respectability which was evidently lacking when, less than a 
hundred years ago, the locality was known as " Old Bethlem." 



Bro. Wi, Watson writes : — 

I have perused an advance copy of Bro. Songhurst's Paper with great interest. 
Although the name of Gole is a household word with every Masonic student and 
bibliographer, yet no serious attempt has hitherto been made, that I am aware of, to 
bring together the materials for, and compile a comprehensive account of this 
remarkable family. 

There is very little on which to hang criticism, the Paper being mainly the 
relation of ascertained facts — (and we may take it that anything Bro. Songhurst 
gives as fact has been well authenticated by him as such)— but there is much to admire 
in the great perseverance and assiduity of the author in running to earth and recording 
everything of utility within practicable reach. The subject of the Cole family, until 
now, almost terra incognita to most of us, has been explored, and the result is not only 
a valuable and reliable work of reference but adds a greatly enhanced interest to the 
many artistic achievements of the Coles, still extant. 

I much regret that I cannot be present to join in that warm and hearty vote of 
thanks to our talented Secretary, which all present will agree to be so well merited by 
him. Indeed, his present paper is one illustration out of a great many of how he throws 
himself with dead earnest and determination into everything he undertakes. 



On the proposition of Bro. Canon Hoeslet, seconded by Bro. W. H. Rylanbs, a 
hearty vote of thanks was passed to Bro. Songhukst, Bro. Horsley referred to the 
coincidence of a Lodge named " St. Peter " existing at Walworth at so early a date, as 
his church dedicated to St. Peter was not erected until much later. The explanation 
was probably to be found in the fact that the Lodge had previously (1791) met at a 
tavern known as the " Cross Keys," Shad Thames, and had retained the name of " St. 
Peter " on its removal to Walworth two years later. 

1 John Senex will be remembered as the joint publisher of the first "Book of Constitutions" in 
1723. He also published scientific works for Dr. Desaguliers, and held the office of J.G. Warden in the 
year 1723-4. 




Transactions of the Quatuor Goronati Lodge. 



15 



ON MASONIC HISTORY.— LET US SEEK TRUTH. 

BY BRO. JOHN YARKER. 










URING some little time a series of articles has appeared in the French 
journal, If Initiation, under the cabalistically devised pseudonym of 
" Teder." These articles are well worthy of consideration by all who 
desire the truth in history. 

The view which " Teder " takes in these papers, and he is no 
contemptible authority on the matter, is that " Ancient" Masonry is 
the Masonry of the Romanists and the Stuarts, which entered France with the" Irish 
and Scottish followers of James II. in 1688. Faithful to the old Constitutional 
Charges they held the necessity of being faithful to the King (that is "the 
King over the water") and Holy Church (i.e. the Roman Catholic Church). 

On the other hand " Modern " Masonry was the system of the new Grand Lodge 
of 1717, Protestant and Hanoverian, in which all the binding articles in their original 
import, as to the King and Holy Church, were abrogated by the new Constitutions 
of Dr. James Anderson, on behalf of the new dynasty. I have myself put 
the question in your pages, to this effect. If Scottish Masonry was the rubbish that 
some able Masons both in England and America suppose that it was, what induced so 
many men of position, and so many military men, say between 1660 and 1700, to join 
the Scottish Lodges ? "What was their aim and object ? Of many of these we can 
trace their after career, and they were loyal followers of the exiled Stuarts in France. 
" Teder" opens his first paper in the following words : — 

" In 1675 King Charles of England, a Catholic and Freemason, influenced by able 
men, had obliged the Duke of York, also a Freemason and Catholic, to give his 
daughter, Mary, in marriage to the Protestant "William, Prince of Orange. Already, 
at this period, a political division existed, the visible manifestation of a secret discord 
reigning in the Lodges from the first disputes of the Reformation, and we see an 
English party and a Scottish party. But the first of these was so powerful that they 
sought to reject the Duke of York from the succession, and, in March, 1679, 
Charles II. went so far as to exile his brother. 

"Notwithstanding this, in 1681, he was re-called and received the Governorship 
of the Scotch, in succession to his pseudo-nephew, the Duke of Monmouth, 
with whom the English party had plotted. In the hope of being one day King, the 
Duke of York naturally took great care to create secret friends in the Scotch Army, by 
drawing to himself the greater and the lesser nobility, the merchants and the workmen, 
whether Protestant or Catholic, by means of a crowd of societies allied to the Masonry 
to which he belonged, and to the Order of Knights of St. Andrew, which became a sort 
of fourth degree of the Masonic Order with its own particular usages." (The authority 
for this statement is the "MS. of Bro. The Prince of Hesse.") 

" We may object perhaps that the composition of the Masonic organization, which 
admits indifferently men of all religious beliefs and of all political parties, is little 
suited to aid the enterprises of a Party. But this objection is of little value;, in face of 
the csrtiin fa,cfc that Masonry of the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, was not at 



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Transactions of the Q/uatuor Goroftati Lodge. 



all what we understand as Masonry of the present day, and was also practically divided 
upon religious and dynastic questions ; and, moreover, what human society can be said 
to be exempt from intestine disputes, and fratricidal quarrels ? Is it not now, at this 
moment even, upon a question of religious principle, that the. Grand Orient of France 
finds itself separated from the Grand Lodge of England, which, hardly six months ago 
renewed, in an official circular, the . order for non-admission of such French Masons to 
English Lodges ? 

" It is credible that, even in London, the partisans of Bro. the Duke of York enjoyed 
a certain influence, for on the 11th May, 1682, a grand Masonic banquet, in which he 
took part, was given in his honour in Masons Sail, at which Bro. Elias Ashmole assisted, 
who, with other things,- makes allusion to this in his Diary, and observes that he had 
been a Mason for thirty-five years. 

" Charles II. having died in 1685, was succeeded by Bro. the Duke of York, 
without apparent opposition, under the title of James II., but the English Party 
continued its subterranean work, and the new monarch, whose catholicity bore a tinge of 
the world, was dethroned in 1688, to the profit of his kinsman, the usurping protestant 
foreigner. We now see a more open agitation, two factions opposing each other in the 
Lodges, to wit; says Bro. the Prince of Hesse, the Scotch Party, who were for the 
restoration of James II., and" the English Party, who laboured for the advantage of 
William, Prince of Orange, who was initiated the year following into the Masonry 
of the English Party, forgetful of the obligations of the old Masonic Constitutions, which 
exacted the oath of fidelity to the King and Holy Church, or the established religion. 

" During this time, James II. demanded the assistance of his ally Louis XIV., 
entered Ireland against his kinsman, and penetrated into Scotland, but in spite of the 
support of the French arms, he was vanquished ; then returned to France, preceded 
and followed by a crowd of greater and lesser nobility, English, Irish and Scottish, all 
magnificently received at the Court of Louis XIV., and who set themselves to 
' labour under the veil of Scottish Masonry, not only for the restoration of the deposed 
King, but also to re-establish the Catholic heirarchy in England.' (MS. of the 
Prince of Hesse.) Some 'scrupulous brethren ' had a fire in London in 1720, and 
gave to the. flames a quantity of Masonic documents which revealed too much ; the Royal 
Family has had possession of 500,000 documents, comprising the papers of James II., of 
his son, and of his grandson, which they have kept in vain under lock at Edinburgh, 
precious documents in print and in manuscript. This has not hindered the truth from 
being pointed out by Henri Martin, who possessed solid material with which to compile his 
celebrated Histoire de France, enabling him to say that these ' were the vanquished 
adherents of the ultramontane Catholicism, and of absolute Monarchy which propagated 
Masonry' (evidently that of the Stuarts) ' in France.' (Vol. it., p. 399.) 

" Immediately on his arrival in Paris, James II. installed himself in the Jesuit 
College of Clermont, at St. Germain-en-Laye, where he established a sort of Government 
with Ministers and Ambassadors, and where, if we rely upon Bro. Ragon, in 
alluding to the labours of P. Bonani, were issued ' the first Masonic Templar Statutes.' - 

" In these times, that is to say a little after 1690, there were already some Grades 
at the Court of Louis XIV. filled with noble partisans of the Stuarts. Bro. Robison, 
Secretary of the B,oyal Society of Edinburgh, expresses himself thus upon the subject, 
of the period of 1696 : ' It was in a Lodge held at St. Germain-en-Laye that the Grade 
of Ghetialier Macon Ecossaise was added to the three symbolic degrees of English 
Masonry. The rank of Chevalier Ecossaise was called the first degree of Parfait Macon' 
(1798 ed., p. 28). The Bro. Clavel adds: 'The initiation was given to some highly 



I 






On Masonic History. — Let us Seek Truth. 



17 




placed persons whom they had gained over to the cause ' (that of the Stuarts and ultra- 
montane Catholics) 'and of whom they wished to utilise the credit to induce the- 
Government of Louis XIV. to intervene, arms in hand, in favor of the decayed dynasty. 
These refugees included members of several grades, such as Maitre Irlandais ; le Par/ait 
Maitre Irlandais, and others that were intended to serve to stimulate the zeal of the adepts, 
to prove them, and to separate them from the crowd.' {Hist. Pitt, de la Frane-Magonnerie, 
p. 164-5.) 

" On the death of James II., his son, who had been reared with James of 
Derwentwater, and had the Duke of Perth as governor, was recognised King of 
England under the title of James III., and by the mistaken treaty of Ryswick, by 
Louis XIV., also dear to Madame de Maintenon. The same recognition was made 
by Spain, by the Pope, and the Duke of Savoy, but the death of William III. super- 
vened the next year, when the Princess Anne Stuart, wife of George of Denmark, and 
second child of James II., took possession of the British throne. 

" In 1708, a first tentative descent upon England took place in favour of the 
young Pretender, surnamed the Chevalier St. George, upon a plan, conceived by the 
Scottish Simon Frazer, a revoked English Officer and the future Lord Lovat. (See 
Howell's State trials.) After the death of Queen Anne, and following a conspiracy of 
1713, woven by the Duke d'Aumont, French Ambassador in London and friend of 
Mme. de Maintenon, a new attempt was made in 1715, but' in consequencee of the death 
of Louis XIV. and the inaction of the Regent, which had been purchased by the English 
government, this attempt foundered, occasioning the death, on the field of battle 
and on the scaffolds erected by the usurping dynasty, of a crowd of Chevaliers 
of St. Andrew, or Chevaliers Ecossaises, amongst the number of which, it is convenient to 
cite a great friend of James III., the Bro. James Ratcliffe, Earl of Derwentwater (born 
28th June, 1689) , who was beheadedin London in 1716. His brother Charles escaped from 
the prison of Newgate and became afterwards the first Grand Master of Masonry in 
France. 

" The London conspiracy had its impulse from Louis XIV. at Commercy from 
September 1712, that is to say, a little before the Treaty of Utrecht concluded in 
April, 1713. The Duke of Ormond took part in this conspiracy, as well as the famous 
Bolingbroke, a man who was much the friend of Voltaire. The correspondence 
between England, Scotland, the Court of France and the Pretender was carried on by 
the intermediary of the Abbe Butler, a Scot established at Cambrai, and a friend of 
Ramsay, of Fenelon, etc. (See Howell's State Trials). Observe that the Duke of Ormond 
had been a friend of James II., and that his name was given later to a lodge founded at 
the Rue de Bussy at Paris. 

" Following the want of success of James III. in Scotland, which obliged him, 
owing to the trafficking of the Regent and the Abbe Dubois, his Minister and 
former tutor, the Pretender had to quit France definitely ; in 1718 he was at Rome, 
hoping for the support of Charles XII. and the Czar of Russia, thence he departed 
for Spain, where Cardinal Alberoni prepared for him an expedition in which Charles 
Ratcliffe, who had assumed the forfeited title of Earl of Derwentwater took part. The 
grade of Chevalier de St. Andrew was now reorganized ; 'it is certain,' says Bro. 
Robison, ' that the degree of Chevalier Ecossaise, and yet other higher degrees were 
much in vogue in 1716 at the Court of France.' That is to say, at the period when they 
prepared the Treaty of the Triple Alliance, which was concluded 4th January, 1717, and 
in. which we can see the price which King George I. paid for the purchase of "the Duke 



' 



18 



Transactions of the Quatuor Coronati Lodge. 



of Orleans ; the date also when four old Lodges of Masonry, under the conduct of the 
followers (or successors) of Ashmole, withdrew from the old tutelage and formed a 
Grand Lodge called ' of London ' (a continuation of the amateur English Party of a 
foreign Protestant dynasty), creating, in February 1717, that which Bro. Ragon calls, 
with much reason, ' another Masonry.' This other Masonry is comprehended the better 
when we remember that its principal founder was the Rev. Dr. J. T. Desaguliers, a 
Protestant, born in Prance, atlaRochelle 12th March, 1683 (died 29th February, 1744). 
He was a member of the Royal Society, Chaplain to the Luke of Chandos, afterwards 
to the Prince of Wales, and the future George II., and was moreover a personal friend 
of George I. of Hanover, who, although he knew neither the language nor the 
customs of England, had been called in 1714 to replace Queen Anne on the throne of 
the Stuarts." 

All the foregoing matter is of so much interest, even to the ordinary English 
reader, that I have not had the heart to abridge the translation. But " Teder " now goes 
into particulars of A. M. Ramsay, Chevalier of St. Andrew, with whose general career 
Bro. R. F. Gould has made Freemasons well acquainted. There is this exception, that 
" Teder " makes no hesitation in expressing his view that Ramsay was not a faithful friend 
of the Stuarts. A friend of Fenelon, a Member of the French Ordre du Temple, he is 
inclined to think that the Chapter of Clermont, existing before 1741, owed its Templar 
proclivities to that source ; and there is no doubt that the views, heretofore expressed 
as those of the Prince of Hesse, were those of the well informed Ramsay, and deserve a 
respectful hearing. 

"Initiated by Archbishop Fenelon himself into the Secret of a 'Templar 
revenge,' well suited to the fallen Stuarts, to the Jesuits banished from the British 
realm, and to the Roman Catholics persecuted by the State, Bro. Ramsay — who 
before 1715 had been in contact with Derwentwater, the Duke of Perth, with Hamilton, 
the Dake de Bouillon, James III., and other great Jacobite personages, more or less 
allied with Fenelon, founded the Mont d'Heredom of St. Germain-en-Laye in 1721, 
and which is the date of the Dunker.que Lodge Amitie et Fraternite, for before this there 
was no other English Lodge in France. It yet exists and flatters itself that Ramsay was 

its founder Wherefore it is necessary to conclude that Bro. Ramsay, friend 

of the Regent, and Tutor of the son of the Duke de Bouillon, was the basis of the power 
of the Grand Lodge of London, and this is very singular when we consider the 
Catholicism of Ramsay and the anti-Roman Masonry of Desaguliers. However this 
be, the choice of Dunkerque for the ' Premier Lodge ' in France is all the more 
worthy of note, as Bro. Ramsay was certainly not ignorant that in the Treaty of 24th 
January, 1717, preceding by some weeks the foundation of the 'New Masonry' of 
Desaguliers, the Regent had accepted the demolition of the military fort of that place. 
After this, the Regent and the Cardinal Dubois being dead, a new French policy under 
Louis XV. had birth. Ramsay repaired to Rome in 1724, ostensibly as tutor of the 
son of James III,, but in reality (for Charles Edward, born 31st December, 1720, was 
but 3| years old) to receive there a complete initiation by means of the particular 
instruction of the pretender and his Council, of which the principal members were 
Colonel John Hay, Earl of Inverness ; his brother Lord Kinnoul, and his brother-in- 
law James Murray, surnamed Earl of Dunbar. It is very singular that, in 1724, the 
Earl and Countess of Inverness were chosen by James III. to be the tutors of his son. 
This choice, with other things, caused an embroilment between James III. and his wife. 
Another plot on behalf of the Pretender, who had dwelt at Rome since 1718, took place 
in England in 1722, in which Bro. the Duke of Norfolk, Lord Orrery, the Puke q£ 




On Masonic History. — Let us Seek Truth. 19 

Ormond, General Dillon, etc., were concerned; and the Anglican Bishop Atterbury, 
from his arrival at Eome, was a member of the Council of the Pretender. 

" Viscount Bolingbroke, who had espoused Md e . de Vilette, niece of M me . de 
Maintenon and parent of Voltaire, returned to London, and with the money which 
he had collected from the entourage of the Regent, of the Dnke d'Antin, sought to 
secure, by a monthly payment, the services of M me . Von Schulenberg, Duchess of Kendal 
and mistress of George I., the friend and protector of Bro. Desaguliers. 

" At this period, the son of the Marquis of Wharton, the young Philip, was in 
Paris at the end of 1716 and was created Duke of Northumberland by the Pretender, 
and by George I. in January, 1718, Duke of Wharton, and had recently [in 1722] been 
Grand Master of the Grand Lodge of London. He suddenly recalled to mind that his 
grandparents, fifty years before, had been friendly to the better Masonry of Ashmole, 
left his country definitely, became Catholic, and went to Rome to he near James III. 
When in Paris, in 1716, he had been very assiduous with Lord Stair, the British 
Ambassador, had access to the widow of James II., who lent him 50,000 francs, and on 
his return to London soon became Grand Master of the Grand Lodge." 

Now follows a long dissertation on the Gormogons, which " Teder " considers had 
degrees above those of the Craft (probably the Harodim), hut as Bro. Gould has already 
given your readers the result of his examination, it need not he repeated here. 

" An Ancient Mason was something like the Duke of Wharton ; a Modern Mason 
was something like his successor, the Earl of Dalkeith. The first went to Rome ; the 
second remained in London, because he was grandson of the Duke of Monmouth who 
was beheaded by order of his uncle James II., father of the Pretender. After a year 
had passed at the Court of James III., who was, I do not say, Grand Chief of the 
Illustrious Order of Gormogons, but a Templar as was the Jesuit father Bonani who knew 
him well, and Hereditary Grand Master of Harodim Rosy Cross, termed the Royal 
Order of Scotland. Bro. Ramsay, in 1725, with Colonel Hay, Earl of Inverness, and 
several other personages of importance, quitted Rome, and repaired to Paris, where, 
immediately, some Lodges were founded by Bro. Charles, Earl of Derwentwater, who 
ten years previously had been condemned to death in England, and by certain other 
persons, attached like himself to Catholicism and the fortunes of the Pretender, under 
favour of a new Pope— Benoit XII.— elected 29th May, 1724. Bro. Gould asks who was a 
certain Heguetty, who was at this time the founder of a Lodge ? We scarcely com* 
prehend why he failed to discover in the name a Hay of Dalgetty, near Aberdeen. At 
this period there were not many Irishmen in Paris ; the greater part of those who fought 
in 1708 and 1715, in Ireland, had emigrated to America, where, later, their grand- 
children united themselves with the Chevaliers Ecossaises, and failed not to discuss the 
affairs of the Colony in rebellion against the Metropolis, with many brothers living in 
France. 

" We now come to the year 1727. Bro. Ramsay published his Travels of Gyrus, a 
work full of transparent allusions, which he dedicated to the Due de Sully, to whom, 
some years before, the famous Law had offered 1,700,000 francs for the Marquisate of 
Rosay ; then, in England, George I. died, and was succeeded by his son George II., the 
old pupil of Bro. Desaguliers." 

Some amount of matter is added here in regard to the grades attributed, 
-erroneously, to Ramsay, and to those of the Chapter of Clermont (in existence before 
1741), hut "Teder" is of opinion that these became in the later Rite of Perfection of 25°' 
Ecossaise 13°; Novice 14°; Chevalier of the Temple 24°. I have expressed my views before 
on this,\and see no reason to alter them. " Teder " denies the assertion that Charles Earl 



20 



transactions of the Quaiuor Goronati Lodge. 



of Der went water was ever a member of London Masonry ; or that d' Harnouester ever 
existed, but that all the writers who allude to him have been mystified by Lalande's 
article on Masonry. In my opinion d' Harnouester is a misreading for Derwentwater, 
and I expressed this opinion some years ago in the Transactions of the Newcastle 
College of Rosicrucians. He denies, on apparently good grounds, the authenticity of 
the Stuart Charter to Arras in 1747, but it must be observed that we have no authentic 
copy of it. Equally he demands proof that the Grand Lodge of Prance, under, it may 
be observed, Sir Hector McLean, the Earl of Derwentwater, etc., was known as the 
Grand Lodge Anglaise before 1743. The Chevalier Bonneville, who gave prominence to 
the Chapter of Clermont, in 1754, is equally unknown in Trance, and is taken from 
Lalande's article. He expresses an opinion, respecting which I have written recently in 
our pages, that the ancient Chevalier Templar, of the Clermont Chapter, became "a 
part of Kadosh " ; whilst the later fourth degree, of Illustrious Knight, afterwards became 
the Prince of the Royal Secret. If such a person as Bonneville ever existed, it 
seems to me that he it was who extended the Clermont System, by taking in the six 
additional degrees of Knights of the East, which were but a renaming of those of the 
Toulouse System of the Vieille Bru, established about 1747. With regard to the 1745, 
or 1747, Charter of Arras, I defer, with regret, to the opinion of so able a critic as 
" Teder," for the text of that document contains an historical statement which agrees 
with the Oration of 1737 attributed to Ramsay, and with other facts in England which 
we know, namely, that the Rites of the so-called Harodim, or Rulers, were those of the 
Masters' Fraternity of true and ancient Masonry, out of which sprang, by 1741, the 
three degrees of the Chapter of Clermont. That Arras document distinctly states that 
the Rites of Christian Mastership were originally known as Harodim, that the name of 
Chevalier of the Eagle and Pelican succeeded (i.e., after King James invaded England 
in 1715, with the standard of a Pelican feeding its young with its blood), and "since 
our misfortunes " (of 1745) as Rose Croix. 

" It is very certain that at this epoch, and for along time previonsly, two Masonic 
systems, absolutely distinct from each other, existed in Europe ; the one ' SWcTi,' which 
assumed superiority, and which was favourable to the ancient Stuart dynasty, in which 
' Roman Architecture ' was preferred, the other ' English,' rifling the ancient Rituals, 
which Bro. Findel has termed 'the old remains of Romanism,' and rejecting all 
hierarchy above the symbolic degrees ; precisely as they rejected all connected with the 
Papal hierarchy, and favourable only, under cover of fidelity tq the King, and neutrality 
in religious matters— a fidelity and neutrality very misty— to the protestant King 
brought from abroad into England. This religious neutrality was tardily an effect 
beginning in 1672, under Bro. Charles II.; and in 1687-8, under Bro. James II.; 
edicts of toleration assured entire liberty for all creeds, having no worse adversaries 
than those who, after showing their lack of fidelity to the Stuart dynasty, brought in a 
foreign one -aimed thus at imposing on all, fidelity to the protestant usurpation, and 
neutrality in religious matters. There is no doubt that Masonry— as says Henri Martin 
—built exclusively the Churches of the middle ages and that down to 1717 it had not 
ceased for a moment, in spite of the troubles of the Reformation, to be Christian. The 
Christian character of all the old Masonic MSS.— following Bro. Gould himself— 
indicates in all ways an undeniable fact." 

" Teder " now devotes several pages, taken from a variety of our ancient MSS.,, 
proving that the Initiate was sworn to fidelity to the King and to the doctrines of the 
Holy Catholic Church. As we already have these Charges, in print by Bro. W. J. 
Hughan and others> and in facsimile by the Quatuor Coronati Lodge, we already know 






On 'Masonic History.— Let us Seek Truth. 



21 






■these things by heart and need not repeat them here. One suggestive remark on the 
Melrose MS. I give: "In 1533-4 Henry VIII., who was an able politician, detached 
himself from Eoman architecture, and, to blind small people, drew to Lutheran 
architecture, from which he had chased others; decreeing an English Architecture 
in his realm, this was the cause of the divisions which surged in English Masonry." 
Again, we read after numerous quotations from the Old Charges : — 

" The nature of the service exacted from Masons of this period differed little 
from those exacted in Romanist times from the Archbishops, Bishops, and Members of 
the lesser Anglican Clergy ; in effect the ancient formula of the oath which these last 
were held to take, was similar to the ancient formula of the oath of the high and the 
lesser Gallican Clergy, thus : ' I . . . swear by the very high and Sacred Name of 
God; and promise to your Majesty that, so long as I live, I will be your faithful 
servant ; that I will not assist at any Council, or Assembly, which is founded against 
your service ; and that if anything to your prejudice comes to my knowledge I will adver- 
tise your Majesty.' By article 6 of the Concordat a similar Oath is still exacted in 
France :— ' If in my diocese, or elsewhere, it appears that something is framed to the 
prejudice of the State, I will make it known to the government.' Masons and Priests 
were then in accord, to swear fidelity to Holy Church; to defend the King; and to use 
the same hidden means in order to prevent all treason and all plots." 

" Teder " observes that there is but one Church which claims to be the Holy 
Church ; and then goes on to examine the changes which arose in ' Modern ' Masonry 
by the manipulations of the Constitutions of 1723. But he admits, after all, that in 
order to secure the safety of the new dynasty, the engineers of Modern Masonry 
organised " a sort of universal Theosophy," and were the true innovators. The following 
will be new to our readers : — 

"1 see that in 1558, an Archbishop of Dublin — George Bronswell — wrote:— 
' There is a fraternity, founded for a short time . . . which is seducing many into 
it. The members, for the most part, live after the manner of the Scribes and 
Pharisees, and seek to abolish virtue. They have had some success, because this sort of 
persons turn themselves into divers forms ; with pagans they will be pagans ; with 
atheists they will be atheists ; with the Jews they will be Jews ; with the 
Reformers they will be Reformers' :— and I observe that this fraternity— notwithstanding 
that they are true disciples of St. Paul,— have then a policy different to that of Masons, 
because we see by the ancient Masonic Charges these last swore faith to the King and 
the Holy Church, notwithstanding that the members of the Fraternity, of which 
Archbishop Bronswell speaks, all belong to the ' Holy Church,' spreading themselves to 
accommodate religion, as says the P. de Rhodes, to the taste of the nations which they 
visited, and, as history proves, always remaining faithful to the King." 

So "Teder" goes on to argue that "Ancient" Masonry was the application of 
the ancient rule of our Charges to the Stuart dynasty and the Romish faith, whilst 
"Modern " Masonry, following the Constitutions of Bro. Anderson, was the emasculation 
of these to support the foreign dynasty ; it seems true enough, unpalatable though it 
be. He then continues as follows, and there is possibility in it : 

" In 1690 and 1721 the ' Ancient ' Masonry continued by the Stuart faction had 
assuredly established Lodges in France. The dossiers of the Grand Orient relative to 
Military Lodges, say that a Lodge Parfaite Egalite, existed in 1690 in the Irish 
Regiment of Walshe, in the service of Louis XIV. Afterwards other Lodges were 
founded, although according to Bro. Robison (ed. 1798, p. 28) there were Masonic 



: 



22 Transactions of the Quatuor Goronati Lodge. 

graduates at the Court of Prance in 1716, and when, further, the Irish and hootch con- 
tinued to serve the French governments. From 1725, when Bro. Ch. Derwentwater 
appears, we see the birth of other Lodges, ' of which we know no more than the names 
to-day,' and which certain English historians term irregular ; as it was very necessary 
to support the innovations of Bro. Desaguliers to imply that he was a regular Mason ; 
as if a regular Masonry had not existed before the colossal irregularity committed in 
1716 by the partisans of the Royal Art in the service of George I. On the 7th May, 
1729, a Lodge Louis a" Argent, of which a Bro. le Breton (no doubt of Great Britain) was 
Venerable was founded; in 1732 a Lodge at the house of the traitor Landelle was 
established in the Rue de Bussy, which could be called together at any moment. The 
Duke d'Aumont was initiated herein, and hence it assumed his name. All this is 
deceptive. It is manifest that it was sought to spread confusion around the first half 
of the eighteenth century in order to deceive the curious, and it may be said of Masonic 
history what Bro. Frederick II., in his Memoirs, says of other histories : that they are 
compilations of deceit mixed with some truths. Who knows whether it is not for this 
reason that Bro. Gould, citing a profane author, adds : « He was not a Freemason, and 
this augments the value of his testimony, (vol. iii., p. 80.) For the rest we seize, with 
advantage, the intention of such forged imbroglios ; after what we have said we read : 
' In 1735 a deputation of the Lodges of Paris, of which Derwentwater formed part, 
demanded from the Grand Lodge of England authority to form a Provincial Grand 
Lodge.' Clavel says that this authority was refused, because the Parisian Lodges had 
a very marked political tendency. If this political tendency had been in accord with the 
Treaty of the Triple Alliance of Brother George II., and if the Rituals of Ancient 
Masonry continued by the partisans of the Stuarts had not been those of the Parisian 
Lodges, we can easily comprehend that the Masonic deputation of Paris would have 
been received with enthusiasm in London ; but Bro. the Earl of Derwentwater, as well as 
Bro. Ramsay, held that Roman Architecture was defined in the Ancient Masonic Constitu- 
tions of England, and consequently the Lodges founded by these two Catholics were of 
the kind which, in spite 'of the pretended tolerance displayed in the Constitutions of 
Anderson, could not be tolerated by the Modern Masonry of Anderson and Desaguliers " 

Here " Teder " quotes the St. James' Livening Post, of 7th September, 1734, stat- 
ing that a Lodge had been held at the home of the Duke of Richmond, assisted by 
another noble Englishman of distinction, the President Montesquieu. Brigadier Churchill, 
Ed. Young and Walter Strickland. Also in the same journal of 20th September, 1735 
it is said that Desaguliers was present with the Duke of Richmond at the Hotel du 
Bussy under authority of the Grand Master of England. All this " Teder " disputes 
by innuendo. 

" Ah ! well, history, which is not grounded on fiction, tells us that Louise Penhoet, 
termed of Kerouaille, and Duchess of Portsmouth, had been a good woman of police 
(i.e., a spy) in the service of Louis XIV., and that she became the mistress of 
Bro. Charles II. of England. From this free union in 1672 was born a boy, who 
was baptized under the name of Charles, and who was, in 1675, created Duke of Lennox 
in Scotland, and Duke of Richmond in England, and Due d'Aubigny in France. This 
triple Duke was a Roman Catholic, was Master of a Lodge in 1697 under the Anglican 
Bro. William III., and by his oath to the ancient Constitutions was perforce 
obedient and faithful to the legitimate King and to Holy Ghurch. He died 1723, and it is his 
son, a Romanist like his father, born in 1701, died 1750, who in April, 1732 and in 
September, 1734, finds himself in the Lodge held at the house of his grandmother, the 
Duchess of Portsmouth, in the Hotel de Bussy. The Duchess died the 14th November 



On Masonic History. — Let us Seeh Truth. 



23 



following. Certain French historians place this death in 1725, but it is an error or 
a deception. She died in 1734 at the Hotel de Bussy in her 82nd year. She entered 
France in 1685, and had at once conferred upon her a pension of 12,000 livres for services 
rendered to Charles II. ; this pension was increased to 20,000 livres, then to 24,000 
livres; and 28th October, 1721, she had a grant of 600,000 livres in various properties. 
Thus Bro. Charles Earl of Derwentwater, Bro. Charles Duke of Richmond, were grand- 
sons of Charles II. and cousins, after the British mode, of James III, son of James II. 
We also see figuring in this same Lodge, No. 90, James first Earl of Waldegrave, an old 
Roman Catholic, easily there as an English Catholic ; his father Henry had espoused 
a natural daughter of Bro. James II. by Arabella Churchill, and he died in France 
faithful to his Masonic oath, and to his duties of Chevalier Ecossaise in the entourage of 
his prescribed sovereign. . . . From this it follows that Bro. the Earl of Waldegrave 
was grandson by his mother, of James II. and nephew of Bro. the Duke of Berwick, who 
also was born of the clandestine amours of James II. and Arabella Churchill : 
equally cousin of Bro. the Earl of Derwentwater, of Bro. the Duke of Richmond 
and the Bro. James III. We see him entered under the name of Lord Waldegrave 
(a Compiegne) in a " List of Agents of the Pretender," given in the Free Britain, No. 
131, of the 1st June, 1732: as well as the Irish Abbe Dun; General Dillon; 
Arbuthnot, the Scotch Banker in London ; Dr. Wogan, an Irishman in Paris ; 
Lord Dunbar (Murray), etc. See also a Bro. Lord Chewton ; this Mason is simply 
the eldest son of the Earl of Waldegrave. 

" In truth the members of the Lodge, No. 90, of the Rue de Bussy, though visited 
by the Rev. Bro. Desaguliers, the friend of George II., were no strangers to the family 
of the Pretender, and the choice of the Hotel of the Duchess of Portsmouth, ex- 
policier of the French government, attracted the attention of the Count de St. Florentin, 
Member of that Lodge and Secretary of State, who had special charge of the clergy from 
1726, and was a cruel enemy of the Protestants, Lutherans and Calvinists, tracking them 
out in France where they had not the same freedom as in England, or as enjoyed by Bro. 
Desaguliers. History says of this Count — otherwise well spoken of in the Memoires secrets 
de la Gour de Perse : ' No minister has signed so many letters de cachet, no one having, at 
this period, displayed so much intolerance against the Protestants, upon whom he calls 
incessantly for a more rigorous prosecution.' There is a higher question in regard to 
Bro. Lord Dursley. This peer sojourned often at the Chateau d'Aubigny, where Bro. 
the Duke of Richmond established, with other persons, in 1735, a Lodge No. 133 ; he 
was no other than Bro. James Berkeley, officer of the English Marine, and grandson of 
George Berkeley, who was created an Earl in 1679 by Bro. Charles II., and had, 
at the commencement of 1695, been entrusted with the assassination of William III., 
son-in-law of the Catholic Bro. James II., whose throne he occupied. This project 
was conceived in the French Court, and being prevented in time, William III. himself 
denounced the affair in Parliament, and Berkeley was arrested. The grandson, Lord 
Dursley, died 17th August, 1736. We see also a Duke of Kingston, honouring with his 
presence the Lodge No. 90, and we know that Ramsay was connected with the family of 
Kingston. 

"I say nothing of Bro. Baron Montesquieu, whose works are well known, 
and I will only add that Bro. Walter Strickland, of whom mention has been made, 
was of the family of the Strickland who in 1745, under the baptismal name of Francis, 
accompanied Bro. Prince Charles Edward into Scotland. Walter Strickland was a son of 
Thomas who was of the Privy Council of Charles II. and James II. and whose death is 
recorded on the 8th January, 1694, in the entourage of the last dethroned King ; his widow 



24 



Transactions of the Quatuor Coronati Lodge. 



w&sfemme de chambre to the ex-Queen of England at St. Germain, and abstracted from the 
pocket of her mistress the letters that her husband had written to Louis XIV. and M me . 
de Maintenon. Copies of these letters were made by that good lady, and sent by her to 
the English Government.- A certain Abbe Strickland followed the same principles, but in 
an inverse sense, and by that he failed to become a Cardinal, but became Bishop of 
Namur and died in 1740 ; he was brother to the beforementioned Walter and Francis 
Strickland, and a descendant of Walter became the Comte della Catena (in 1745) 
at Malta, the home of the Chevaliers of the Order. 

"Before these facts, against the exactitude of which no serious objection is 
possible, are we not justified in the belief that there was much Romanism, and Romish 
Architecture, among the Jacobite Brothers visited, in 1735, by the Bro. Desaguliers, 
Catholic English Priest, in the Lodge held at the house of His Grace the Duke of 
Richmond, grandson of the august Bro. Charles II., and heir of Louise Penhoet ? Even 
Bro. Gould (vol. iii., p. 138) is obliged to avow that the Lodge, No. 90, of the Rue de 
Bussy and that of Derwentwater, were but one and the same Lodge. 

"In his Essay upon the letters of Horace Walpole and Sir Horace Mann, Lord 
Macaulay shows us that the greater part of the adversaries of the Anglican Bro. 
Walpole, first Minister of Bro. George II., were in direct relations with the 
Pretender, and when we search the Masonic records of these persons, we inevitably 
find them always in the presence of Scottish Masonry. 

" On the subject of York Masonry three examples will suffice : Bathurst who had 
been Grand Master of the Grand Lodge of All England at York in 1726 ; Edward 
Thompson who had the office in 1729 ; and Dr. John Johnston who had it in 1733, 
were three men who remained attached to the Ancient Constitutions and were also the 
inveterate adversaries of Bro. Walpole, a Mason of the English Party, dependent upon 
the Modem System of Bros. Desaguliers and Anderson. 

" Amongst the Scotch Party we may mention Bro. the Earl of Marchmont (Patrick 
Hume) a member of the Lodge of Edinburgh. He became a traitor to the cause of the 
Stuarts, and Lockhart accused him of betraying his friends for money. There was also 
Bro. Wm. Gower (Earl of Sutherland) who had married the eldest daughter of Bro. 
David Wemyss, called Lord Elcho, who was in the affair of 1745, and whose father 
James Earl of Wemyss, was G.M. of Scotland in 1743; Bro. the Duke of Montrose; Bro. 
Philip Dormer Stanhope, Earl of Chesterfield, of the Horn Lodge, London, a friend of 
Pope, of Ramsay, and of Montesquieu ; being Ambassador at La Haye in 1731 he had 
induced Francis Duke of Lorraine, and afterwards Duke of Tuscany and father of 
Marie Antoinette, to accept Initiation. An occasional Lodge was called at La Haye for 
the purpose, and the Anglican Catholic Priest, Bro. Desaguliers went there to 
preside, accompanied by several delegates from London. The year following, the Duke 
Francois, Roman Catholic, received complete initiation with Bro. Walpole in 
presence of Major-General Churchill, and of the Rev. Thomas Johnson. (Gould ii. 
p. 282-3 and 388). We may add to these Bro. Alexander Pope, and Bro. Jonathan 
Swift, both of them friends of Ramsay, and the latter of Bolingbroke, etc. We saw 
that since 1734 a new conspiracy had begun in favour of James III., corresponding 
with the new disputes which were raised up in the Grand Lodge of London termed of 
England. But George II. followed a good occult policy in ignoring all the acts of the 
adversaries of his private architecture, and he was too crafty to show the arts of 
triumph. Means, so often put in practice by able politicians, were simple. The King 
raised a quarrel with his son Frederick Prince of Wales, and all the enemies of 
George II.— Scotch brethren, of York ; Jacobites ; soldiers of the Stuarts; and Roman 




/ 



On Masonic History. — Let us Seek Truth. 



25 



V 



Catholic conspirators followed the Prince. It naturally ensued that the Hanoverian 
dynasty found itself, — as says Macaulay, — strengthened by the apparent disunion of 
these two men. These species of blustering disunions, which permit the two sides 
at the time to gently work the opposing camps, are well known even in the politics 
of the present-day Masonry, but I may dispense with any insistence on this delicate 
subject. 

" The notable part of this dispute of the Prince of Wales with his father is this, 
that the Prince had sworn upon the Bible absolute fidelity to the King (his father), 
had promised to conform to the laws, and never to participate in plots or conspiracies 
against the government, and even, in need, — following the letter of the instructions 
of the order, — he would denounce to the King or to his Council, all traitors, who might 
be so foolish as to make him their confidant." 

In conclusion I may point out that I commenced by saying : " Let us seek Truth," 
and Irepeat it, even if the Truth should be unpalatable. "TederV'enquiryisanewstyleof 
argument, as to the origin of Ancient and Modern Masonry, and in my view, after fifty 
years of reading, is, in a general way, reliable. On the one hand there is nothing 
offensive to the Modern Mason of the Grand Lodge of England, who has numerous 
specious arguments to plume his feathers with ; on the other hand, those who accept 
the views of the Ancients can see no offence in a steady adherence to the ancient charges, 
and members of the higher grades of the Ancients have no reason to feel ashamed of 
their noble progenitors. " Teder " has much more to say, but I tire of the translation. 
He gives the whole speech of Ramsay, with comments thereon ; and he considers that the 
French objections, publiclymade, to the existence of Masonry in Prance, were a farce. That 
he is a man of much penetration I have some reason to know. I have had in my possession 
for a generation, a decent sized volume, dated at Buenos Ayres in 1776-83. It is in "the 
Cypher of the Grand Maitre Inconnu " ; as closely written as a printed book. I have 
spent hours over it during the last twenty years, I have tried everyone I knew with it, 
who professed a skill in cypher, but all to no purpose. " Teder " solved the difficulty, 
and could read the book in half-an-hour. It proves to be a mixture of Cabalism, and 
Astrology, with religious Maxims in question and answer, between a disciple in Buenos 
Ayres, and his Master in Paris. It appears to me to belong to the non-Masonic 
Vhilosophes Inconnus, of which Ragon gives the ritual of two degrees. The Disciple must 
have been a man of some position, as there is a prediction as to the result of an amour 
with the Queen of Prance, — it may have relations with the Jesuits who were suppressed 
at the same period. I have said that this MS. is in the characters of the Grand Ma-ibre 
Inconnu, but this is only partially so, as the character is complicated by other variations. 

I may mention a somewhat curious thing which occurred about a week after I had 
written the above paragraph. The Memoirs of Sir Barrington Beaumont fell into my 
hands. In this book the lover of the Queen of Prance is described as the Swedish Count, 
Axil Person. To save the reputation of Marie Antoinette the Count went, in 1781, to 
America, to aid them in their rebellion against this country. He was back in Paris in 
1788, kept up a correspondence with the Queen by means of complicated cyphers, and 
did his utmost to aid her in the'troubles which cost her her life in 1793. 



j*"**^. 



FRIDAY, 1st MARCH, 1907. 




HE Lodge met at Freemasons' Hall, London, at 5 p.m. Present : — Bros. Hamon le 
Strange, Pr.G.M., Norfolk, W.M. ; P. H. Goldney, P.G.D., J.W. s J. T. Thorp, 
P.A.G.D.C., S.D.; H. Sadler, G.Ty., I.G. ; J. P. Simpson, S.Stew.; W. M. Bywater, 
P.G.S.B., P.M., D.C.; Admiral Sir A. H. Markham, P.Dis.G.M., Malta, P.M.; 
Dr. W. Wynn Westoott, P.G.D., P.M. ; Sydney T. Klein, P.M. ; E. J. Castle, K.C., 
P.Dep.G.Reg., P.M.; E. L. Hawkins; E. H. Dring; G. Greiner, P.A.G.D.C, P.M.; 
and W. John Songhurst, Secretary. 

Also the following members, of the Correspondence Circle : — Bros. S. R. 
Baxter, G. B. D. Bast, R. P. Emmant, H. H. Montague Smith, G. Vogeler, J. A. Taylor, Alan P. 
Watkins, T. Cohu, J. J. Hall, W. H. S. Humphries, E. A. Mansell, B. Pflug, A. Oliver, A. G. Boswell, 
W. Howard Planders, J. I.Moar, W. H. Richardson, R. Colsell, W. M. Wilson, W. Swales, J. A. Innes, 
W. L. Smith, P. W. Levander, J. T. Johnstone, J. H. S. Craigie, J. Sulley, J. R. Phelp, C. Gough, H. B. 
Watson, G. Elkington, J, Johnson, D. Bock, W. S. Coles, H. Hyde, H. Chown, C. Watkins, W. N. Pegge, 
J. C. Nicol, W. R. A. Smith, W. Busbridge, R. J. Harrison, C. E. L. Wright, W. A. Tharp, J. Pullen, 
J. A. Tharp, C. Butcher, C. H. Denny, C. Wilkinson-Pi mbury, H. H. Hann, W. Wonnacott, F. A. 
Hazzeldine, S. Meymott, A. H. Laird, J. Hands, W. S. Lincoln, A. A. Millward, J. Anstey, J. W. Dickson, 
J. F. H. Gilbard, S. Walshe Owen, E. J. Day, P. J. Edwards, Herbert Burrows, F. Inskipp, Sir F. S. 
Graham Moon, J. Watkinson, 0. L. Thomson and Sydney R. Clarke. 

Also the following visitors :— Bros. Percy E. Metzner, King Solomon Lodge, No. 2029 ; R. Starling, 
Cabbell Lodge No. 807 ; T. Inglis, EnHeld Lodge No. 1237 ; A. Matthews, Victoria Lodge No. 1056 ; 
Horace Nelson, Oxford and Cambridge Lodge No. 1118 ; A. N. May, P.M., Green Room Lodge No. 2957; 
D. Freeman, Mendelssohn Lodge No. 2661 ; J. W. Eisenman, Mendelssohn Lodge No. 2661 ; A.. Bianohi, 
P.M., Gihon Lodge No. 49; G. P. Nash, Mendelssohn Lodge No. 2661; C-. J. Rawlinson, P.M., Beacon, 
tree Lodge No. 1228 ; and G. Sutton, Borough of Greenwich Lodge No. 2332. 



Letters of apology for non-attendance were received from Bros. R. F. Gould, P.G.D. ; J. Paul 
Rylands; W. J. Hughan, P.G.D. ; T. B. Whytehead, P.G.S.B.; L. A. Malczovitch ; E. Conder, jtin. s G. L. 
Shackles, P.M. ; E. Armitage, P.D.G.D.C. ; F. J. W. Crowe, P.G.O.; W. Watson ; E. Macbean ; Dr. W. 
J. Chetwode Crawley, G.Treas., Ireland ; and W. H. Rylands, P.A.G.D.C. 

One Grand Lodge and seventy -four Brethren were admitted to the membership of the Corres- 
pondence Circle. 



* 



Bro. Henry Fitzpatrick Berry, I.S.O., Asst. Keeper Public Records, Ireland, M.A., Barrister-at- 
Law, Member of Royal Irish Academy, Fellow and Member of Council of Royal Society of Antiquaries, 
Ireland, etc. P.M. Trinity College Lodge No. 357 (I.C.), P.K. "University Chapter, R.A. Besiding at 
51, Waterloo Road, Dublin. Author of " Sir Peter Lewys, Ecclesiastic, Cathedral and Bridge Builder, 
and his Company of Masons, 1564-7," " The Marencourt Cup and Ancient Square, preserved in the 
Union Lodge No. 13, Limerick," etc., etc., was proposed as a joining member of the Lodge. 



EXHIBITS. 
By Bro. T. A. Withby, Leeds. 

Large Leather Apron, edged with red ribbon. On the flap is a representation of an open book, 
square and compasses, etc., in gold thread and spangles, but the decoration on the body of the Apron is 
painted. It is probable that the Apron is of Irish origin, and that it was worn by a member of the R.A, 
degree. Two conical pillars surmounted by globes are peculiar, 





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Engraving by I. Dood in the possession of Bro. P. W. Levander. 






Ars Quatuor Coronatorum. 




Engraving by Leney in the possession of Bro. F. \V Levander. 



MS! ; % 







Brass Seal in the possession of 
Bro. Sydney R. Clarke. 





Gold Jewel of Royal York Lodge of Perseverance. 
In the possession of Bro. A. S. Stubington. 




Aes Quatuor Coronatorum. 




Isaac Chilcott. 
From Ihe original in the possession of Bro. F. A. Powell. 




Tf&nsactions of the Quatuor Coronati Lodge. 



2? 






Leather Apeon, edged with blue ribbon. The painted design is copied from the frontispiece to 
the " Sentimental and Masonic Magazine," June, 1794. (See A.Q.O., vol. xvii., page 151.) 

By Bro. H. Ohown, London. 

Old English Bose-Croix Apeon. 

Old English K.T. Apbon. 

Apeon and Collab, probably worn by a brother who was Senior Grand Ward«n in Grand Lodge, 
as well as a Grand Principal in the E.A. Although it has hitherto been assumed that clothing of this 
type did not come into use until after the Union in 1813, it is certain that these were manufactured 
before 1800. 

By Bro. F. W. Levandee, London. 

Irish P.M. Jewel, probably of French make. 

Small Engeaving by I. Dood. 

Four Prints from Cole's " Illustrations of Masonry," having at the back engravings by Leney 
for the Westminster and Keystone Lodge. 

By Bro. Sydney R. Clarke, London. 

Masonic Book-Plate, " J.M. Attorney at Law, Ashton Underline." 

Print of an engraved jewel of " Lodge No. 398, A.M. 5770," originally owned by George Hillier. 
No. 398 was the Lodge of True Friendship, constituted at Devizes in 1770, and erased in 1778. 

Brass Seal. " If this you can read you are a Brother indeed." 

By Bro. E. P. Ainsley Dry, Bedford. 

Photographs of a stone in a wall at Pompei. Presented to the Lodge. 

By Bro. G. W. Cobham, Gravesend. 

Jewel, dated 5818, not yet identified, but believed to have been worn in the Lodge of the " White 
Eagle " at St. Petersburg. 

By Bro. A. S. Stubington, London. 

Gold Jewel, presented " To Br. Alexr. Patterson as a Token of respect in grateful testimonial to 
Services rendered by him. The Royal York Lodge of Perseverance Coldstrm. Guards. March 7th, 
1800." The face of the jewel (under glass) gives a representation of KingSolomonandthe two Hirams. 

By the Lodge. 

Silver Collar Jewel, in the form of a five-pointed star with superimposed triangle, altar, etc. 
This is probably an, " Oddfellows' " officer's jewel. 

By Bro. F. A. Powell, London. 

Portrait of Isaac Chilcott, who was for many years head waiter at the Beaufort Arms, Monmouth. 
He was a member of the Loyal Monmouth Lodge, and probably also of the " Royal Augustus " which 
preceded it. 



A hearty vote of thanks was passed to the exhibitors and to those who had kindly made presenta* 
lions to the Lodge Museum. 



4 



( 



I 

J 



* 



Broi J. Percy SlrfpsoS read the following paper :— * 






28 Transactions Of the Quatuor Gorondti Lodge. 

SOME OLD LONDON TAVERNS AND MASONRY. 

BY BRO. J. PERCY SIMPSON. 







HE Brethren will remember that in my former Paper on " Old City 
Taverns and Masonry " we travelled through the City in search of the 
old Masonic Homes within its present boundaries, and tried to revive 
something of their past. I would now extend our researches into 
what may be called the " Greater London " of the Eighteenth Century. 
"I have often," says Boswell, "amused myself with thinking how 
different a place London is to different people. They whose narrow 
minds are contracted to one particular pursuit view it only through that medium . . . 
but the intellectual man is struck with it as comprehending the whole of human life in 
all its variety, the contemplation of which is inexhaustible." Leigh Hunt, commenting 
on this passage points out, that even with the assistance of Dr. Johnson, and his varied 
Tavern experiences, Boswell realised little of London in times gone by, and all that 
aggregate of the past which is one of the greatest treasures of knowledge. " It may 
he, ' he adds, " that the past is not in our possession, that we are sure only of what we 
can realise, and that the present and future afford enough contemplation for any man. 
But those who argue thus argue against their better instinct." The past is the heirloom 
of the world, and we may exclaim with Charles Lamb : " Antiquity ! thou wondrous 
charm, what art thou ? that being nothing art everything !" Let us endeavour, then, to 
revive once more some of these happy and interesting memories of the Old Taverns of 
London. 

At the end of our last journey we found a resting place at the Old Devil Tavern 
Within Temple Bar. Having supped and slept at this old Inn we may rise refreshed, 
and start again on our journey. We glance once more at the heads over Temple Bar. 
Diprose, in his " Parish of St. Clement Danes," gives us two accounts of the last head 
that ornamented the Bar, and was blown down in a storm. One is that an Attorney 
named Pearce picked it up, and, after showing it in a Tavern, buried it under the floor 
of a room in the Inn. The other asserts that it was bought by an antiquary, 
named Bawlinson, " praised by Johnson for his learning, and bantered by Addison for 
his pedantry," who ordered it to be buried with him in his right hand in St. Giles' 
Church, Oxford. This alludes to Dr. Rawlinson, the Masonic historian. 
And now let us pass under the old Gate. 

" Come, Fortescue, sincere experienced friend, 
Thy brief, thy deeds, and e'en thy fees suspend ; 
Come, let us leave the Temple's silent walls ; 
For business to my distant lodging calls, 
Through the long Strand together let us stray : 
"With thee conversing I forget the way." 

(Gay's Trivia.) 

The prospect, however, beyond Temple Bar was very different from that we see 
to-day, and it requires careful inspection of a Plan (Plate No. I.) to realise the changes 
that have taken place. Butcher Row, which directly confronts us after passing the Gate, 
was pulled down about the end of the eighteenth century, and other improvements carried 




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II. — Elias Ashmole's House in Shire Lase. 
From an Engraving in the Gardner Collection. 




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Some Old London Taverns and till 



asonry. 



29 






out as advocated by an Alderman named Pickett. At the middle of the eighteenth 
century Butcher Row and the whole of the streets and courts lying to the north formed 
a squalid, noisome neighbourhood, fall of rickety old wooden houses, and curious narrow 
blind alleys. Still here and there remained some houses of the nobility, such as Craven 
House, and some Taverns of good repute, such as " The Trumpet " (afterwards the 
"Duke of York") in Shire Lane, the home of the famous and aristocratic Kit Katt 
Club. Shire Lane was just north of Temple Bar, and had also a Masonic Tavern, " The 
Temple and Sun," where the Grand Committee of the Antients met in 1752. Here too 
lived Elias Ashmole, the Antiquarian (Plate No. II.), and here Anthony a, Wood records 
his having dined with him. (Lives of Leland, Hearne and Wood, vol. ii., pp. 234). And 
to this house came Seth Ward, Bishop of Salisbury, in February, 1677, to apprise 
Ashmole that the Garter King at Arms was dead. 

Butcher Row was probably in the fifteenth century merely a number of booths 
for the meat brought from the country, and sold to the citizens of London. ' Later it 
became built upon, and Count Beaumont, the Ambassador of France, had a house here 
in the beginning of the seventeenth century, where the Duke de Sully slept for a night 
in 1603 before going to the Palace of Arundel. (Bradley's Londiniana). In Butcher Row 
were four Masonic Taverns, " The Bear and Harrow," " The George and Dragon," " The 
Swan " and " King's Head." The first was the most interesting, for here the Corner 
Stone Lodge (now the St. George and Corner Stone No. 5) held their first meeting in 1730. 
It was a distinguished Lodge even at that time, and numbered amongst its members the 
Earl of Strathmore, Lord Montague and Dr. Desaguliers. In the same year "The 
University Lodge " met here. It was the first Lodge to adopt a distinctive title, and, 
though seemingly very prosperous both as to the numbers and the quality of its 
Members, it ceased to exist in 1736. " The Bear and Harrow " seems to have been the 
union of two signs. At this house, in 1692, the mad Poet, Nat Lee, drank deep, and, 
going home to Clare Market, fell down in the snow, and was found dead in the morning. 

It is curious to note that a Lodge met at " The King's Head," Butcher Row, in 
1730, close to the old house of the French. Ambassador. It was removed to Paris in 
1732 and joined the Grand Orient in 1738. 

North of Butcher Row, about where the main Strand entrance to the Law Courts 
now is, stood Ship Yard, so called from the famous old Tavern " The Ship," a house 
established in honour of Sir Francis Drake. This Yard and Tavern were granted to Sir 
Christopher Ha tton, in 1571, together with certain lands in Yorkshire (Life and Times 
of Sir 0. Hatton, p. 87). It is related that Sir John Denham when a Student at 
Lincoln's Inn, in 1635, after dining with legal friends at " The Ship," sallied forth and 
blacked out all the Signs in the Strand. Walpole describes the Yard as opposite the 
Palsgrave Head on the North side of the Strand. On the 23rd of June, 1740, a fire 
broke out at Mr. Tibbs, a grocer in the Yard, and burnt most of the old houses, 
damaging the Tavern. The Royal Athelstan Lodge No. 19, held its meetings here in 
1769, and it was not pulled down till 1790. 

Passing along the north side towards St. Clement Danes we come across " The 
King's Arms," which was the home of the King's Arms Lodge in 1733, and from this 
old house the Lodge- took its name in 1742. 

On the south side of the Strand from Temple Bar to the Church are three famous 
bouses of refreshment, " Tom's Coffee House " in Devereux Court, " The Rose Tavern " 
now Thanet Place, and " The George " at the corner of Essex Street, but they did not 
boast a Masonic connection. Turning down Essex Street, however, we come Upon " The 
Essex Head," built about 1700, on the gardens of Essex House. The curious and ancient 



1 




30 



Transactions of the Quatuor Goronati Lodge. 



Association known as the "Robin Hood Society " met here (Plate No. III.). As far as 
one can glean this Society was established in 1613 at the house of Sir Hugh Middleton, 
an original Proprietor of the New River Company. This house in Clerkenwell is still 
standing, and forms the offices, I believe, of the Water Board. It is enriched by 
priceless oak carvings by Grinling Gibbons and ceilings by Wren. The Society subse- 
quently removed to " The Bear and Harrow," Butcher Row, aad finally to the Essex Head. 
The President was known as " the Baker," and the discussions comprised " Religion, 
Politics, and the Moral Fitness of things," each Member being allowed ten minutes to 
speak. The proceedings and details of this Society was published in 1764. The 
engraving here shown is dated 1752. At this house also Dr. Johnson in 1784, a year 
before his death, established a Club of twenty- four Members. Samuel Greaves, an old 
servant of Mrs. Thrale, was then the Landlord. The Lodge of Unity, No. 69, met here 
as late as 1839. 

Still continuing along the South side of St. Clement Danes we come to " The 
Feathers Inn," where The Graphic Office and a shop for fishing tackle, etc., now stand. 
Here is an old advertisement in 1752. " At the Feathers Tavern opposite to St. Clement's 
Dane Church is taught Music, Dancing, and Fencing by Mr. Hart every Tuesday, and 
Friday from 10 to 10. The manner of learning here is quite private, no strangers being 
admitted." The Union Lodge migrated here in 1769. Next door (Plate No. IV.), 
where Messrs. Fisher's shop is now situated, was the famous " Crown & Anchor " a 
celebrated meeting place for many years. It was originally known as " The Crown," 
the Anchor, the emblem of the Parish of St. Clement Danes, being afterwards added. 
Strype describes it in 1729 as " a large & curious house with good Rooms, and other 
conveniences fit for entertainment." Here Dr. Johnson used to "make a night of it," 
Boswell writing in 1768 says the Doctor " supped at the Crown & Anchor with a company 
whom I collected to meet him." The great " Crown & Anchor Association " for the 
supervision of all Republicans and Levellers was initiated here in 1792. An ingenious 
Barrister, John Reeves, conceived the idea, and at first acted as Chairman, Secretary, and 
audience, passing Resolutions in favour of the Government, and advertising them. Here 
also met the Royal Society Club, and the Society with the boastful title of " The King 
of Clubs." Indeed, early in the last Century it is described as " a nest of Boxes each 
containing a Club." It was burnt down in 1854, and rebuilt as the Whittington Club, 
afterwards the Temple Club. The Grand Master's Lodge held their meetings here in 
1789 and the Old Union Lodge in 1800. In 1625 (the first year of Charles I.) one 
Bailey, an old sea captain, who had fought under Drake and Raleigh, started four 
Hackney Coaches, the first seen in London. These stood opposite "The Crown and 
Anchor" and were slow rumbling affairs which almost jerked their passengers to death 
on the uneven pavements. 

Almost opposite " The Crown & Anchor " stood " The Old Angel Inn " to which 
I referred to in some notes to Bro. Hughan's " List of Lodges of Antient Masons," (Plate 
No. 7.) It was a rare old coaching Inn, and was pulled down when the Danes Inn was 
built. It is referred to by Diprose, " Here stood ' The Old Angel Inn,' and excavating 
after its demolition several small vaults of Roman construction were discovered, likewise 
a Well fed by springs the waters of which are said to have had a great reputation for their 
wholesome & curative properties." This may have been the Holy Well of St. Clement 
after which Holywell Street was named. This well is mentioned by FitzStephen (1178), 
" Sweete, wholesome and cleere, and much frequented by scholars and youths of the 
City when they walk forth to take the aire." Another tradition says it was under 
" The Dog Tavern " at the end of Holywell Street. This Drawing from the Gardner 




Some Old London Taverns and Masonry. 



31 



Collection is, like many others, unique, and the only vestige now remaining of this 
ancient hostelry. 

And now we pass from the rather confined and gloomy streets east of St. 
Clement Danes, into what may be termed the Strand proper, where at one time on 
the Southern side a long line of palatial houses and gardens sloped down to the River. 
"I often" says Charles Lamb "shed tears in motley Strand for fulness of joy at so 
much life." 

A few steps bring us to " the stately cedar, a maypole erected in May 1661, 134 
feet high, by the sailors of the Duke of York, as an emblem of the glorious era about to 
return with the Stuarts." It disappeared when St. Mary le Strand was built about 
1710, and Pope makes this the locality where the heroes of the Dunciad assemble :— 
" Where the tall Maypole o'erlooked the Strand. 
But now (so Anne, and piety ordain) 
A Church collects the Saints of Drury Lane." 

Close by on the north side stood " The Five Bells " referred to also in my notes 
on Brother Hughan's Paper, and the home of the Grand Committee of the Antients in 
1752. I have since fou-nd out that the old house must have been burnt down on 1st 
October, 1781, as on that date a fire commenced at the shop of a hatter, named Ballard, 
east of St. Mary le Strand, and next door to " The Spotted Dog," and burnt thirty 
houses " passing through the Five Bells Tavern." 

The old Church of St. Mary le Strand stood on the site of the present Somerset 
House, and in the year 1650 an Act of Parliament was passed for selling the Honours, 
Manors and Lands belonging " to the late King, Queen, and Princes " in the Strand. 
These included Somerset House, and no less than twelve Taverns, including " The 
Feathers," "The Mitre" and " The Chequers," the ground rents ranging from 13s. 4d. 
to £2. 

Somewhat west of Somerset House, where No 142 now stands, was " The Turk's 
Head," a House afterwards re-built, and known as " Wright's Hotel." At " The Turk's 
Head " Dr. Johnson often dined, " I encourage this House for the Mistress of it is a 
good, civil woman, and has not much business." Here, as late as 1840, the Lodge of 
Union No. 156 held their meetings. 

Crossing the road once more, where the Gaiety Theatre has been rebuilt, once 
stood " The Fountain Tavern." There were two Inns of this name, the other being a 
little further west on the south side, and both Masonic resorts. This site and further 
west must have at one time been an important part of the Strand, as Stow relates, "In 
the Strand, beginning at Wimbleton House, a very handsome large house, and so also 
the houses with Exeter Exchange and Court, and the houses adjoining the east side of 
Burleigh Street, together with all the back buildings to the Fountain Tavern in 
Katherine Street." Adjoining Katherine Street is White Hart Street or Yard, so named 
after " The Old White Hart Tavern," where several Lodges met about 1760, amongst 
them being the Corinthian and Caledonian Lodges. The Sign of the White Hart is of 
remote antiquity, as Pliny states that Alexander the Great caught a white hart and 
placed a golden collar round its neck. This was a notable Inn as early as the reign of 
Elizabeth, and is mentioned in the lease of a pasture in Covent Garden from the. Earl 
of Bedford to Sir Wm. Cecil, 7th September, 1570, " being thereby divided from certayne 
gardens belonging to the Inn called the White Hart and other tenements situate in the 
High Street of Westminster called the Strand." There was a humorous epitaph in the 
Savoy Church to Humphrey Gosling, the landlord of " The White Hart," who died in 
1586, 



1 



32 



Transactions of the Quatuor Goronati Lodge. 



On the south side, the predecessor of " Simpson's Tavern," 101 & 102, Strand, 
stood the other and more famous " Fountain Tavern." Strype describes it as " a fine 
Tavern with excellent vaults, good rooms for entertainment, and a.curious kitchen for 
the dressing of meat, which with good wine sold there makes it well resorted to." It 
was known as the great meeting place of the Tory party in 1685. Here, in 1715, the 
Lieutenant of the Tower allowed Lord Derwentwater and the other rebel Lords to dine, 
when returning from their trial at Westminster to the Tower, for which he was 
censured by the Lord Chancellor. Dr. Stukely (1687-1765), in his diary, relates how 
on the 6th January, 1721, he was made a Mason at "The Salutation Tavern," Tavistock 
Street, " with Mr. Cottin and Capt. Rowe who made the famous diving engine " ; and 
later on the 27th December, 1721, " We met at the Fountain, Strand, and by the 
consent of the Grand Master present, Dr. Beal (D.G.M.), constituted a Lodge there, 
where I was chose Master." Grand Lodge was held here on the 22nd March, 1722. 
Later, on the 12th February, 1742, a great Political Meeting met here, attended by 
300 Members of both Houses to consider the Ministerial Crisis. Sir John Hanbury 
Williams alludes to it in one of his Odes to Pulteney : — • 

" There enlarge on his cunning and wit, 

Say how they harang'd at the Fountain, 
Say how the old patriots were bit, 

And a mouse was produced by a mountain." 

At this old Inn, the Royal Alpha Lodge No. 16 had their first meeting in 1723, 
and the Royal Kent Lodge of Antiquity No. 20 in 1731. 

In Fountain Court, afterwards Savoy Buildings, we find " The Coal Hole 
Tavern," the rendezvous of the Eel Pie Club. Here most of the celebrated actors of the 
day, including Edmund Kean, met after the Theatre, and kept very late, or rather, 
early hours. At this House the Old Union Lodge met in 1786. 

A little further west, at the corner of Bedford Street, once stood a famous 
Ordinary of the eighteenth century known as " The Lebeck's Head," and other Inns in 
Bristol and elsewhere adopted the name. A book which throws many curious and 
interesting side lights on the manners and customs of the eighteenth century, and 
particularly of this locality, is " Nollekens and Ms Times,'" by J. T. Smith (1828). 
Joseph Nollekens (1735-1823) was an eccentric Royal Academician, the friend of Dr. 
Johnson, Sir Joshua Reynolds and most of the literary and artistic celebrities of that 
period. A reference to " The Lebeck's Head " is to be found in this work. A Mrs. 
Hussey, a great friend of Henry Fielding, after the death of her.second husband, carried 
on business as a mantua maker " in the Strand, just west of the celebrated Le Beck, a 
famous Cook who had a large Portrait of himself for the sign of his House at the north 
west corner of Little Bedford Street." Fielding informed Mrs. Hussey that he should 
introduce her name into his work, " Tom Jones,"" that he was then writing. Thus in 
speaking of the grace and shape of Sophia Weston, Fielding says it may be compared 
to the celebrated Mrs. Hussey, '-' a mantua maker in the Strand famous for setting off 
the shapes of women." At " The Lebeck's Head," French Masons seem to have resorted, 
and we find the French Union Lodge meeting there in 1745. 

Proceeding further westward, we find one more old Inn on the north side in 
Hewitt's Court, namely " The King's Head." From this House William Prynne 
published his alleged "Vindication" (Collier's Political Decameron, vol. ii., pp. 322). 
Here a Lodge met in 1754, and lapsed in 1783. Lane's note to this Lodge is that 
No. 2 (A.) was purchased by No. 33 (A.) on the 21st February, 1784, for £6 6s., that 
Lodge having had their Warrant stolen frorn them, 







Ars Quatuor Coeosatorcm. 









-x I ^ ;: 




in 




a 



- So 






u 



' 



Ars Quatuor Coronatorum. 




VI. — The "Windmill," Leather Lane, Holborn, in 1868. 
From a Drawing by J. T. Wilson in the Gardner Collection. 




VI. — The " Nag's Head," Grays Inn Lane, Holborn, in Lff§, 
From a Drawing in the Gardner Collection. 




I 



Some Old London Taverns and Masonry. 



33 



Let us now retrace our steps for a time and review the various districts running 
north, and parallel with the Strand, and pass first into the once aristocratic 
localities of Clake Market and Drury Lane. In Howell's " Londinopolis " (1657) we 
read : " Then is there towards Drury Lane a new market called Clare Market, then is a 
Street, and Palace of the same name, built by the Earl of Clare who lives there in a 
princely manner having a House, a Street, and a Market both for flesh and fish, all 
bearing bis name." To Taverns in this locality the Butchers in the eighteenth century 
mostly resorted, and they seem also to have been the refuge for persons desiring a 
temporary retirement from the too pressing attentions of their creditors, for Richard 
Savage and Steele found in them a quiet retreat in times of adversity. Lodges were 
held at many of them between the years 1723 and 1750, notably at " The Sun Tavern," 
" The Horseshoe and Magpie " and " The Three Tuns." Masonry seems, however, to 
have deserted this neighbourhood about the middle of the eighteenth century, when it 
was fast falling into disrepute. 

Drury Lane was so called, says Stow, " for that there is a House of the Family 
of Druries. This Lane turneth north towards St. Giles-in-the-Fields." Before the 
Druries built here, the old name of the Lane was " Via de Aldwych." The whole 
neighbourhood, and the Taverns, began to deteriorate about the end of the seventeenth 
century, and Goldsmith thus alludes to it :— 

" Where the Red Lion staring o'er the way 
Invites each passing stranger that can pay ; 
Where Calvert's butt, and Parson's black champagne, 
Regale the drabs and bloods of Drury Lane ; 
There in a lonely room from Bailiffs snug, 
The. muse found Scroggen stretched beneath a rug." 

Drury House above alluded to passed into the possession of the Earl of Craven, 
who died there in 1697. Craven House was pulled down in 1809, and " The Craven 
Tavern" was erected on part of the site. This Tavern had two famous landlords, 
William Oxberry, the Comedian, and later Robert Hales, the Norfolk Giant. Here the 
Lodge of Fidelity No. 3 met in 1754. 

Another old Tavern in this district was resorted to by our friend, Samuel 
Pepys, 27th March, 1667. " To the Castle Tavern by Exeter House, and there met 
Sir Ellis Layton, whom I find a wonderful, witty, ready man for sudden answers and 
witty tales." This Tavern appears in the List of 1723, and the Old Dundee Lodge and 
others met there between 1730 and 1740. 

Travelling northwards we pass into Lincoln's Inn Fields and the streets and 
alleys surrounding it. In the reign of Elizabeth it was a waste place, the resort of 
beggars and cripples by day, who turned robbers at night. In 1618, however, James I. 
appointed a Commission to lay out the Fields in Walks, and Inigo Jones commenced 
the building of the houses on the west side. We find several Taverns in Portugal 
Street, next the old Theatres, and Serle Street to the south, and two in the Turnstiles 
to the north, many of them honoured by our ancient brethren. Of these, " The Horse 
and Groom," Portugal Street, " The Grange Inn," Carey Street and " The Sun," Gate 
Street, where the Domatic Lodge No. 177 and the Mount Lebanon Lodge No. 73 met, 
were, perhaps, the most prominent. No records, however, in connection with these 
Houses have come down to us. 

Taking our course through one of the Turnstiles, we enter Holboen and come 
across several interesting Masonic meeting, places, With regard, to the name 



% 



34 Transactions of the Quatuor Ooronati Lodge. 

" Holborn," it Las up to recently been supposed that the word is derived from " Old 
Bourne," but this seems to be erroneous, as there was a village here in the Domesday- 
Survey named " Holeburne," " hole " meaning a hollow or valley. To the north east is 
Leather Lane, where there are several old Taverns of interest to us. Strype mentions 
three well known in his time, " The White Hart," " The Nag's Head," and " The 
Windmill " (Plate No. VI.), and we later come across " The Horse and Groom," 
frequented by Jonathan Wild. At " The White Hart," the Globe Lodge No. 23 met 
in 1793, and the Friendly Lodge sojourned for a time at " The Nag's Head." 

On the south side from Holborn to Cursitor Street, the connecting link is 
Furnival Street, formerly Castle Street, or rather Castle Yard, so called from the Castle 
Inn and Gardens, on part of which it was built. In Castle Yard, Lord Arundel, the 
great collector of works of art and antiquities, lived in 1619, and here Paul Whitehead 
was born on St. Paul's Day, 1710. Strype describes the Tavern as one of considerable 
trade, and it afterwards became a place of great resort of sportsmen in the early 
nineteenth century. The first meeting of the St. Alban's Lodge No. 29 was held here 
in 1728. 

In the eighteenth century, the Holborn Inns where the long stages stopped, were 
the favourite houses for our country ancestors to put up at. Of these, "The George 
and Blue Boar," originally known as " The'Blue Boar," was, perhaps, the best known. 
This sign was taken from the Badge of the De Veres, Earls of Oxford. In the 
Memoirs of Roger, Earl of Orrery (1742), the following anecdote occurs. When 
Cromwell and Ireton were at Windsor, they were informed by a spy that King Charles 
was sending a letter to the Queen, stating that in the negotiation then pending, he (the 
King) was simply playing off one party against another, and would probably close with 
the Presbyterian or Scotch Party. Cromwell and Ireton hastened to London and put 
up at " The Blue Boar," Holborn, where the messenger of the King was to arrive. He 
was arrested on alighting from his horse in the Inn yard, and the fatal letter was 
found hidden in the lining of his saddle, and " from this time they resolved on the 
King's ruin." Early in the last century this old Inn was a favourite Masonic resort, 
amongst others the Royal York Lodge of Perseverance No. 7 met here in 1832 
and the Royal Athelstan Lodge No. 19 in 1839. The House was pulled down, and 
the Inns of Court Hotel built on its site. 

We have also " The Blue Posts " near Middle Lane, Holborn, in the List of 
1723, which was another old Coaching House of some fame. 

Mr. J. Holden Macmichael in his " Story of Charing Cross," referring to the 
prevalence of the word " Blue " in connection with Signs, remarks, " Possibly the blue 
colour with which many of the London Signs were invested by their owners was an 
arbitrary selection with no special symbolism excepting in cases of course like " The 
Blue Lion " the crest of the Percies, etc., but the adoption of the cerulean colour was so 
frequent that it makes one pause to wonder whether its adoption did not arise from 
more than mere fancy, or from the necessity merely of distinguishing a certain sign 
from others that represented similar objects in other varieties of the prismatic 
spectrum. It seems possible that the colour of the sky, sacred in ancient mythologies, 
like red as that of the Sun, has come down to us on the Signboard no less certainly 
than in the folk-lore of the provinces, where a superstitious belief in it survives up to 
the present day. The young mothers for instance by Teviotside wear a twist of plaited 
blue thread about their necks until their babies are weaned, and the mischievous west- 
country fairy hates the sight of blue flowers. According to Randle Holme the blue 
azure sky signifieth piety and sincerity." , 



i 



I 



Some Old London Taverns and Masonry. §5 

' Closely connected with both Lincoln's Inn Fields and Holborn is a Street which 
must be ever interesting to Members of the Craft, Great Queen Street. This Street was 
so called in compliment to Queen Henrietta Maria. It appears that houses commenced 
to be erected here about 1606, and that the south side was completed in the year 1623. 
The architect was Webb, a pupil and imitator of Inigo Jones. Statues of Charles I. 
and Henrietta Maria appear to have been erected in the Street, as by an order of 
Cromwell's Council, 17th January, 1651, it is directed " that Colonel Berkstead do take 
care of the pulling down of the gilt image of the late Queene, and also of the King, the 
one in the Street commonly called Queene Street, and the other at the upper end of the 
Street towards Holbourne. The said images to be broken in pieces." " In the time of 
the Stuarts," says Leigh Hunt, " the Street was full of persons of note and fashion, such 
as Lord Fairfax, Sir Godfrey Kneller, Lord Herbert of Cherbury and others having 
residences." I may also quote this extract from Smith's " Nollekens and Ms Times." 
" The House in Great Queen Street now divided into two, Nos. 55 and 56, was that in 
which Hudson lived, and it was afterwards the habitation of Worlidge the Etcher, who 
died in it. Hoole, the translator of Tasso, and the beloved friend of Dr. Johnson, next 
resided in it, and he was succeeded by Richard Brinsley Sheridan, who, after Garrick's 
funeral, passed the remainder of the day in silence here with a few select friends. It 
was lately inhabited by Mr. Chippendale. This house is one of those built after a 
design of Inigo Jones, and still retains some of the original architecture. My old friend 
Mr. Butridge, 'the Barber,' as Mr. Hone, in his '^Every Day Book,' has been pleased to 
call him, informed me that he very well recollected the Gate Entrance into Great Queen 
Street from Drury Lane. It was under a house, and so dark that it received the fearful 
appellation of ' Hell Gate.' Through this gate the Dukes of Newcastle and Ancaster 
drove to their houses in Lincoln's Inn Fields, at that time a seat of fashion. Which can 
readily be believed when the reader recollects that Grosvenor Square was building when 
Mr. Nollekens was a little boy." The Freemasons' Hall was built in 1776, from designs 
by Mr. Sandby, R.A., and the Freemasons' Tavern in 1786, from designs of William 
Tyler, R.A. Some interesting particulars relating to both are given in Bro. Sadler's 
"Memorials of the Globe Lodge, No. 23." There were also other Masonic meeting 
places in this Street. " The Sugar Loaf," where the Jerusalem Lodge met in 1778, 
and " The Queen's Head," which appears in the List of 1723, and " The Hercules Pillars," 
the meeting place of Preston's Chapter of Harodim and other Lodges of the early 
nineteenth century. 



Long Acbe is a continuation of Great Queen Street, and we first come across the! 
name in 1612, when it was a public footpath leading westwards. The land adjoining it 
seems to have been owned by Sir William Slingsby, for in 1616 an Order of the King 
is directed to him to have the said footpath put into proper repair. Bagford, writing to his 
brother antiquary Leland, says that near by this Lane was a noted vine mentioned in 
Domesday Book, and adjoining it an Inn, afterwards known as " The Vine." We meet 
with this old house in the List of 1733, and it was not pulled down in 1820. In Broad 
Court, off Long Acre, we come across another old Inn named " The Wrekin " (Plate No. 
VII.), reminiscent of our last Summer Excursion, and where the Lodge of Fortitude and 
Old Cumberland found a home in 1803. At " The Prince of Wales' Head," near the west 
end of Long Acre, a Lodge of the Antients met in 1754, but lapsed in 1773, " the landlord 
having sold the Warrant to another house, he wanting money due to him." The two other 
Masonic resorts near by were " The Freemasons' Coffee House," New Belton Street, and 
" The Mercers' Arms," Meroer Street. 



36" Transactions of the Quatuor Ooronati Lodge. 

Let us now turn our steps south again into Covent Garden, or as it was in old 
time called " Convent Garden." What changes have taken place here since our Brethren 
of the eighteenth century had their meetings in what Thackeray describes as the " rich 
cluster of brown Taverns, studded with anecdote and history ! " All these are now 
hut shadows of the past. 

"The Apple Tree," Charles Street, though perhaps not one of the most 
celebrated, still deserves to be mentioned first, as here, on the Festival of St. John, the 
24th June, 1717, the Grand Lodge was first constituted. Here also the Lodge of 
Fortitude and Old Cumberland (No. 3 of the Old Lodges) continued to meet. Next, 
perhaps, in Masonic importance is "The Bedford Head," Southampton Street, as it 
appears in the List of 1723. Here, according to Pope's " Sober Advice," 
" When sharp with hunger scorn you to' be fed, 
Except with pea-chicks at the Bedford Head." 
Walpole .refers to a great supper at. this House ordered by Paul Whitehead in 1741, 
for a party of gentlemen disguised as sailors and masked, on the night of Admiral 
Yernon's Birthday. After supper they had a procession round Covent Garden, beating 
a drum and trying toisxcite the mob, but seem to have failed in their designs. 

"The-Garrick Head " close by Covent Garden Theatre was the House where 
the disreputable Eenton Nicholson, Editor of "Town," for some years held his 
meetings of " The Judge and Jury." ; He styled himself the Lord Chief Baron. Here 
the Lodge of Unity No. 69 met in 1808. Another Tavern lower down Bow Street is 
associated with a somewhat quaint anecdote. Two well-known Irishmen, Anesley 
Shay and Bob Todington, met here and drank some twenty-four half-quarterns. Shay 
said, "Now we'll go." "No," said Todington, "We'll have another, and then go." 
Unfortunately they did not, but made a long stay. Hence the calling for " goes " of 
liquor {Etymological Compendium, Thorns 1853). The Lodge of Faith No. 141 moved 
to this House in 1792. At the Shakespeare Head, the Beefsteak Society (not 
to be confounded with the Beefsteak Club) met before removing to the Lyceum 
Theatre. George Lambert, a scene painter in Covent Garden Theatre, was the 
originator of the Society. This Tavern was the headquarters of Charles James 
Fox during the famous " Westminster Election " of 1784, as Wood's Hotel in Covent 
Garden was the rallying place of Lord Hood and Sir Cecil Wray, the Court candidates. 
The Sigu of the Shakespeare was a work of art, and the House is. supposed to have 
been the first built in Covent Garden. The first meeting of the Grand Stewards' Lodge 
was held here in 1735. 

Henrietta Street was at onetime a very fashionable thoroughfare, named 
after the Consort of Charles I., and King Street was so called out of compliment 
to that ' Monarch. Both were built in 1637. At his lodgings in this street 
the eccentric Paul Whitehead died on the 206h December, 1774, having, during a 
protracted illness, burnt all his manuscripts. At "The Castle Tavern " in this street 
Sheridan fought his secondyduel with Captain Matthews, his rival in the affections of 
Miss Linley, after an interrupted encounter in Hyde Park. At this House, according 
to Larvvood, a curious culinary feat was performed. A young lover produced a 
satin shoe he had obtained from his mistress, which being filled with wine, her health 
was drunk, it was then consigned to the famous cook of " The Castle," who prepared 
from it an excellent ragout, which was eaten with relish by the company. The 
Shakespeare Lodge No. 99. removed to " The Castle " in 1772. The " Constitution 
Tavern " (formerly " The Cross Keys ") was at the corner of Henrietta Street, and was 












AKS QtJATDOK CORONATORUM. 




VII. — The " Wrekin " Tavern, Broad Court, Bow Street, in ISijS. 
From a Drawing in the Gardner Collection. 







AES QUATUOK CoRONATORUM. 




O 



o 
O 



o £ 



ci' 



ft bo 



^5 
I 



f> 



AliS QUATUOR CORONATORUM. 




IX.—" Golden Cross " Yard, in 1829. 
From a Drawing by G. Scharf in the Gardner Collection. 



~*i"%- 



Some Old London Taverns and Masonry. 



37 



another House where politicians did resort, for we read in the Daily Advertiser, 15th 
March, 1742, " The Independent Eelectors of the City and Liberty of Westminster are 
desired to meet to-morrow at 7 o'clock at the Cross Keys Tavern, Henrietta Street, 
Coyent Garden, on special affairs." The Old King's Arms Lodge No. 28 met here as 
early as 1731, At " The Swan Tavern" in New Street, a continuation of King Street, 
the Lodge of Regularity No. 91 held its first meeting in 1755. This House is now, I 
think, known as " The White Swan Hotel," No. 14. At the early part of the last 
century it seems to have been flourishing, as we find in the " Epicures' Almanack" 1815, 
" a long established House, well known for the excellence of its fish, flesh and fowl, 
which are served up in the best style of cookery by bill of fare daily to a respectable 
and numerous company of guests." 
% We must not pass over the two celebrated Coffee Houses, in Covent Garden, 

4 where Masons foregathered in the old days. These were " The Bedford Coffee House," 

under the Piazza at the north-east corner, near the entrance to Covent Garden Theatre, 
and "Tom's Coffee House," No. 17, on the north side of Russell Street. "The 
Bedford Coffee House " was in fact two houses, built in 1634 by Francis, Earl of 
Bedford, and later converted into an Inn. It was much frequented by the witty Foote, 
and other famous actors, and its Records were, in 1751, written under the title of 
"Memoirs of Bedford Coffee House.'" It is masonically interesting as the place where 
Dr. Desaguliers (Grand Master 1719), sometimes styled "the Father of Speculative 
Masonry," died 29th February, 1744. The Poet Cawthorne (1719-1761) thus describes 
his end : — 

" Here poor neglected Desaguliers fell I. 

He who taught two gracious kings to view 

All Boyle ennobled and all Bacon knew, 

Died in a cell, without a friend to save 

Without a guinea, and without a grave." 
I am afraid, however, this harrowing picture is more poetical than correct. This house 
was a respectable and even fashionable place of abode, and the Doctor was decently 
interred by his sons in the Savoy. 

We now approach the vicinity of Charing Cross, a neighbourhood which has 
strangely altered in all its main features during the last 150 years. Probably the 
village of Charing took its name from the pronounced " bending " of the River Thames 
at this point. The Anglo-Saxon "cerran" meaning " to bend or turn." In Hollar's 
map of the village, even as late as the Reign of Charles I., the only vestige of 
habitations are four or five houses just east of where Trafalgar Square now stands, and 
an Inn nestling comfortably beneath a large tree, nearly on the site of the present 
Golden Cross Hotel, and very possibly bearing that name even then. This Tavern no 
doubt constituted a convenient midway halting and refreshment place between the City 
of London and Westminster, and its Landlords doubtless witnessed many stirring and 
historical events. Later, however, houses multiplied on all sides, till we find Boswell 
saying, " I talked of the cheerfulness of Fleet Street owing to the quick succession of 
people which we perceive passing through it." " Why, Sir," said Johnson, "Fleet 
Street has a very animated appearance, but I think the full tide of human existence is 
at Charing Cross." 

The present Charing Cross Station now occupies the site of old Hungerford 
Market, once the property of the Hungerfords of Farleigh Castle, Somersetshire, who 
became extinct on the death of Sir Edward Hungerford in 1711. Here was " The Fox 
under the Hill Tavern," on the River, referred to in David Copperfield, and outside of 



38 



transactions of the Quatuor Goronati Lodge. 



•which he used to eat his scanty luncheon, and watch the coalheavers on the wharf. 
Also " Hungerford Coffee House," a literary resort facing the Strand. Stow mentions 
a Heley Alley, by " The One Tun Tavern," that falleth into Hungerford Market. In 
the Weekly Journal of 6th December, 1718, we read, "Last Thursday four 
Highwaymen, drinking at the One Tun Tavern, near Hungerford Market in the Strand, 
and falling out about dividing their booty, the drawer overheard them, and sent for the 
Constables, who secured them, and the next day they were committed to Newgate." 
We are informed in another issue that these rogues had, when taken, two blunderbusses 
and five pistols, all loaded. At this house the Lodge of Peace and Plenty, No. 21 of the 
Autients, met in 1752, and only lapsed in 1830. 

Over the road were the famous old Coaching Inns, " The Golden Cross " (Plate 
No. VIII.) and "The Chequers." At the former the Lodge of Cordiality met in 1794, 
and at the latter the Naval Lodge, No. 59, came into existence in 1739. In Duncannon 
Street, at the back of "The Golden Cross," can still be seen the archway 
through which Mr. Pickwick passed at times, and which Mr. Jingle designated as a 
dangerous place for the heads of passengers. Nearly all of the original Inn was pulled 
down in 1830, and the drawing of the Inn Yard, from the Gardner Collection, was made 
just prior to the demolition (Plate No. IX.). A clever Irish writer of that day, 
Maginn, thus laments the change : — 

" No more the Coaches shall I see 

Come trundling from the Yard, 
Nor hear the horn blown cheerily 

By brandy-bibbing guard. 
King Charles, I think, must sorrow sore, 

E'en were he made of stone, 
When left by all his friends of yore 

(Like Tom Moore's rose) alone." 

" The Chequers Inn " gave its name to Chequers Court, and forms the back- 
ground for Hogarth's Pirst Plate of the " Harlot's Progress." This sign is a very old one, 
being found in the Taverns of Pompeii, where they are painted lozenge-wise, red, white 
and yellow. Dr. Lardner, however, thinks that these signs were derived from a board 
divided into columns something like a chess board, on which merchants with counters 
made their calculations in the middle ages, the boards being usually kept in Taverns 
for the use of customers. 

On the west side of Charing Cross, in Spring Gardens and Cockspur Street, we 
come across several Taverns resorted to by gallants and politicians from Whitehall and 
Westminster in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries. The Union Club now stands 
on the site of the once famous " Cannon Tavern." Here, we learn from the Daily 
Advertiser, 10th April, 1762, tickets could be obtained for the Annual Peast of Grand Lodge 
at the Haberdashers' Hall. " The Cannon " is described in the Epicures' 1 Almanack, 1815, 
as having for its landlord a Mr. Hodges, "whose larder and soups, his waiters and cooks, 
are like our hearts of oak, always ready, the Cannon being charged with ammunition 
for the stomach." It was at this Tavern that the Rev. Mr. Hackman, on the evening 
of the 7th April, 1729, watched Miss Ray pass in her coach from the Admiralty to 
Covent Garden Theatre. He then followed and shot her coming out. The Cannon was 
the cognisance of Edward VI. and Queen Elizabeth, and was a common sign in the 
eighteenth century. This old Inn was pulled down in 1822. Here several Lodges met 
about 1740 to 1760. 




Some Old London Taverns and Masonry. 



39 



Nearer Charing Cross was " The British Coffee House," the site of which was 
till lately occupied by Stanford's, the map publisher. It had a great Scotch connection 
and Defoe mentions in his " Journal through England " that " The Scots go generally 
to the British, and a mixture of all sorts to the Smyrna." In the year of the Jacobite 
rising in 1745, four noted Scotchmen were wont to dine nightly at the " British," Tobias 
Smolett, Alexander Carlyle, John Blair and "Bob" Smith, afterwards Master of 
Trinity College, Cambridge. They were there when the news of the Battle of Culloden 
reached London, on which Smollett wrote a poem of six stanzas, entitled, " The tears of 
Scotland." St. Andrew's Lodge No. 231 met here as late as 1826, and the premises 
were only finally demolished about 1886. 

A little south in Rummer Court, which was next to Cromwell's Palace, and 
opposite Craig's Court, stood " The Rummer' Tavern." It is shewn in the map of 1734 
as then between Buckingham Court and Cromwell Place. Later it was known as 
" The Ship Tavern." As there seems some doubt as to the situation of the Tavern, I 
may say that Cunningham describes it as " two doors from Locket's Coffee House, and 
then removed to the Water side of Charing Cross," and pulled down in 1750." 
Drummond's Bank appears to me to occupy the original site. In the reign of 
Charles II. the landlord was Samuel Prior, the uncle of Matthew Prior, the Poet, 
Who resided here with his uncle for several years. It is shown in "Hogarth's 
Night " with a Master and Tyler returning home, and the Salisbury Flying Coach 
overturned. Those who would desire to read an exhaustive and interesting account of 
this Plate are referred to Bro. Rylands' Paper in the Transactions of 1889, vol. ii. 
In the Daily Advertiser of 15th February, 1742, we read — " To be seen at 
the Rummer, Charing Cross, the celebrated luminous Amphitheatre, constructed 
of silver polished steel, and cut glass, exhibiting at one view upwards of 200 
fountains." " The Rummer Tavern " appears in the List of 1723. 

At the bottom of Northumberland Street was the old " Northumberland Arms," 
close to some buildings known as the Percy Chambers, where the Vitruvian Lodge 
No. 87 met in 1827. (Plate No. X.) ....... 

Having now made a short circuit of Charing Cross, let us proceed north up 
St.' Martin's Lane, which formerly extended southwards to opposite Northumberland 
House. It was one of the London Streets of the eighteenth century that is peculiarly 
interesting alike from a literary, artistic and masonic point of view. In the seventeenth 
century the then rural character of the Lane is indicated by the names " Hop Garden " 
and " Vineyard " in connection with plots of ground adjoining it. It was, however, 
early built upon, for Howel in his Londinopolis 1657, says, " On the west side of St. 
Martin's Church and Lane are many gentile fair houses in a row built by the same 
Earl of Salisbury, who built Britain's Burse but somewhat before." At the lower or 
southern end of the Lane was a Tavern of high repute known as " The Barn," the 
" Simpson's Tavern " of the eighteenth century. Here all the noted chess and draught 
players foregathered, and all matches and games of importance were played. (Smith's 
" Nollekens and his Times") The Lodge of Unity No. 69 removed here in 1786. The 
drawing from the Gardner collection is the only view now remaining of this portion 
of the Lane including " The Barn. "(Plate No. XL). A few doors further north we come on 
" The Crown and Sceptre," which appears in the List of 1723. It is mentioned in Missons 
" Memoir es par un voyageur en Angleterre," 1698. "Buller, the Keeper of the Crown and 
Sceptre, told me that there was a tun of rich port drunk at his wife's funeral, and 
that no man goes to women's burials, and no woinan to jnan's, so that there were none 



40 



Transactions of the Quaiuor Goronati Lodge. 

The Irish, custom of " waking the dead " 



but women drinking Buller's wine." 
seems even then to have found favour. 

Again on the west side, a little further up close to the Royal Mews, where the 
National Portrait Gallery now stands, "The King's Arms Tavern " flourished. This 
house naturally became the resort of the horsey fraternity, and we see in the Daily 
Advertiser of 1742 : " To be sold at the King's Arms in St. Martin's Lane a very beau- 
tiful strong bay gelding &c." About the middle of July, 1795, a piper named John Lewis 
was turned out of this Tavern for insulting behaviour. He incited the mob to attack 
the Inn, and all the windows and furniture were broken up before the military arrived 
to disperse the wreckers. The Lodge of Faith No. 141, amongst others, migrated here 
at the beginning of the last century. 

And now we have to notice one of the most famous of the Masonic West End 
meeting places, " Old Slaughter's." (Plate No. XII.). It stood on the west side of 
the Lane some three doors from Newport Street, and comprised Nos. 74 and 75. 
It was pulled down in 1843, when Cranbourne Street was laid out. Here 
artists and poets much resorted, Hogarth, Wilkie, Pope, and Reynolds. The 
Royal Academy had its first inception at " The Turks Head," Greek Street, but the 
members moved here later on. Thomas Slaughter was the first landlord, and 
as far as I can ascertain it seems to have been opened by him about 1692. 
Slaughter was the proprietor for no less than forty-seven years. The name of 
the Head Waiter about 1790 was one Lock a great favourite of Fielding, who 
gave him the name. He was the natural son of James Spiller, who kept " the Spiller's 
Head," Clare Market. Various are the anecdotes connected with this House, and the 
witty dialogues its walls have listened to. The Engraving entitled " Good News " 
shows the Coffee Room of " Old Slaughters " in 1783. Several Lodges found congenial 
quarters here, amongst others the Lodge of Felicity, No. 58, in 1727. 

Two other old Taverns close by in St. Martin's Court, were apparently connected 
alike with Masonry, and the pugilistic interest. " The Round Table," Nos. 22 and 23 
St. Martin's Court, had the honour of being the residence of John C. Heenan, when he 
came to England to fight Tom Sayers, and was also the meeting place of the Lodge of 
Industry No. 186, in 1846. Also at the ooruer of the Court was " The Coach and 
Horses " later "Ben Caunt's Head," and kept by that celebrated individual. In 1802 
the Lodge of Confidence No. 193 met here. 

Let us linger for a moment in the districts still further north, St. Giles and Soho. 
This neighbourhood commenced to be built over about the middle of the seventeenth 
century. With regard to the name of Soho, Pennant and other writers say that it took 
its origin from the " word of the day " at the Battle of Sedgemoor in 1685. The reverse, 
however, seems correct, as the word is found in parish documents of prior date in 
reference to the locality where the Duke of Monmouth had his house, namely Soho 
Square. The word " Soho," or " Sohoe" as it was originally spelt, was the old cry used 
in hunting when the hare was found. 

In Gerrard Street, Soho, we come across one of those old^Taverns which were in 
truth the eighteenth century clubs, namely " The Turks Head." And in most cases 
this class of Tavern had also many Masonic Associations. It was situated at the corner 
of Greek Street and Compton Street. Here the Artists' Club met about 1750, and the 
Royal Academy had a modest beginning in 1768. In the year 1764 Dr. Johnson and 
Sir Joshua Reynolds founded the Literary Club, which was afterwards removed to 
Sackville Street. " The Turks Head " seems to have been the headquarters of the 
Loyal Association during the Rebellion of 1745. In 1752 there was at this Tavern a. 



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Some Old London Taverns and Masonry. 



41 






celebrated waiter known as " Little Will," and an engraving represents him as a small 
man with a large head and periwig, dressed in a long apron with a pair of snuffers 
suspended from the waist. The Rev. Dr. Huddersford, in a letter to Grainger, the 
Physician, writes, "Little Will was as I have heard a great favourite with the gentle- 
men of the Coffee House; there is a print representing him in his constant attitude 
insensible to everything about him, but really swallowing every article of politics that 
dropped, and which I am told he understood better than any of his Masters." At this 
Tavern the Grand Lodge of the Antients was constituted 17th July, 1751, and the Eoyal 
Somerset and Inverness Lodge No. 4 met in 1773. 

At " The Golden Lion," Church Street, Soho, a Lodge known as the Corinthian 
Lodge met in 1775, and a year later Dr. Jean Paul Marat, " the stormy petrel of the 
Terror," came from Paris to reside, and here published a book, entitled, " An enquiry 
into the nature, cause and cure of a singular disease of the eye, by J. P. Marat, M.D." 

Turning westwards into Leicester Fields and the adjacent streets, several old 
Masonic Houses are recorded, " The Cross Keys," Bear Street, "The Royal Standard," 
and "The Duke of Cumberland's Head," where the Lodge of Prudence met in 1748. 
Walpble, in his thirteenth letter to Conway, 16th April, 1747, writes, " I was yesterday 
out of Town, and the very signs as I passed made me make very quaint reflections on 
the mortality of fame and popularity. I observed how ' The Duke's Head ' had sue- 
seeded almost universally to ' Admiral Vernon's,' as his had left but few traces of the 
'Duke of Ormond's.' I pondered these things in my heart, and said unto myself, 
' Surely glory is but a Sign.' " 

The Haymarket was practically adjoining Leicester Fields in the eighteenth 
century. As its name denotes, the Haymarket was in the seventeenth century a space 
devoted in a great measure to the sale of hay, and other produce brought from the 
country. Here also a considerable portion of the laundry work of the West End was 
done, and the turf and hedges adjacent were adorned on washing days with the under- 
garments of our ancestors and their ladies. Here some smaller houses gave hospitality 
to the Brethren, such as '"The Goat' at the foot of the Haymarket," "The Scot's 
Arms " and " The Lemon Tree." With regard to this latter House a curious advertise- 
ment appears in the Daily Advertiser, 6th April, 1742 : " A meeting Place in Great Queen 
Street, Lincoln's Inn Fields, with new Pulpit and Cushion, new Pews, Window Curtains, 
Brass Branches, &c, all complete and fit for any congregation of Protestant Dissenters ; 
To be had on very easy terms. Apply Mr. Donaldson, Lemon Tree." The Royal 
York Lodge of Perseverance, No. 7, met here in 1797. 

Waterloo Place stands on the site of what was in the eighteenth century 
St. James' Market, and from Pall Mall there was an entrance to it by Market Lane. 
The market was established in 1664, and Strype refers to it as flourishing in 1720. 
Pepys mentions " The Dog Tavern," St. James Market, in his Diary. " This afternoon 
some of the Officers of the Army had a conference at Whitehall, but I do not know 
what is done. At the Dog Tavern in comes Mr. Wade and Mr. Sterry Secretary to the 
Plenipotentiary of Denmark who brought the news of the death of the King of Sweden 
at Gottenburg on the 3rd of last month." There Lodges met in 1724, 1739 and 1801. 
At the bar of " The Mitre Tavern " St. James' Market, kept by a Mrs. Boss the aunt of 
Miss Nanny, Farqnhar the Dramatist found Mrs. Oldfield, then a girl of 16, rehearsing 
the " Scornful Lady " of Beaumont and Fletcher. 

St. James' Street further west dates from about 1670, and the land on which it 
js for the most part built was conveved to Henry Earl of Arlington by Letters Patent 









42 Transactions of the Quatuor Ooronati Lodge. 

of Charles II. It leads from the Palace of St. James to " Piekadilla," and soon became 
full of gaiety and gambling, 

" The dear old Street of Clubs and Cribs, 

As north and south it stretches, 
Still smacks of Williams' pungent squibs, 

And Gillray's fiercer sketches ; 
The quaint old dress, the grand old style, 

The mots, and racy stories, 
The wine, the dice, the wit, the bile, 

The hate of Whigs and Tories." — (Locker). 

This street was the residence, at different times, of Pope, Addison, Charles James 
Pox, Byron and Samuel Rogers. " Foreign and domestic news," says Isaac Bickerstaffe, 
" you will have at the St. James' Coffee House," the last House but one at the west 
corner. Here Swift and Steele dined with the landlord in 1719, and Masonic Lodges 
enjoyed its hospitality some twenty years later. A very favourite Masonic Tavern stood 
close by, " The Thatched House Tavern." Erected in 1711, it remained till 1843 on 
the site of the present Conservative Club. It then occupied the adjoining premises 
until 1865, when it was pulled down, and the Thatched House Crab built. Beneath the 
original Tavern was a range of low-built shops, and a parade through to Thatched House 
Court. Swift writes : " I entertained our Society at the Thatched House Tavern to-day 
at dinner, but Brother Bathurst sent for wine, the house affording none," December, 
1711. The Dilettanti Society met here in 1734. This was a Society having for its 
objects the improvement in English Art, but in 1865 it removed with its famous 
pictures and collection of portraits to Willis's Booms. A large number of Lodges 
resorted here, amongst them being the Lodge of Friendship No, 6 in 1777, and the 
Westminster and Keystone No. 10 in 1798. 

"Willis's Rooms," above mentioned, in King Street, off St. James' Street, were 
until 1863 known as Almack's Rooms. They were erected about 1770 by one Almack, 
a native of Scotland, who died in 1781. In a letter from Mrs. Harris to her son, the 
Earl of Malmesbury, 5th April, 1764, we read : "Almack is going to build most 
magnificent rooms behind his house, one much larger than in Carlisle House." Here 
the Royal Alpha Lodge No. 16 met in 1869. 

And now we enter Pall Mall, which, even in the eighteenth century, was an 
aristocratic locality, the meeting place of high-class Societies and Lodges. It may not 
be generally known that the curious name of Pall Mall is derived from the French game 
of "paille maille," introduced into England early in the seventeenth century. In any 
case Bishop King, in the year 1613, refers to the district as " the Pall of London." It 
appears to have been a game somewhat resembling croquet played on an extended 
ground. Later, another Mall was made in St. James' Park by Charles II. 

In this street two well known taverns claim our attention as Masons, namely 
" The Star and Garter " and " The King's Head." The former house was very popular 
and much resorted to by Swift and his friends. Here the Doctor drew up, in 1713, the 
Rules of a Club known as " The Brother's Club," of which the Duke of Ormond and 
Arbuthnot were afterwards members. Swift also mentions it in several of his "Letters 
to Stella" as a good house with moderate charges. "There is nobody at White's," 
.G-ilby Williams writes to George Selwyn, 18th July, 1763, "our Jovial Club (the 
Thursday Club) meets at the Star and Garter." Here on the 26th January, 1765, the 
meeting of another Club, the " Nottingham Club " had a melancholy ending. Lord Byron, 






Some Old London Taverns and Masonry. 



43 






the uncle of the Poet, forced a quarrel on bis neighbour Mr. Chawortb, and afterwards in 
one of the rooms below killed him in a duel, or as some alleged murdered him. He was 
tried but acquitted. He does not seem to have regretted killing his friend, as the Poet 
records that his Uncle kept the sword he used on the occasion, hung up in his bedroom 
to the day of his death. At " The Star and Garter " Sir Horace Mann, the Duke of 
Dorset, Lord Tankerville and other sportsmen, in 1774 met, and drew up the first Laws of 
Cricket. In Sir Joshua Reynolds' Pocket Book for 1762 there is a notice of an appoint- 
ment "July 16th at Six with Miss Nelly O'Brien in Pall Mall next the Star and Garter." 
This portrait has been considered the Masterpiece of the great academician. The 
Britannic Lodge, No. 33, (amongst others) met here in 1783. 

At " The King's Head " a club met which rather arrogantly termed themselves 
" The World." It was the custom for the Members after dinner to write epigrams on 
the glasses. On one occasion Dr. Young, the author of " Night Thoughts" was present 
and asked to write, but had no diamond. Lord Stanhope, afterwards Lord Chesterfield, 
lent him his riDg and he then wrote : — 

" Accept a miracle instead of wit 
See two dull lines with Stanhope's pencil writ." 

We have Samuel Pepys strolling in here to refresh himself on the 10th May, 
1663. "I walked in St. James, and was there at the Masse, and was forced in the 
crowd to kneel down. The Masse being done to the King's Head Ordinary, where many 
Parliamentary men." This old Inn is numbered amongst the Masonic houses in the 
List of 1725. 

And now our journey is nearly ended, and we pass away across St. James' Park 
into Westminster, a locality rich indeed in antiquarian remains, and vivid historical 
interest. The present and the shadows of the great past alike appear to us. It is 
said that when we reach the age of fifty little or nothing remains of the body as it was 
when twenty years old. But the spirit that is animating and has animated both remains 
the same. Time, fire, and the hand of man have changed much of the outward form 
here, but the old associations cling around its borders. This Wordsworth doubtless felt 
as he stood in the early dawn of the 3rd of September, 1802, on Westminster Bridge : — 

" Never did sun more beautifully steep 

In its first splendour valley, rock, and hill ; 
N'er saw I, never felt a calm so deep. 

The River glideth at its own sweet will : 
Dear God ! the very houses seem asleep ; 
And all that mighty heart is lying still." 

Did Wordsworth, however, think of or realise, on this September morning, that f at » 
away dawning of history, when just west of the Bridge where the River then flowed 
broader and shallower, the Great Ford joined Thorney Island and Watling Street in the 
north, to the Dover Road in the South. Of the many motley crowds that passed that 
way, the Romans to and from their Colony on Thorney, the Danes on their maurauding 
excursions north and south, and the stately processions of the Normans to the Shrine 
of St. Peter ? 

Westminster probably reached its greatest era of splendour in the Reign of 
Richard IL, when the Palace was in fact a large walled town, with gabled houses, 
beautiful monastic buildings, archways and gates, the interiors resplendent with 
tapestry and varied colours; Then the armed following, and the servants and artificers 
of the Court amounted to some twenty thousand persons^ residing within its precincts. 






u 



'Transactions of the Quatuor Coronati t/odge. 



Thus the followers of the Court embraced all Trades and Professions, and all sorts 
and conditions of Taverns catered for their needs. Thus we find Chaucer had a 
Tavern called " The White Rose " in old Palace yard, in 1399, which was not pulled 
down till 1502. And we come across also here " The White Hart " of Richard II. 
and " The Brown Bear" of Warwick. 

When the Court removed from the old Palace of Westminster to Whitehall, in 
the reign of Henry VIII., the Taverns outside in King Street and elsewhere received 
most of the custom of the Royal retinue, and thus the older Taverns of the Palace 
became the resort of the Members attending Parliament, and the lawyers and litigants 
in the Courts of Westminster. 

In the seventeenth century, Samuel Pepys, in his Diary, mentions several old 
Houses patronised by him, some of them later the Homes of Masonic Lodges. The 
whole of the locality adjacent to King Street has, however, undergone such drastic 
alterations that we cannot realise the position of these Inns unless we glance at the 
Plan, (made circa 1734) before the laying out of George Street. (Plate No. XIII.) . In 
King Street was Axe Yard, where Pepys himself resided, and where he opens his Diary 
on the 1st January, 1660. The Yard was so called from " a large messuage or Tavern in 
the west side of King Street commonly called the Axe." Later, on the 20th July, 1666, 
Pepys records : " Lord to see how the Plague spreads. It being now all over Kings 
Street, at the Axe and next door to it, and at other places." Edmund Burke seems for 
some time to have resided at " The Axe," and writes to the Marquis of Rockingham 
from there. "The Axe" with most of King Street was pulled down about 1760. 
The Lodge of Peace and Plenty met here in 1739. The fine Inn known as " The Bell " 
was also in a yard off King Street. A very old House, as we find in Sir John Howard's 
"Journal of Expenses," 1465 to 1467, several items in connection with his visits to 
" The BelL" Here the Tory Club known as " The October Club " met about 1710, and 
gave infinite trouble to Harley's Administration. Swift was a constant visitor and was 
employed to propitiate and gain over the Members of this Club. This Tavern was early 
famous in the Masonic Records, and appears in the lists of 1723, 1724 and 1725. 

" The Mitre and Dove " was also a well-known Inn in King Street, where 
several Lodges met about the middle of the eighteenth century. (Plate No. XIV.) 

At " The Bull Head Tavern," Princes Street, close by, we have Pepys again in 
the character of a sportsman, 29th March, 1667. "To the Bull Head Tavern whither 
was brought my French gun, and one Truelocke, a famous gunsmith, who is a mighty 
ingenious man did take my gun to pieces." This Inn was the original meeting place of 
the St. James' Lodge No. 180 in 1 787. 

At " The Swan" in Bridge Street, Lodges met about 1750. Pepys also had an 
adventure here in the Great Fire. "And so to Westminster thinking to shift myself 
being in dirt from top to bottom, but could not find there any place to buy a shirt or 
pair of gloves Westminster Hall being full of people's goods, and the Excheqeur money 
put into vessels to carry to Nonsuch (Epsom), but to the Swan, and there was trimmed 
and thus to Whitehall." 

The NewPalace Ya,r A(PlateNo.XV.)wa$ an open square before the north entrance to 
Westminster Hall, so called from being the principal Court of the New Palace commenced 
by William II., of which Westminster Hall, its chief feature only was completed. It had 
originally four gates leading out of it, one of which opened into St. Magaret Lane the 
approach to Old Palace Yard (Plate No. XVL), the interior and older Square or Courtyard, 
Many houses to the north east of New Palace Yard remained standing till 1865. The 
disastrous fire of 1834 destroyed most of the ancient buildings in Old Palace Yard. 



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Some Old London Taverns and Masonry. 4.5 

New Palace Yard has seen many interesting historical events, such as the great 
fight between the men of London and the men of Westminster, as related by Stow. 
The famous Pillory stood here on which Perkin Warbeck, William Prynne, Titus Oates, 
and, lastly, the printer of Wilkes' famous "No. 45 " stood and suffered. Old Palace 
Yard witnessed in the old days many tournaments, executions, and trials by battle. In 
the south-east corner Percy, one of the conspirators of the Gunpowder Plot, took a 
house, through which the barrels of gunpowder were carried to the vaults below the 
House of Lords, and here four of the conspirators were afterwards executed. In the 
same reign, fifteen years later, the shameful execution of Raleigh was carried out in the 
yard. 

In New Palace Yard we come across in the Records " The Kings Arms" on the 
west side of the Square where the Royal Somerset and Inverness Lodge met in 1771, 
and the " Horn Tavern," also a meeting place of this Lodge, and the Westminster and 
Keystone No. 10, in 1792. The Old Palace Yard had amongst its taverns " The Mason's 
Arms " where two Lodges (now erased) met in 1754, " The Star and Garter," St. James 
Lodge No. 180, in 1787, and " The Golden Fleece," where the Lodge of Perseverance, 
now the Royal York Lodge of Perseverance had its second meeting place in 1776. 

" The Horn Tavern " is entitled to more than passing mention, as it appears to 
have been a famous and aristocratic Masonic House in the earliest times. For instance, 
we have recorded in the British Gazetteer, 28th March, 1724, " There was a great Lodge 
of the ancient Society of Freemasons held last week at the Horn Tavern, Palace Yard, 
and there were present the Earl o£ Dalkeith their Grand Master, the Deputy Grand 
Master and several other persons of Quality." There is also a letter written by James 
Anderson from "over against St. James St. Pickadilly," to "Samuel Gale, Esq., at 
Commissioner Gale's in Bedford Row," 26th February, 1731 : 

" Dear Sir 

The enclosed is from Councillor Edwards the worthy Warden of the Horn Lodge 
of which the Duke of Richmond is Master. It is to get the Bearer (who is also a 
Mason true) made an Excise man by your benign influence with your brother the 
commissioner 

Your affectionate Brother and obedient servant 

James Anderson." 

And now our travels are at an end, and we find ourselves under the shadow of 
the Abbey Church, whose ancient aisles and chapels, "half as old as Time," form a 
fitting sanctuary and resting place, and will we hope ever remain 

"To God's most holy service dedicate 

Enriched with sculptures rare, and effigies 

That with clasped hands seem ever meekly praying ; 

And with the solemn bells that send afar 

The tidings of great joy, and bid us leave 

The turmoil, and the strife of busy life, 

To worship, as we should, the living God." 



B 

m 



46 Transactions of the Quatuor Ooronati Lodge. 

Bro. T. B. Whytehead writes : — 

I have been much interested in the papers of Bro. Simpson on "London Taverns 
and Freemasonry." He is doing for London what I have been for years trying to do 
for York, and the pursuit of these details is a very interesting study. He has been 
more successful in his London researches than I have been in my own city, but still I 
have managed to ferret out a good many matters that otherwise would have been lost 
to posterity. There is no time to lose in these destructive days, and in York we are 
even now threatened with the demolition of some of the oldest houses. Within the 
last twenty years two old Masonic Taverns have disappeared, and doubtless others will 
presently follow. 



The Worshipful Master desired to express his cordial appreciation, which he 
was sure would be equally shared by all present, of the valuable and interesting paper 
which had just been read by Bro. J. Percy Simpson. It was one in every way worthy 
of the best traditions of the Lodge, and its preparation must have involved immense 
application to work, and research in many directions. Its re-perusal, when printed in 
our Transactions, would add a fresh interest to our daily walksjn town ; it was valuable, 
not only to us as Freemasons, in indicating many meeting-places of old Lodges, but also 
to all students of the topography of old London, which was fast vanishing from our 
view, in identifying and preserving for time to come the actual sites of those old 
Taverns, which played such an important part in the lives of our ancestors. Few of the 
Taverns cited remain to our day ; it might be of some interest to trace the way in which 
some of them changed their appellation for that of Coffee-House, while a few of these 
again have further developed into the Club-Houses which have taken the place of these 
old Taverns, now no longer wanted by the more exclusive social practices of modern 
life. 

In moving a vote of thanks to Bro. Simpson, the W.M. said that he could give 
no higher praise to the paper than by expressing his conviction that, while it was 
admirably suited to the pages of our own. Transactions, it would have been equally Well 
received at a meeting of the Society of Antiquaries itself. 



The vote was seconded by Bro. E. J. Castle, P.M., and, after comments by 
Bros. W. M. Bywater, P.M., E. H. DRiNGand C. Gocgh, was carried unanimously. Bro. 
Simpson suitably expressed his thanks and appreciation. 



The thanks of the Lodge were also tendered to Bro. G. Vogeler, who added so 
much to the interest by kindly bringing his lantern and throwing the views on the 
screen ; and to Mr. J. Gardner, who generously permitted Bro. Simpson to inspect his 
Valuable collection, and allowed the reproduction of many unique prints and drawings 
in our Transactions. 




Transactions of the Quatuor Coronati Lodqe. 



47 



PROCEEDINGS AGAINST THE TEMPLARS IN FRANCE AND 
ENGLAND FOR HERESY, ETC., A.D. 1307-11. 

TAKEN FROM THE OFFICIAL DOCUMENTS OF THE PERIOD. 

BY BRO. E. J. CASTLE, K.C , P.M. 




PART 1. 

N a previous paper^.Q.O 1 ., vol. xix., 1906, pp. 209-228.) enquiry was made 
into the modern charge of Gnosticism brought against the Templars. 
It is now proposed to give a summary of the actual evidence that was 
taken in France and in England, between the years 1307 and 1311, upon 
the charges brought against them at the instigation of Philip the Fair. 
In examining this evidence the reader will find that he is no longer 
dealing with theoretical speculations of savants anxious to exhibit 
their cleverness, but with hard cruel persecution, and terrible tortures, of unhappy 
individuals forced to confess crimes of which apparently they were not guilty, who, if 
they afterwards dared to assert such confessions to be untrue, were, as relapsed 
heretics, hurried to the stake. 

The present enquiry is based upon undisputed facts ; which are proved by the 
very best of evidence. Day by day, both in England and France, depositions of the 
witnesses were taken down more or less verbatim, and these depositions have come down 
to us intact, so we have a better and a fuller report of what took place than we have of 
most of our modern trials. Hitherto it is true these proceedings remained closed to 
the ordinary reader by not having been translated from the medireval Latin in which 
they were originally written, besides this they are very voluminous, they are nearly 
1,000 pages of a large quarto size, in the French proceedings there were 241 witnesses 
examined, and their depositions become monotonous and wearisome, although every now 
and then something material occurs— some observations, showing the views of the 
Commissioners— some bit of evidence that explains or illustrates much. The depositions 
therefore have to be carefully read by one accustomed to deal with evidence. This the 
author has to the best of his ability done, and he has given the result of his reading in 
a precis of the depositions, with references to the originals, so that a reader wanting 
more information may search for himself. 

When we come to the proceedings themselves a full description will be given of 
where and when the originals may be found, and how they come to be preserved, but at 
present it is sufficient to say that we have verbatim reports of what actuallv took place 
which are of interest, apart from the guilt or innocence of the Templars, as the 
report of proceedings conducted in a legal way nearly 600 years ago. Michelet, the 
editor of the French proceedings, says that "in order that the reader may judge for 
himself we put into his hands the most ancient criminal process of which there remains 
a detailed report ; this report will be found a kind of inquest singularly curious in the 
history of rights, manners and customs." 

Before, however, giving extracts from the evidence, it is advisable to show what 
the charges were and how they originated, 






48 Transactions of the Quaiuor Coronati Lodge. 

Clement the Fifth was made Pope on the 14th November, 1305, and he himself 
tells us in his Bull, hereinafter referred to, that it was about this time that he heard 
rumours about the Templars to which, for reasons which he gives, he was unwilling to 
listen. "We may therefore conclude that up to this time these charges were unknown, 
and this view is confirmed by the letter from Edward II., in the year 1307, in which he 
speaks of them " coming as matters of astonishment more than it is possible to believe," 
not only to himself but to the Priests, Counts and Barons of his kingdom. 

These charges, it is generally supposed, were first made in the year 1305 by two 
disgraced Templars. Dr. Milner, in his History of Latin Christianity, says (vol. vii., 
p. 193), " there was a certain Squino de Florian, Prior of Montfalcon, in the County of 
Toulouse, who had been condemned as a heretic and man of evil life to perpetual imprison- 
ment in the dungeons of one of the royal castles, there he met one Roffo, a Florentine and 
apostate Templar, he contrived to communicate to the King's Officers that he could reveal 
foul and monstrous secrets of the Order. He was admitted to the royal presence, &c, and 
on his attestation the vague and terrible charges, which had been floating about as 
rumours, grew into distinct and awful articles of accusation," and the author adds, 
" authorities say this was the current history of the time." That this Prior Montfalcon 
was one of the originators of the charge against the Templars is confirmed by the 
statement of Ponzardus to the Papal Commissioners in November, 1309, where he says 
(Proces, vol. i., p. 36), " these are the traitors who have brought forward falsehood and 
calumny against the religion of the Temple, William Roberts, the Monk who tortured 
them, Esquino de Floyriac, Prior of Montfaucon, Bernardus Peletus, and Geraues 
de Boyzol. And Raynardus de Pruino, the skilful defender of the Templars before 
the Commissioners " (Ibid, p. 168), said " those who have carried these 
mendacious charges to the King and Pope, had sought out apostate or fugitive 
brethren from the Order of the Temple, who, on account of their wickedness, 
like diseased cattle have been driven from the flock." It is to be noticed that Dr. 
Milman speaks of the vague and terrible charges that had been floating about, but 
Raynouard does not take this view, he says that contemporaneous literature may be 
searched and nothing will be found against them, and adds (page 13), " it is certain 
that up to the epoch of their bad fortune the Templars had enjoyed general esteem, that 
not only had no enemy, public or secret, reproached them with the improprieties and 
impurities with which they were then accused, but both Popes and Kings, even those 
who afterwards pursued them most bitterly, openly rendered justice to their zeal for 
religion and to the purity of their manners." 

We do not know exactly when Esquino got access to the King, it was probably 
before the Grand Master came to France, who was said to have been summoned by 
Clement in 1305. (Ray-, p. 13). 

It seems, therefore, pretty clear that the charges were first made about 1305, and 
that though the King received them with a greedy air, they were new and came as a 
surprise to the Pope, who was not inclined to believe them. (Aurem noluimus inclinare). 
This view is confirmed by his Bull to Edward II. in 1307, in which he states " that the 
Order had for a long time shone forth in the grace of much nobility ... we had 
then never had any suspicion about the premises, nor any infamy against them. 
(quodgue tunc nullam, avdiveramus super premissos suspicionem vel infamia contra eos)." The 
Pope distinctly states then that these charges were new and not heard of before about 
the time of his promotion to the Apostolic See, November 1305, and even as late as 
December, 1309, he still shows that he is not satisfied that the Templars were guilty, 
for after requesting Edward II. to cause the arrest of the Templars in England, he 







Proceedings against the Templars A.I). 1307-11. 49 

directs him to make provisions for the preservation of the property of the Templais', so 
that it should be preserved for them if they were found innocent, otherwise for the Holy 
Land. (Jit bona ipsis dictis templariis si reperiantur innocentes alloquin pro terra sancta 
integre conservientur) . 

The evidence of the Pope and Edward II. that these charges were unknown to 
the Pope up to the time they were forwarded to him in 1305, and to Edward up to the 
arrival of Peletus in November, 1307, seems very material ; it is the evidence of con- 
temporaneous witnesses about facts clearly within their own knowledge, which they 
would hardly have put on record if they had not been true. If there had been these 
vague rumours of corruption and decay in the Order, neither the Pope nor Edward 
would have laid so much stress that the charges were new and unknown. 



NATURE OP THE CHARGES. 

It has already been explained in the previous paper that the task Philip and his 
advisers had to perform was to satisfy the Pope of the guilt of the Templars as an Order, 
and a distinction was drawn between the guilt of individual members, and that of the 
body as a whole. This distinction must not be lost sight of. A loyal regiment might 
have many disaffected persons in its ranks, but it would differ from a regiment where 
each recruit was made by the officers to insult his Sovereign's flag and swear fealty to 
the enemy. The charges brought against the Templars were ultimately reduced into 
writing, and the Papal Commissioners in Prance and Edward's Commissioners in 
England had to examine the witnesses upon more than 130 questions. The depositions, 
however, shew that the principal articles relied on were two charges, i.e., that every 
candidate was at his reception called upon to deny Christ and spit upon His Cross, and 
he was so called upon because it was the rule and practice of the Order (de punctis 
ordinis) that candidates should be received in this manner. 

The actual charges were, however, by no means limited to the Denial and the 
Insult (as these two charges may be described, in order to avoid unnecessary repetition 
of matters of offence), there were charges of Idolatry and Indecency, and the crimes of 
the cities of the plain were not/ only imputed to individual Templars, but it was 
suggested that they were made obligatory. Besides there were matters charged which 
were opposed to the teachings and practice of the Roman Faith, such as the giving of 
Absolution by the head of a chapter, though not a priest. It was for this offence, and this 
only, that the Order was found guilty in England. It was also said that in consecrating 
the Sacrament the necessary words were omitted. These were no doubt offences against 
the religion of Rome which the Templars professed, though they were not like Denial 
and Insult, offences against Christianity, nor, like the Indecent Charges, offences against 
humanity. Still, as professing members of the Roman Church, under whose protection 
they had gained all their great wealth, they were traitors to their faith if they knowingly 
and wilfully taught or practised observances that were opposed to her teaching. No 
one has a right to pose as a member of a community whose authority he is undermining 
and whose teaching he is opposing. But to the modern reader it is evident that a very 
different verdict is to be found when the only proved charge, as was the case in England, 
was that owing to a misunderstanding of the powers granted to the Order by the Pope, 
the heads of Chapters, even when only laymen, gave absolution ; than that which would 
be given if the charges of the Denial and Insult, not to mention the indecent crimes 
were considered to be proved, 



»* 




*»* '.*•* ,<^. 



«0 Transactions of the Quatuor Ooronati Lodge. 

As stated, the principal charges upon which the prosecution relied were the Denial 
and Insult, which it was alleged took place as part of a candidate's reception. This 
view is supported by Raynouard, who tells us that the Agents of the King did not, press 
the charges of depravity since they had obtained a confession of having denied God and 
spat upon the cross. And in the Papal Bull to be referred to hereafter more particu- 
larly, the Pope mentions the mysterious Knight, who confessed that at the receptions 
the Denial and Insult took place. This view is also supported by the depositions them- 
selves and by many other matters. Thus the Inquisitor William of Paris issued 
instructions to the Bishops and others, who had to examine the Templars, as follows : — 
" Transmit to the King under the Seals of the Commissioners of the Inquisitors a copy 
of the depositions of those who shall confess the said errors, especially the denial of our 
Lord Jesus Christ." 

The views of Philip and his Bishops no doubt were, that these charges of heresy 
justified them in all theic extreme measures against the Templars, and upon those they 
relied. Posterity has, however, considered the charges of impurity as the most terrible 
of the accusations. There is something in the very mention of such charges that makes 
men hesitate. Fearful suspicions will arise that cloud the intellect and prevent the 
exercise of a calm judgment. But the depositions show that the reader may in a great 
measure be relieved from unpleasant enquiries. After a careful perusal of the evidence 
the author has come to the, conclusion, that though some individuals pleaded guilty to 
the. commission of the crime, most of the witnesses denied ever having heard of any such 
suggestions until they had questions put to them by the examining Bishops, and a little 
reflection will shew that whilst this charge helped to destroy any popular sympathy 
towards the Templars, it did not help the King's cause with the Pope, or the educated 
Churchmen who advised him. 

It must be remembered that the question of the Templars was a burning one in 
Philip's time. It is clear that the Pope never was convinced of the guilt of the Templars 
as an Order, i.e., that the alleged offences were universal. This can be shown from his 
own statements to be referred to directly. Even his Bull for the suppression of the Order 
in 1313, admitted that the offences had not been proved against the Order. No doubt 
sides were taken, and bitter feelings were aroused, as they have been in the case of Mary 
Queen of Scots, of Quean Caroline, of Dreyfus and others. 

A great many writers have dealt with the extravagant nature of the charges, the 
inherent improbability that any large body of men of different ages, some young, some 
widowers, seeking retirement from the world, could have been guilty of these practices ; 
that candidate after candidate, full of religious fervour, after a powerful and ceremonial 
service, at which his own family were often present, should have consented to deny his 
Saviour, etc., and that for years these practices could have gone on undetected, when 
a word from the disgusted candidate to the officers of the Inquisition, or to the King, 
would have exposed the whole affair. 

But it is not necessary to rely upon these arguments, we have the depositions of 
the witnesses, these clearly failed to satisfy the Commissioners and the Pope of the guilt 
of the Templars. The former had seen and heard the unhappy Templars, they could not 
have found the guilt of the latter proved, and the Pope would not have framed his 
Bull 1 abolishing the Order in the way he did. 

One of the statements in writing sent to the Commissioners of the Pope was that 
of the way in which Candidates were received. This statement has already been 



J*. *«*-.-«*►- 





Proceedings against the Templars A.~D, 1307-11. 



SI 



published in the Transactions of the Quatuor Ooronati Lodge, but as one of the charges 
against the Order was that it was required, as a part of the Order (de punctis ordinis) 
that each candidate at his reception should deny and insult the Cross, it is necessary to 
refer here shortly to what the ceremony of Reception was. 

It appears, as in similar cases, the reception of a new member was treated as of 
great importance. By the rules of the Order, the ceremony was to be carried out by 
those well acquainted with the ritual. The Candidate attended with his friends and 
relations. Chapter was f ally opened, a sentinel was placed on the roof to watch for 
intruders, hence probably the name Tyler. The pi'esence of the Candidate was announced 
to the head of the Chapter or Receptor, who sent out two members to make enquiries as 
to the Candidate's position and the particulars were reported to the Receptor, who told 
the two members to inform the Candidate of the hardships he would have to endure: 
hunger when he would eat, watch when he would sleep, etc. This was carried to the 
Candidate, who said he was willing to undergo the same, and upon this acquiescence 
being reported to the Receptor the Candidate was admitted, to the Chapter, having been 
sworn never to speak of what took plaee there. Whilst in the Chapter he sat at the 
feet of the Receptor and listened to charges. During the ceremony he was taken to 
some retired room or chapel to put on his new clothing, the mantle, etc. It was during 
this temporary absence that all the alleged enormities were supposed to take place, i.e., 
the denial of the second person, the spitting and the trampling on the cross, and even 
worse treatment, and then it was said advantage was taken of the change of clothing to 
kiss the Candidate indecently, or sometimes the statement was that the Receptor stripped 
himself (totum nudum se spoliavit). 

Persons may take a different view but, after a careful study of the evidence, it 
seems to the author that the Bishop's Inquisitors, no doubt with the help of their 
attendants and guardians, persuaded some of the brethren to confess that they denied 
and insulted the cross, but allowed them to mitigate their supposed crimes by saying 
the denial was with mouth only, and not in their minds, and they spat not on but near 
the cross (non supra sed juxta). But Bishops and Janitors, Inquisitors and Penitents 
forgot that there had to be a cross at hand, and when one witness said he was taken 
into a room apart, he became confused when asked whera the cross came from, and who 
brought it, and could give no answer. 

This drew the attention of the prosecution to the fact that the presence of the 
cross had to be accounted for, and in all the subsequent examination we find the Templars 
coming up, carefully prepared, by batches, saying they insulted the cross, but giving 
different explanations of what the cross was and where it came from. Some said it was 
a metal cross, some a wooden one, others that it was a painted one in a missal, others 
that it was the cross of the Receptor's mantle, others that it was that on the Candidate's 
new clothing, in one case the cross was said to be a piece of cloth cut in the 
shape. In another case the cross seams to have been a monument out of doors. 

It must be remembered that (if the charges were true) the Receptor, or those 
to whom he delegated the duty, had a very dangerous, not to say unpleasant task 
to perform, i.e., to call upon a new Candidate to deny and insult the cross. He 
could not be sure how it would be taken, and there would be no hitch on his part. 
The cross he would use would be the one he had used before, if he had received 
others. Nothing would be left to chance. He would have matters cut and dried. 
But we find in the depositions that the nature of the cross alleged to have been 
used did not depend on the particular Receptor, but on the batch in which the 
■witness came up for examination. And this, though the members of each batch were 






52 



'transactions of the Quatuor Oorondti Lodge. 



% 






of different ages and had been received in different parts of the earth at different 
times, yet they all or most of them spoke of the same kind of cross. One batch 
favoured a wooden cross, another a metal one, others a cross of cloth, etc. It -was 
not entirely so. The Bishops or their Janitors were too clever to allow of unadulterated 
uniformity. But they do not appear to have realised the difficulty, and after the first 
breakdown, as long as the cross was accounted for in some way, they did not notice the 
danger of persons of different ages and standing, received in different places, giving 
these uniform explanations. 

For example, there was one well-known Receptor, Sir Francis de Bort, who had 
received many candidates in his time. One would, if the story had been true, have 
expected that he had a fixed method and a particular form of cross. But according to 
the witnesses he sometimes ordered them to insult a wooden cross, sometimes one in a 
urinal, sometimes one on a mantle, and sometimes the' witnesses said he omitted the 
insult. 

It would require very strong evidence to get rid of these contradictory statements. 
Notthe frightened admission of those whowere broken down by torture, or were in fear of it. 
By the time the examination of the witnesses took place in 1310-11, the prisoners, as 
their remarks show, knew the order could not be saved, and their only hope of safety 
was in swearing what the King and the Bishops wanted, and out of the whole number 
arrested in France it must be remembered only 240 could be found even to do this. 

That these unfortunate Templars were not only coerced but coaxed, and when in 
a proper frame of mind coached, as to what they were to say to the Pope's Commissioners 
seems pretty clear from the depositions themselves, and this fact seems to have been well 
known at the time, for we find in the French contemporaneous chronicle 1 of the year 
1307, it stated :— 

" Some of them confessed voluntarily all or part of the premises 
even with tears, others as it seemed led by remorse, others put to the 
question with divers tortures or frightened with the threat or at the sight 
of them, others led or seduced (illecti) by bland promises, others tortured 
in the confinement of prison without food, or otherwise forced or compelled 
m different ways. Some, however, denied nearly everything, and many 
more who had confessed at first, afterwards retracted and persisting to 
the last in this, some of them died under punishment." 

Factumque est quod eorum uonnulli sponte qucedam prmmissorum vel 
omnia, etiam lacrymihiliter, sunt confessi, alii quidem, ut videbatur, pcenitentia 
ducti, alii autem diversis tormentis qumstionati, seu comminatione vel eorum 
aspectu perterriti, alii blandis tracti promissionibus et illecti, alii arcta 
carceris inedia cruciati, vel coacti, multipliciterque compulsi. Multi tamen 
penitus omnia negaverunt, et plures qui confessi primo f iterant, ad negationem 
postea reversi sunt, in ea finaliter persistentes, quorum nonnullii inter ipsa 
supplicia perierunt.— Nangis Contin., vol. 1, p. .362. 

^ Our information about this period of French history is for the most part derived from the 
Chronique de Nangis et de ses Continuateurs. An edition of this work was published at Paris in 1843. 
Nangis was a Monk of St. Denys, who wrote between the years 1289 and 1299, dying, it is believed, 
about the year 1300. His history covers the period from the commencement of the world up to 
the year 1300. But, as he himself says, it is only during the epoch of his life that he has the 
pretention to be an original author, and it was during the latter half of the thirteenth century that 
Nangis is considered a contemporary historian. After his death his history was continued by unknown 
members of the Abbey of St. Denys, up to the year 1310, and it is to the latter work, therefore, that we 
have to turn for an account of what passed in the years 1303-11. The history is divided into different 
years, an account being given of the transactions in each year. 




Proceedings against the Templars A.D. 1307-11. 



53 



But even gaolers and executioners can feel sympathy, especially as time goes on. 
The Templars at the date of the Pope's Commission had been some years in prison, and 
their case was hopeless. Philip had gone too far with his tortures and burnings, the 
Order could never have been restored. It is said that when Peter the Great allowed his 
son heir to the throne to be flogged, there was only one thing to be done, and that was to 
put an end to his life. The Bishops must have been tired of keeping men they knew 
and had associated with in confinement, for each Bishop had to take charge of the 
Templars found in his diocese. He had probably enjoyed their hospitalities and he 
would be only too willing to come to a compromise. The Order had to be condemned, 
the individual might be spared. As soon as they abolished the Order the prisoners 
would be let free if they were not obstinate, and it is not too much to believe, as the 
con tinner of Nangis puts it, that the Templars were led and seduced by bland 
promises that if they would only say by the points of the Order they denied, they might 
say they did with mouth, not mind, and spat not on but near. Michelet says " the 
avowals were all different, varied with special circumstances," from which he draws a 
conclusion against the Templars. The depositions convey an entirely different 
impression to the author, the avowals are all in one form, denial with mouth not mind, 
spitting not on but near, and seem to him conclusive of an arranged and settled 
compromise. 



PHILIP AND CLEMENT. 

Clement was a Frenchman, formerly Archbishop of Bordeaux, who was made 
Pope by the assistance of Philip the Fair under the title of Clement V. French 
authors say that there had been arrangements entered into between Philip and the 
future Pope, as the conditions for the King's support ; amongst other matters, Clement 
gave Philip one-tenth of the revenues of the Church for five years, for Philip was at his 
wit's end for money. He had already debased the coinage, and had been chased by the 
mob in Paris, and forced to take refuge in the Temple. 

At the time Clement was made Pope in November, 1305, as he himself tells us 
in his Bull, and even before, he heard of the charges against' the Templars, but, knowing, 
as he said, their good performances in defence of the Faith, he was willing to incline a 
deaf ear to the former. Philip took a different view. He came to the conclusion that 
the Templars were guilty, and at once accepted the statements of Esquino de Florian 
and the Florentine Roffo as being true, and he endeavoured to bring Clement to 
his way of thinking. But Clement seems to have suspected that Philip's intention was 
to get possession of the lands and wealth of the Templars. It is said that they owned a 
thousand manors in France alone, besides being possessed of much plate and money. 
Whatever Clement's reasons were he refused to be convinced, and he avoided seeing 
Philip's messengers, on one occasion giving for a reason as a schoolboy might, that he 
was going to take some preparatory drugs and afterwards a purge which, according 
to the opinion of his doctors, would, please God, greatly benefit him (Qurndam 
proepatoria sumere et postmodum purgationem accipere qua secundum prsedictorum 
physicium judicium auctore doctore valde utilis nobis erit). 

It appears that Philip had quarrelled with the Pope Boniface, a predecessor of 
Clement's. Nogaret, Philip's Chancellor, had taken Boniface prisoner, and though he 
was released he had died shortly afterwards. Boniface either had been or was reported 
to have been a free thinker, and what was worse, a free talker, and had occasioned 
much scandal, and Philip, it is said, asked Clement to try the dead Pope and even to dig 
up his bones and have them burned as those of a heretic. 



: 






u 



Transactions of the Quatuor Ooronati Lodge. 



There could be no greater scandal than a living Pope trying one of his 
predecessors for heresy. But one of the conditions that Clement had agreed to was the 
destruction of Boniface's memory (La quatrieme, que tu detruises et annules la memoire 
tin Pape Boniface)?- And Philip and his Chancellor, Nogaret, determined to make 
Clement fulfil his bargain. But Clement had promised nothing about the Templars, 
and Michelet says that Clement took the course with Philip of refusing belief in the 
charges against the Order, not from any desire to shield the Templars but that he 
might defeat Philip's intention of prosecuting his old enemy Boniface for heresy. 
Clement continued fighting Philip, as will be seen, until at some time a compromise was 
entered into, the King giving way about Boniface and the Pope abandoning the 
Templars to him. As Michelet says, " They gave up the living to save the dead. But 
the dead was the Papacy itself." It is very difficult to arrive at the motives of those 
who have so long passed away, but it will be seen that whilst Clement in France 
refused to be convinced of the guilt of the Templars, notwithstanding the confession 
obtained in Paris (under torture it is true) by the Inquisitor and confessions, which he tells 
us, were made to Cardinals appointed by himself-; in England he wrote to Edward in . 

terms that seemed to assume their guilt, and that all that remained to be done was the £ 

abolition of the Order by a General Council. But even in the case of the English t ( 

Templars we have seen he enjoined Edward to secure their property so that it might be 
returned to the Templars if they were found innocent. In 1307 Philip visited Clement 
at Poictiers and had a long deliberation with him and his Cardinals, especially con- 
cerning the arrest of the Templars. Michelet says that the Pope tried to satisfy Philip 
by bestowing on him all the benefits in the power of the Holy See, helping his son Louis 
to Navarre, etc. Philip received everything but he was not satisfied. He surrounded 
the Pope with charges against the Templars and Michelet says he found in Clement's 
household a Templar who accused the order. Some of the Templars, as appears in the 
depositions, did act in a Papal household as Treasurers. This Templar, who is said to 
have accused the Order, may be the Mysterious Knight mentioned by the Pope in his 
Bull, " not without position in the Order, who being sworn in secret said the Brethren 
in their reception Denied, etc." 

It was about this time, possibly in consequence of the pressure by Philip, that 
Clement summoned the two Grand Masters of the Hospitallers and Templars to Prance 
and expressly ordered them to appear before him by a certain time putting aside every- 
thing. The Master of the Temple obeyed, arriving at the end of April, 1307 ; but the 
Master of the Hospitallers excused himself as he was occupied in taking the Island of 
Rhodes from the Saracens. It has been said that it was lucky for him that he had this 
excuse or the Hospitallers might have shared the same fate as the Templars and been 
accused of the same crimes. Unfortunately, the Grand Master "beyond the Seas," as 
he was often called, De Molay, did not come alone, he brought a considerable amount 
of treasure with him. Raynouard says 150,000 gold florins (a considerable sum for that 
period) and a great quantity of silver coins, amounting to a load for twelve horses, and 
besides this there was already a great quantity of treasure stored at the Temple. At 
this time the Templars, a large part of whom were in France, appear to have numbered 
nearly 15,000. 

The Grand Master, De Molay, had an interview with the Pope at Poictiers, in 
the month of April, 1307. Raynouard says that he had with him three Preceptors, 
Caron d'outre-Mer, Goneville d'Acquitaine ; Peraudo, Precepteur de France, De Molay 

1 Michelet. 





Proceedings against the Templars A.D. 1307-11. 



55 



and the Preceptors were the heads of the Order. It will be seen that the King's party 
at the time and in subsequent enquiries laid great stress upon the confessions that De 
Molay and the Preceptors are supposed to have made voluntarily to the Pope before 
the arrest or torture was used or threatened. Bat the Pope does not in his Bull say that 
any confessions were made to him by them either at Poictiers or elsewhere or at any other 
times. On the contrary, he said that he sent for them to come to Poictiers. But because 
he was informed that owing to their injuries they were not able to ride l " or in any way 
come to our presence," he says that he sent certain Cardinals to hear their confessions, 
and that De Molay and the Preceptors confessed to the Cardinals and received absolu- 
tion, etc. Thus there is no suggestion made by Clement that confessions were made to 
him personally by any one except the Knight who, as stated, was supposed to be a 
member of the Pope's household. 

But something did pass between De Molay, the Preceptors, and the Pope. De 
Molay, in his last speech said when withdrawing everything, that he had been misled by 
Clement, and as we shall see said this on more than one occasion. He told the Pope's 
emissaries in 1310 that he would not say anything to them as the Pope had arranged to 
deal with them himself. We can only conjecture what passed. We know that Clement 
had heard rumours about the Templars, that one of his own household had told him that 
at the Reception the Denial and Insult took place, and De Molay may, for the purpose 
of strengthening the Pope's hands and pursuing the reformation of the Order have 
made admissions. That the Order required reformation seems very clear. It was too 
wealthy. Its raison d'etre was gone, the Holy Land being lost. Its immorality with 
the other sex was notorious. Part soldiers and part monks, they had ceased to be 
either. But who was to reform this wealthy body ? It had grown out of hand. De 
Molay was Grand Master but they called him Master Outre Mer (beyond seas). His 
authority may or may have not been admitted in the provinces of France and Acquitaine. 
But what could one old man do ? What can the present Czar do in correcting evils 
and putting down the power of the Dukes, and the abuses of bureaucracy ? Some 
arrangement may have been come to with De Molay, so that he and the Pope mioht 
work together in reforming the Order, but it is clear that nothing like a confession of 
the charges took place. 

One of the most mysterious matters in the affair of the Templars is this con- 
fession, or alleged confession, of the Master. Bach one speaks of it as being made in 
a different way and we shall see how De Molay himself until he was stopped, treated 
it when it was put to him. 

But to return to the year 1307. Philip tired of delays, and failing to get the 
Pope's consent, determined to act by himself and to arrest all the Templars found in his 
Kingdom on one day, as he had already the Jews. A somewhat difficult task in the 
absence of telegraphs, railways, etc. But it was effected in September, 1307, by send- 
ing directions to those whom he could trust to have a certain number of men 
collected, and on a particular day the sealed orders which had also been sent were to be 
opened and they would state what was to be done. These orders being opened con- 
tained instructions to proceed without delay and arrest all the Templars in that 
particular place. This appears to have been carried out without alarming the Templars 
who were taken by surprise, and unable to consult together or to make resistance. On 
the 13th October. De Molay and the 140 Templars in Paris were under arrest and 

1 Sed quoniam quidam ex ipaia sic infirmabautur tunc temporis quod equitare non poterant nee ad 
nostram presenciam quomodo addnoi, etc. ■ 




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throughout the country others were captured, and it appears were handed over to the 
custody of the Bishops, who appear there and later on to have played the part of gaolers 
in cases of heresy. There is still a Lollard's Tower in Lambeth Palace, with the rings 
in the walls, and Bishops of London as late as Mary, it is said, burned their victims at 
night in their gardens. 

It does not appear that every Templar was arrested. Many escaped at least 
for- the time, and Templar hunting became a popular sport. In those days Templars 
were distinguished by wearing a beard, and the Papal Commissioners were careful 
to note in 1310 whether the witness still wore the beard and mantle, or had the 
former shaved (Barba rasa). The connection between beards and Templars seemed 
to have long survived, for Edward III., who was not born at the date of the 
arrest, still found it necessary to give his valet, who in obedience to a vow wore 
a beard, a certificate that he was not a Templar. It must have been a rude 
awakening for these Knights, in all their pride and opulence one day, and the 
next in the dungeons of the Bishops, or of the prisons of Paris, threatened with 
immediate torture, execrated by the mob, accused of charges and crimes which 
many of them said they first heard of when examined by the Bishops. De Molay 
after leaving Clement, up to the day of his arrest, had been treated with the 
greatest ceremony and respect, of itself inconsistent with the fact that he had 
confessed everything to the Pope. He was one of the four who carried the pall 
at the funeral of the Princess Catherine, Philip's sister-in-law, and the next day 
he was a prisoner in his own house, the Temple of Paris— a place half fortress, 
half palace — that survived to the time of the Reformation. Philip made it a 
prison, and by the irony of fate Louis XVI. found it one, and his unfortunate son, 
not only that, but a place in which it is said he was starved to death. 

Having with one blow in the course of a single night swept into his power 
all the members of the Order he could arrest, having deprived the numerous Houses 
of the Order of their masters, and the thousand Manors of their owners, Philip 
had to justify his acts to astonished Prance. The Templars were a numerous body, 
and they must have had many relatives with the nobility and leading families of 
Prance, who were interested in Knights of the Order, while the people of Prance 
generally must have had connections among the serving brethren and lower ranks. 
Philip did not hesitate. The day of the arrest he took steps to secure the approval of 
the people and of the University of Paris. The citizens were called together by 
parishes in the Jardin du Roi in the Cite where Monks preached to them. 

Though nothing had up to this time been proved, Philip had a deadly weapon 
in his hands. The charges themselves seemed to slay without proof. The times, no 
doubt, were full of heresy, led only a few yeai-s back by Boniface himself, and the 
charge that those who had professed to protect the tomb of the Saviour, in their 
reception expressly denied him and insulted his Cross, was bad enough. But beyond 
that there was the terrible charge of a crime that was said not only to be permitted but 
made obligatory. This charge, whether he believed it or not was immaterial, had only 
to be brought forward by Philip to silence all opposition and extinguish all sympathy. 
What voice could be raised in defence of those who were said to be such sinners against 
humanity ? The people were preached to on the first day and Nogaret, Philip's chan- 
cellor, read the Act of Accusation on the following to the assembly of the University, 
and a Royal letter was circulated through Prance winch seems to be spoilt by 
translation. 



t 







Proceedings against the Templars A.D. 1307-11. 



57 



Une chose amere, tme chose deplorable, line chose horrible a penser, 
terrible a, entendre, chose execrable de sceleratesse, detestable d' infamie. 
Un esprit doue de raison compatit et se trouble dans sa compassion, en. 
voyant line nature qui s'exile elle-meme hors des bornes de la nature, qui 
oublie son principe, qui meconnait sa dignite, qui prodique de soi, 
s'assimile aux betes depourvues de sens ; que dis-je ? qui depasse la 
brutalite des betes elles-memes. Michelet vol. iii., p. 145. 

[A bitter matter, a deplorable affair, a thing horrible to think of, 
terrible to hear, a matter execrable for wickedness, detestable for its 
infamy; a mind gifted with reason would pity and be troubled in its 
pity in contemplating a disposition, which exiles itself beyond the 
borders of nature, which forgets its principle, despises its dignity, 
which reekless of itself approaches the beasts destitute of sense, what 
do I say ? which exceeds the brutality of the beasts themselves.] 

" One can judge," says Michelet, " of the terror, etc., with which such a letter was 
received by every Christian person. It was like a blast of the trumpet at the last judg- 
ment." Philip's letter writer seems to have been a person accustomed to strong language, 
for Eaynouard says the act of accusation spoke of the Templars as " ravishing 
wolves, a perfidious society idolatrous, whose works nay whose words alone are capable 
of poisoning the earth and infecting the air." 

But matters did not rest here ; a report was spread that De Molay had confessed 
everything to the Members of the University, who met at the Temple. In the continua- 
tion of Nangis, p. 362, it is stated, 

" The Grand Master of the whole Order having been brought before 
the Masters of the University, as it is said in the following week, 
admitted the charges except the crime, and that in the reception he did 
not spit on the crucifix but on the ground at the side, and he conveyed 
to the brethren by his letter that being led by prudence he had made the 
confession, and entreated them to do the same thing." 

If this were true it would be almost conclusive, but there is every reason to 
believe that this was only one of the many rumours spread by the King's people. 
De Molay was examined several times before the Commissioners, and he repudiated 
with indignation the confession he was said to have made to the Inquisitor later on than 
this period. But not a word was mentioned of his confession to the heads of the 
University, and more important still, not a copy was produced of his alleged letter to 
the brethren. It seems but a rumour that reached the Monk of the Abbey of St. Denys, 
who wrote it down in his continuation of the history of Nangis, and being so written 
down it found its way into French histories, but if true there would have been some 
reference to this confession to the University in the proceedings that have come down 
to us. But we find only vague statements that were incapable of refutation, that the 
Master and Preceptors had confessed, set out in the questions to be put to the 
witnesses who were asked to admit what, if true, was clearly not within their own 
knowledge, such as " The Grand Past Master confessed this in the presence of great 
persons " (in presenciam magnarum personarum) " before he was arrested " (antequam 
esset captus), or ''That he confessed to clergy and laymen worthy of belief" (cm-am fide 
dignis clericis et laicis), and it is put for the third time, " That the Grand Master 
Visitor and Grand Preceptors of Cyprus and Normandy and Poictiers and many other 
Preceptors and some other brethren of this Order had confessed the premises as well 




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at their trial as outside it before solemn person's in many places and to public persons " 
(Notaries coram solempnibus personis et in pluribus locis etiam personis publicis). In 
the meantime the Templars were languishing in prison. At Paris they were treated 
with the greatest cruelty, being, at least some of them, subjected to the most horrible 
tortures. 

TORTURE. 

Geologists tell us that man has been an inhabitant of this world for many 
thousand years. During this immense period there are some things he has been very 
slow to learn. It is only of late years that man has learned the art of cutting a pair 
of trousers, the Highland kilt they say was adopted for men because the women could 
not make trews. The Romans had no idea of making a boot, and it was not till 
the beginning of the nineteenth century that they were made rights and lefts. For 
thousands of years, perhaps, women have milked cows and watched the cream rise, it is 
only quite recently the world has learned that a few seconds vibrating motion will do 
the work of hours in causing this rise. So men seemed very slow to learn the uselessness 
of using torture for the discovery of truth. And this appears to have been particularly 
the case with ecclesiastical and even scholastical persons. The process of. their minds 
seems to be to determine first of all whether the individual is guilty, if satisfied that he 
is, then, if he is made to confess and repent, pardon may follow, but if he refuses 
then he is obstinate. This is entirely opposed to the judicial view that guilt must be 
proved by evidence, and until that is done the presumption should be in favour of 
innocence. But there are, it is said, many cases where the guilt is certain, and all know 
it, though legal proof may be wanting, and the priest or schoolmaster, who has not to 
act between the accused and the State, but between him and his conscience, cannot allow 
the failure of legal evidence to be a reason for not calling him to account, and if he will 
not speak or confess, for the good of his own soul, and for his redemption in the future, 
he must be made to do so, even by toiture. But this is working in a circle. Torture 
begs the question, it is &petitio principii. It assumes the guilt it attempts to prove. For 
it is assumed that torture was not knowingly applied to innocent people. 

But, as stated, the world has been slow to learn the uselessness of torture. 
Long after Philip's time torture was used judicially in England. Bacon, as Attorney 
General, is said to have been present at its application in the Tower of London. Guy 
Fawkes was put on the rack. It was not until the trial of the Regicides that the 
Judges resolved, among other matters, that torture was not to be applied to them 
as it was contrary to English law. 

Our modern rule of law goes further, for all confessions obtained by promises of 
favour or threats of the reverse are not admissible in evidence. If this rule had been 
applied to the Templars there would have been no evidence of any kind, for all the 
alleged confessions would have been excluded for one or the other reason. The only 
one perhaps admissible was that of the Mysterious Knight mentioned in the Pope's 
Bull, who being sworn in secret said that in the reception of the Candidates in the 
Temple Chapters they were made to " Deny " and "Insult the Cross." But we do not 
even know how this confession was obtained, probably by the bribes or threats of 
Philip. 

In Clement's time, however, torture was the practice, and it will be seen 
that he himself tells the Bishops it was their duty to use it in cases of suspicion, which 
means in effect that where there is a doubt the accused must be made by physical pain 
to accuse himself. And from the depositions we find that this being interpreted meant 




Proceedings against the Templars A.I). ISO 1 ?-!!. 



59 



burning a man's bones out of his feet so that he was able to produce them to the 
Commissioners, and other tortures of so indelicate a nature that one would have thought 
even an ecclesiastical inquisitor, who professed to think of the soul's salvation, might 
have shrunk from their use. But the most deadly form seems to have been the continued 
suffering, lasting for months, till the spirit was broken and the unhappy wretch had no 
longer either the mental or physical strength to endure more. Another cruelty about 
the use of torture was that the chiefs and principal persons were not generally tortured, 
but their unfortunate servants and dependents were. It was ' my Lord's steward ' not 
' my Lord ' who had to confess ' my Lord's ' treason. He had an interest in telling any- 
thing that was wished so long as he could escape. 

One of the examples of this is the examination of De Molay's private servant, 
who confessed all that even an Inquisitor could wish. He was described as a servant 
in .the family and house of the Grand Master, looking after his horses, etc. He not only 
speaks to the Denial, etc., but said he saw a head in Cyprus which they adored, and 
said the Grand Master committed the crime, etc. This confession, if true, was fatal, 
but we hear nothing more of it, the man William de Grace is not heard of again. He 
was one of the 240 Templars examined by the Inquisitor in Paris, between 19th October 
and 24th November, 1307. 

These confessions made at this period were written down and witnessed, and, as 
a rule, there is no compromise about them. Everything was admitted, even the crime, 
though some excused themselves personally. They all seem to have seen the head which 
the Templars adored, etc. These confessions were probably those mentioned by 
Clement in his Bull as having been sent to him, which, in fact, he refused to accept, and, 
as he says, sent his own Cardinals to enquire. 



ENGLAND. 

Philip's next step, if he had not taken it before, was to send Bernard Pelet to 
Edward II. of England, who was about to become his son-in-law. This Pelet is 
mentioned by PonzarJus in his examination before the Papal Commission in 1310, as 
being one of the principal enemies of the Templars. Pelet's mission was to persuade 
Edward of the enormities of the Templars, but the King refused to listen. Like Clement 
he was unwilling to lend his ears to such charges, and after hearing what Pelet had to 
say, wrote the following letter on October 30th. 

To the Most Excellent Philip, by the Grace of God Edward your 
devoted son. 

We have been made acquainted with those matters set out in the 
letters of your magnificence sent to us, as well as those which the discreet 
Master Bernandus, Peletus' Clerk, wished to tell us, about that detestable 
Heresy about which your letter also speaks. 

And we had these matters set forth by him before Ourselves, Priests, 
Counts and many Barons of our kingdom and others of our council. 

Which matters to our senses and those of the said Priests, Counts, 
Barons and others who were present came as matters of astonishment 
more than it is possible to believe. 

And because such abominable and execrable words were hitherto 
unknown to us and the aforesaid Priests, Counts and Barons, at the 
beginning it seemed an easy belief was to be given least. 



SO transactions of ihe Quaiuor Uoronati Lodge. 

With the consent of the council we will require our Governor oil 
Guienne whence these rumours are said to have come to be called to our 
presence personally that we may properly proceed about the premises. 
Bymer, vol. iii., p. 18. 

According to this letter the charges originated with William the Governor of 
Guienne, then part of the' possessions of the English Crown, to whom there is a letter 
from Edward, of the 26th March, 1307. Ibid, p. 32. 

The King to his beloved and faithful William, of Dene his Seneschal of 
Acquiensis (Guienne) Health. 

Although it is not long since you wrote something to us about the 
Templars, we wish, to be made sure by you about them and the 
condition of our land. 

We order you that putting all other things aside you be with us 
at Boulogne sur mer on the next feast of the nativity of our Lord, to inform 
and instruct us fully upon the premises and matters touching them in 
any way. 

While Edward was writing in this way to Philip and the Governor of Guienne, 
he wrote to the Pope, on the 10th December, 1307, 1 a letter which shows 
that the views of the English law that a person is to be treated as innocent until guilt 
be proved was not unknown nor unappreciated in these early days. Compare this letter 
with Philip's proclamation on the arrest of the Templars, which assumes that the 
Templars, being charged, were guilty. 

In this letter, after speaking of a rumour " full of bitterness terrible to think of, 
horrible to hear, detestable in wickedness," Edward says : — 

" And because the said Master or brethren constant in the purity 
of the Catholic faith have been frequently commended by us, and by all 
of our kingdom, both in their life and morals, we are unable to believe 
in suspicious stories of this kind until we know with greater certainty 
about these things. 

We, therefore, pitying from our souls the suffering and losses of the 
s a Master and brethren, which they suffer in consequence of such 
infamy, and we supplicate most affectionately your Sanctity if it please 
you, that considering with favour suited to the good character of the 
Master and Brethren, you may deem fit to meet with more indulgence 
the detractions, calumnies and charges by certain envious and evil 
disposed persons, who endeavour to turn their good deeds into works of 
perverseness opposed to divine teaching ; until the said charges attributed 
to them shall have been brought legally before you or your representatives 
here and more fully proved." 

Edward also wrote duplicate letters to the Kings of Portugal, Castile, Aragon 
and Sicily. In these letters Edward speaks very plainly of the duty of prosecuting 
with benevolence those recommended by strenuous labours and incessant exertions in 
defence of the Catholic faith, etc., and says :— 

" Yerily a certain clerk (Bernard Peletus) drawing nigh unto our 
presence applied himself with all his might to the destruction of the 

1 Bymer, 'vol. iii., p.. 37. 




Proceedings against the Templars A,B. 1307-11. 



61 



Order of the brethren of the Temple of Jerusalem. He dared to publish 
before us and our Council certain horrible and detestable enormities 
repugnant to the Catholic Faith, to tire prejudice of the aforesaid Brothers, 
endeavouring to persuade us through his own allegations, as well as 
through certain letters which he had caused to be addressed to us for that 
purpose, that by reason of the premises, and without a due examination of 
the matter we ought to imprison all the Brethren of the said Order 
abiding in our dominions. But considering that the Order, which hath 
been renowned for its religion and its honour, and in times long since 
passed away was instituted as we hare learned by the Catholic Fathers, 
exhibits and hath from the period of its first foundation exhibited a 
becoming devotion to God and his holy church, and also up to this time 
hath afforded succour and protection to the Catholic Faith in parts beyond 
the sea; it appeared to us that a ready belief in an accusation of this kind 
hitherto altogether unheard of against the fraternity was scarcely to be 
expected." 

Edward then asks his correspondent : — 

" That ye with due diligence consider of the premises and turn a 

deaf ear to the slanders of ill natured men who are animated, as we 

believe, not with a zeal of rectitude, but with a spirit of cupidity and envy, 

permitting no injury unadvisedly to be done to the persons or property 

of the brethren of the said Order dwelling within your kingdom, until 

they have been legally convicted of the crimes laid to their charge, or it 

shall happen to be otherwise ordered concerning them in these parts." 

It is known that in Spain the Templars were fully acquitted, and, though when 

Clement suppressed the Order in 1312, the Templars ceased to exist as such, the 

brethren and their property were only transferred to another Order. This letter of our 

Edward shows that the charge came to him and his Council as a matter of surprise, and 

that there were and had been no evil rumours about the English Templars. 

In the meantime Philip had not been idle. " On the day of the arrest he went in 
person to take up his residence in the Temple, and with an army of lawyers to take 
an inventory, so that with this fine haul he was made rich at one stroke." 1 And he, as 
stated, without waiting for the Pope's sanction, commenced to torture the unfortunate 
Templars with the aid of his Confessor, the Inquisitor General of France. 

Michelet tells us that the astonishment of the Pope was extreme when he learned 
that the King had passed him by in the prosecution of an Order which could only be 
judged by the Holy See. This rage made him forget his ordinary servility, his 
precarious and dependent position in the territory of the King. He suspended the 
powers of the ordinary Judges, Archbishops, and Bishops, and even those of the 
Inquisitor, and Dr. Milman says 2 Clement could not suppress his indignation, he issued 
a Bull in which he declared " it an unheard of measure that the secular power should 
presume to judge religious persons. To the Pope alone belonged the jurisdiction over 
the Knights Templars. He deposed William Imbert from the office of Grand Inquisitor 
as having presumptuously overstepped his powers," and Milman quotes from D'Achery a 
letter to the Archbishops of Rheims, Bourges, and Tours, in which he declared that he 
had been utterly amazed at the arrest of the Templars and the hasty proceedings of the 



Michelet. 



: History of Latin Christianity, yol. vii., p. 206 t 



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\ 



Grand Inquisitor, who, though he lived in his immediate neighbourhood, had given him 
no intimation of the King's design. He had Ms own view on the subject, Ms mind 
could not be induced to believe the charges. 1 

It is difficult to know what the Pope's real views were. In Prance, as stated, he 
said "his mind could not be induced to believe the charges," and though, subsequently, 
in his later Bulls to Edward and the English Bishops, he writes as if the guilt of the 
Templars was proved, and as if nothing remained beyond assembling a General Council 
to abolish the Order; down to the last in Prance he refused to act upon the con- 
fessions sent to him by Philip, made by the tortured Brethren, but insisted upon his 
own commissioners personally examining the witnesses. And when, in 1312, the General 
Council was held at Vienna, and so many of the Bishops refused to condemn the 
Templars unheard, he determined to act on his own authority, as a later Pope did 
in the matter of the Papal infallibility, and Clement admitted the charges had not been 
proved and he only suppressed the Order becanse it was expedient. 2 

It seems a satirical remark to say that it is hopeless to expect those placed in 
high places to act as honest and straightforward men, but it seems to be the case. Por 
Clement, at the time he was expressing his astonishment at Philip arresting the 
Templars in France, was having a Bull prepared which was sent to Edward requiring 
him to arrest all the Templars in England in one day as Philip had done. 3 

This Bull, according to Rymer, is dated the 22nd November, 1307. It may have 
been sealed on that date but it did not reach Edward's hands till much later. 4 

" This Bull, after the usual salutations, commences with the words Sane dudum 
circa, ' Truly some time ago, about the time of our elevation,' etc., reciting how rumours 
came to his ears, which he had been disinclined to believe." These recitals seem to 
have been used as a common form. They are to be found in this Bull to Edward, 
later on in one to the English Bishops, and in the Pope's letters of authority to his 
Commissioners, and they will be found set out as far as is necessary in the proceedings 
of the Commissioners. But the conclusion to be drawn from these recitals differs in 
each case. In the Bull to Edward, Clement asks him to have the Templars arrested, 
in that to the Bishops he assumes the Templars to be guilty, in that to the Commis- 
sioners he leaves it to them to enquire and report. 

In the Bull to Edward, with which we have at present to deal, Clement 
suppresses all about his astonishment at the arrest of the Templars, at the hasty action 
of the Inquisitor, and of having deprived and suspended the latter from his office, and 
leads Edward to suppose that everything was in order and done with his approval. 
Por after reciting the rumours and charges against the Templars, he continues ;— 

"On account of which the King, at the request of the General 
Inquisitor, appointed by the Apostolic See in his Kingdom, and of the 
PriestS) Barons and otherwise, in solemn deliberation caused the Grand 
Master; and the other Members of the Order, who were then in his 
Kingdom on one day, with well considered diligence, to be arrested, to 
be taken before the judgment of the Church, and their goods to be kept 
in safe custody, to be faithfully preserved for the Holy Land if the Order 
should be condemned, otherwise for the Order itself." 

1 Spicilegium, x,, 366. 2 Post. 

'.?*!? B " llis e P titled :— Eegi Bulla pro Captione Templariorum faoienda uno die quod eodem model 
processit Rex Franoioe. 

4 ? 10th December, see Eymerj vol. iii., p. St. 



* 






Proceedings against the Templars A.D. 1307-11. 63 

Clement continues by saying that the Master of the Order 

" Spontaneously and openly confessed before the principal ecclesias- 
tical persons in Paris, Masters in Theology and others, of the corruption in 
the profession of the heathens, introduced at the instigation of Satan, 
contrary to the original institution of the Order, of the error of denying 
Christ, etc." 

He then speaks of confessions made by others and continues : — 

" From which if in the field where the said Order was planted, which 
field is thought to be virtuous, and to shine with the appearance of great 
sublimity, diabolical seeds are sown, our bowels are disturbed with great 
commotion. But if the premises are not true, and this is dissovered, the 
trouble will cease, and please God, joy will arise. Wherefore we propose 
to investigate without delay and as much as God shall permit to efficiently 
discover the truth. 

And because, as we understand from the information of many, the 
fame of speaking more fully the infamy against the Templars about these 
crimes continues to increase, our conscience prompts us that in these 
matters we follow the obligation of our duty." 

He then requests that Edward should prudently, cautiously, and secretly 
cause the arrest of the English Templars. 

It is to be noticed that Clement in this letter lays stress, as he always does where 
it suits his purpose, on the alleged confessions of the Grand Master and others, 
although, as we have seen, in spite of these confessions, he told the Trench Bishops he 
had his own views on the subject and could not be induced to believe these charges. 

As already pointed out, if the Grand Master really confessed these charges, and 
was corroborated by the Chief of the Order, Bernandus, the Visitor of Trance, the 
Preceptors of Normandy, Poictiers, etc., one would have thought the Pope could have 
had no doubt. But there is considerable mystery about these confessions. We shall see 
that though the King's party published to the world that De Molay and the others had 
confessed the charges, De Molay himself was in prison, and did not know what was 
going on, and was unable to contradict the report. It will, moreover, be seen 1 that when 
he appeared before the Commission, his and the other confessions were read to him and 
he expressed his indignation in terms that led to the only exhibition of temper on the 
part of the Commissioners. But Edward, for what reasons we know not, on the receipt 
of this Bull from Clement, determined to do as the Pope suggested, and an order was 
issued for arresting all the Templars in one day. Rymer gives the date of this as 
1st December, 1307, which seems wrong, for he wrote a letter to Clement on the 
26th December, 1307, in which he says : — 

" We have heard and fully understood the matters touching the 
business of the brethren of the Order of the Templars, within our 
dominions, about which your Beatitude has very lately written to us, and 
we signify to your Sanctity that we will carry out the expedition of those 
matters in the quickest and best way we can." 

On the same day Edward left for France to meet Philip, having appointed his 
favourite, Gaveston, Guardian of the Kingdom. According to Rymer, Edward had on 
the 15th December, written directions to the Lieutenants of the Counties to collect " four 



Post, 



64 



Transactions of the Quatuor Goronati Lodge. 



and twenty discreet and faithful men of the Militia of your county," and on Sunday 
the morn of the Epiphany of our Lord they were to do the things which they would find 
oontained in a letter of the King. The Templars, though arrested, appear to have been 
treated very well, at all events at this period. There was an inventory taken of their 
goods at the Temple in London, which Mr. Bayliss has had copied for his work on t ne 
Temple Church, and it appears that in many cases the property of individual Templars 
was returned to them. 

But this mild treatment was not allowed to last, Edward II. was one of the 
weakest of our Kings, and we see, notwithstanding the strong opinion he had expressed 
in the innocence of the Templars he orderel his officers to arrest them at the request of 
the Pope. But this arrest seems to have been very carelessly executed. Many of the 
Knights were allowed to roam about, and those taken were kept in a kind of open arrest. 
During this time, if Michelet is righb, Clement was fighting Philip on the matter of the 
dead Boniface's prosecution, and whilst this was undecided, doing nothino- with regard 
to the Templars. He had suspended the Grand Inquisitor and then prohibited the 
French Bishops from proceeding in the Courts against the Templars. Philip might 
destroy the Templars, but he must give up Boniface, and until he did so all 
that Clement had to do was to rely upon the resources of masterly inactivity. 
And so matters remained for a time, both in England and France. The 
French Knights were allowed breathing time to recover their strength, and the 
English to act almost as laymen. It is said that the Pope found, later on, to his 
scandal, that the liberated Knights were taking to marriage as two hundred years later 
the Monks, Abbots, etc., did, and hence their family names. 

During the year 1303 negotiations took place between the King and the Pope, 
which from the somewhat forcible measures adopted by the former resulted in Clement 
withdrawing his prohibition, and the Bishops and Inquisitor were allowed to proceed. 
It appears that Philip went himself to Poictiers, accompanied with a great crowd of 
followers. Michelet says 1 that Clement tried to leave Poictiers, but as he could not go 
without his mules and baggage, he was not allowed to pass and found himself as much 
a prisoner as the Templars. Finding escape was impossible, after several attempts, he 
gave way and addressed, August 1st, 1308, a Bull to the Archbishops and Bishops, which 
Michelet says " was singularly brief and. precise, contrary to the custom of the Roman 
Court. It is evident that the Pope wrote despite himself and some one pushed his hand." 
Some of the Bishops, according to this Ball, had written that they did not know how 
to act with those of the accused who persisted in their denial and those who had 
retracted their statements. These things, said the Pope, " are not left in doubt by the 
written law, of which that many among yon have full knowledge, we do not intend in the 
present matter to create any new law, and we wish you to proceed according as the law 
demands " (selon que le droit exige). The actual permission given to the Bishops to 
proceed was dated July 5th, 1308. Though this permission was given, there does not 
appear to have been any recrudescence of torture. The King and his party were for 
the time satisfied with the blood they had shed, and were waiting for Clement to 
abolish the Order. 

What were the actual negotiations which took place between the Pope and Philip 
we have no means of knowing, we can only judge such matters by their results. Up to the 
interview between the King and Clement at Poictiers the latter's attitude had been one 
of sullen refusal to endorse the former's acts, and though Clement, as stated, withdrew 






1 Miphelefc, vol, iii., p. 153. 



Proceedings against the Templars A.D. 1307-11. 



65 



his prohibition to the Bishops and Inquisitor and allowed them to proceed against the 
individual members of the Order, we have seen that Michelet suggests that he did so 
only under pressure. Nothing more seems to have been done in France during the year 
1308. The King had got all the confessions he required, and for the present could do 
no more, the Order could only be suppressed by the Pope, who had said in so many words 
that he did not believe the Templars were guilty of the charges. 1 

Things appear to have .remained in this state until the year 1309, when at last 
the Pope issued a commission to his own nominees to examine into the question of certain 
articles, which we are told, were settled and agreed to by the King's advisers, and how 
far they affected the order, the distinction, as already pointed out, between the 
alleged crimes of the Templars as individuals and those of the Order, being that in the 
latter case it was alleged, it was by the regulations of the Order (de punotis ordinis) 
' that the newly received brother had to deny the Saviour, insult the Cross, kiss the 
receptor indecently,' etc. The question the Commissioners had to try was whether the 
Order itself was guilty of these charges. All this took time, especially as the King 
seems at first to have thrown every difficulty in the way of the Commissioners. So 
much so, that their work was not finished till 1311, though Clement had written to 
Philip to give facilities to the inquiry in May, 1309, and in August of that year had 
issued his Bulls to the Archbishop of Narbonne and the Bishop of Bayeu, and the 
other Commissioners, appointing them to act in the enquiry against the Order. 

During this period the Templars in England, Ireland and, presumably Scotland, 
so far as Edward's disputed authority extended there, had been under arrest, at least 
some of them, and the Pope, it appears, determined that the same process should be 
taken against them as were being or had been taken against them in Prance. 

But whereas he had previously written to Edward in 1307 that it was a matter 
to be enquired into, he now sent the Bull to the Clergy of England, suppressing the facts 
that the original enquiry against the Templars had been taken without his authoiity, 
and that though he had withdrawn his prohibition to the Bishops nothing had 
been done by the Commission appointed by him to enquire into these very charges 
against the Order. 

The Bull was dated the " 2nd August in the third year of our Pontificate," and 

was addressed to Robert, Archbishop of Canterbury, and some of the English Bishops, 

and presumably a similar one was sent to the Archbishop of York and the Northern 

Bishops. The Archbishop of Canterbury published his Bull in September, 1309. It 

was entitled 2 

Bulla supra Convocatione ad Concilium generale. 

The reader must judge for himself as to the good faith of this Bull, but it does 
not seem a very unfair observation to say, as Mr. Milman has done, that it assumes 
that the guilt of the Templars had been proved, and the Pope affects to lament this 
guilt in a way which shows that his Notaries, or whoever drafted the document, had been 
reading lately the lament Virgil makes JEneas utter before he commences the recital 
of his Adventures to Dido. For he prefaces his Bull by saying : — 

" We believe that the unspeakable wickedness and abominable 
crimes and the (sapientia ?) of notorious heresy have come to the know- 
ledge of almost everyone, by which the Order and individuals of the 
Templars, not by light arguments, but by manifest indications and 
forcible presumptions, are known to be defamed, about the denial of 






4nte. 



2 Wilkins' Concilia Magna, vol. 2, p. 304, 






f 



66 



Transactions of the Quatuor Ooronati Lodge. 






our Lord Jesus Christ and about the wicked, rash, presumptions', heretical 

spitting on the image of Him crucified, and even in many other articles 

which, though we believe them to have been proved, it is not advisable to 

name, &C." 1 

Then after repeating the reasons he had for not believing, " because the Templars 

were fully believed to be fighting faithfully, &c," he suddenly burst out into the 

following lamentation as if fresh information had suddenly come to light: — 

"But, oh, grief, a new calamitous voice setting forth the enormity 
of the malignity of these bretheren filled but more truly disturbed our 
hearing. 2 For this voice the messenger of lamentation both makes the 
listeners groan, troubles their souls, clouds their minds and admonishes 
the malice of ineffable bitterness to all believers in the Christian faith, 
and whilst as necessity demands, we ascertain the course of the case 
(Jacti seriem), our spirit is awakened by anguish and our separate 
members worn out with broken health are withered (tabescunt) with 
too much grief." 

This lamentation is given as a preliminary to the same recitals as those found in 
his letter to Edward for the arrest of the Templars as well as that in his Commissaries, 
i.e., " It was not long ago, about the time of our elevation at Lyons, reports had come 
to our ears which we were unwilling to believe, &c." 3 Then he adds to his recital 
the following statements suppressing the facts that the first enquiry of the Bishops and 
Inquisitors had been undertaken without his authority, and that his Commission had 
not commenced to hear any witnesses and had by no means reported against the 
Templars. 

' " That seeing that such horrid crimes could not and ought not to go 
uncorrected, without injury to Almighty God and all Catholics, "We decreed 
by the advice of our council that enquiry should be held," (this was true, 
as he had reruoved his prohibition, but it is very misleading) " about the 
said crimes and excesses, by the local Bishops and by other faithful 
and wise men deputed by us for this purpose. 

The Bull then breaks into fresh lamentations, as if all the charges had been 
proved. 

" By these things, indeed, which we are more inclined to weep 
at than to tell, our heart was pained with too heavy grief. When 
such cause for groaning so nearly threatened us we could not refrain 
from weeping. For what Catholic hearing these things could grieve too 
much and not burst into wailing. 4 What believer hearing of a terrible 
event of this kind would not break forth into sighs, and would not utter 
wails of grief and sorrow when the whole of Christianity is made partaker 
of this grief, and this matter strikes down all believers." 

The Pope then says that, 

"As a healthy remedy in the general interest of all, he with his 
Brethren and other prudent persons of his Council had decreed a general 

1 Ibid, p. 309. 

2 Sed proh dolor nova et calamifcosa vox de malignitatis fratrum ipsorum, imo verius perturbant 
auditum, etc. 

3 Ante, " Sane dudum, circa." 

4 Quis talia fando 
Myrmidonum Dolopumve, and duri Miles Ulyssi 
Temperet a lacrimis ? Yirg. JEneid, Bk. g, 



Proceedings against the templars A.D. 1307-11. 6? 

Council to be called in two years' time from the next calends of October," 
following the example &c. "worthy of imitation of the Sacred Fathers, 
so that all things concerning this Order and the members and their 
property and other things which appal the condition of the Catholic 
Church, as well as those about the recovery and help of the Holy 
Land, and the reparation, ordination and stability of the Church and 
Ecclesiastical persons and their liberties by the assistance of God, mav 
be found in the General Council, etc." 

Besides sending this Bull, the Pope sent over his own Inquisitors to teach the 
English Bishops how to examine their prisoners. Fortunately for them, Edward 
and his Council would not allow these gentlemen to use torture. And the result, 
as far as proving anything against the Templars, was disastrous. On the 20th 
December, 130 i, as soon as Edward made up his mind to arrest the English 
Templars, letters were sent to John Ingan, his Judiciary in Ireland, to John de 
Richmond, his Guardian of Scotland, and to Walter de Palestin, his Judiciary of 
Wales also. According to Rymer, 1 there is a circular letter from Edward to'the local 
authorities which says that the Pope had sent over the Abbot de Latiguiaco in the 
diocese of Paris, and Master Siccard de Vauro, Canon of Narbonne, to enquire with 
certain other persons upon the articles sent in the Pope's Bull (to the Bishops) 
and other matters which seemed to them expedient against the Order of the 
Temple and the Masters and Preceptors of the Order in England, and also 
against the individual Brethren. - It was evident that they intended travelling 
through England and examining the imprisoned Templars in the different dioceses, 
for Edward's letter contains : — 

" On account of our reverence for the Holy See, we command 
you that when the S. Abbot and Canon and other servants are 
journeying through your parts they have accommodation in person, 
horses, harness, as well as other matter as lies in your power, and that you 
allow no injury, molestation and that you rather cause them to be safely 
and securely conducted." 

Copies of this letter were sent over the country, but matters in England, up to 
this time, had not been pressed against the Templars. Their principal enemies were 
certain Minor Friars, who, probably from envy, appeared only too ready to speak evil of 
them. Edward, as already stated, though he refused to pay any respect to his father-in^ 
law's charges against the Templars, changed round and had them arrested more or less 
when the Pope desired it. So now, on the 14th September, 1309, 3 he ordered, " That all 
the Templars should be sent to London, York, or Lincoln, to be there examined by the 
Inquisitors sent for that purpose by the Apostolic See, who would go there and make 
these enquiries and examinations according to what had been enjoined them by the 
Pope", and Edward ordered in this letter that each of the Bishops should, in his own 
person, take the enquiries and examination, and others should not interfere in any way 
and those who had custody of the Templars were to present and bring them before the 
Inquisitors and Bishops as often as they required them. 

And orders were sent to John de Crumbewell, Constable of the Tower, that all 
the Templars that should be delivered to him by the Viscounts of Cornwall, Devon, 
Hereford, etc., he should take charge of. And a letter was sent from Edward to John 

1 Vol. 3, p. 168. 2 Rymei' says 1310, but it must be 1309. Tol. 3, p. 168. 






d 



m 




TransactiQns of the Quatuor Coronati toctge. 



Ingan, his Justiciary in Ireland, 1 that " the Templars not yet arrested in our land should 
be without delay,and withtheothers sent safely and securely to Dublin, and kept in custody 
in our Castle, bringing them before the Venerable Father Elect of Dublin or his Vicar, 
and the said Inquisitors " (the Abbott and Canon), and a similar order was sent to John de 
Segrove, Edward's Governor in Scotland, for the King, though opposed by Bruce at this 
time, claimed Scotland as his, and made Segrove his custodian of " all the land of our 
Scotland, as well within the sea as beyond, as long as our pleasure is." 

The Templars, or so many of them as could be made prisoners, being collected in 
these various places, (we do not know where they were to be imprisoned in Scotland) 
the examination proceeded, but it was playing Hamlet without the Prince. Torture 
was not allowed, the consequence was the Templars naturally denied everything. 
Himbert Blanke, the Preceptor of Alvernia in France (Auvergne), gallantly led the 
defence, playing a very different part from the Grand Master, De Molay, who was 
persuaded by Nogaret, Philip's Chancellor, or De Plasans, his friend, not to defend the 
Order, as we shall see. The Templars were examined upon the same articles in England 
as they were in France. These articles were numbered and are given in the appendix. 
They related to the alleged abnegation, spitting on the cross, the indecency, depravity, 
idolatry. But the English Templars would have none of these and denied them 
absolutely. But there were some minor charges, such as that they held their 
Chapters at night so as to ensure secrecy. That the principal of the Chapter, 
though not a priest, gave absolution. That the Grand Master, Preceptors and others, had 
confessed all the charges, even before the general arrest, etc. A few words on each of 
these last is necessary, in order that the reader may understand the answers given, 
which, on the first enquiry (for there were three or more) were absolute denials of all 
•the charges, so much so that in some of the depositions the answers of the first witness 
are given to the individual charges, but the subsequent depositions shortly stated that 
so and so being sworn deposed ' as above.' In some cases, possibly out of reverence for 
the Apostolic See, as Edward put it, the witnesses said if the Pope stated the Master had 
confessed they believed it, but others said more properly that they knew nothing about 
the confessions, and if the Master did confess he lied. (Mentttus est.) 

In the depositions taken in Paris by the Papal Commissioners there are several 
accounts of the ceremonies that took place at the Reception of a new brother, and of the 
general proceedings in the Chapters of the Order. Though not a secret society the 
Templars were sworn not to reveal what took place in the Chapters, and during the 
time the Chapter was being held, as already stated, a sentry was placed on the roof of 
the building, to give notice if anyone approached. The brethren, as appears to be 
customary in the religious orders of the Roman Church, at the close of the Chapter, 
made a public confession of their faults, and it was one of the charges that the 
president of the Chapter, even when he was not a priest, gave the brethren absolution. 
It was this offence that the Inquisitors and Bishops in England tried to bring 
home to the Templars, who, whilst they absolutely denied all the charges of the denial, 
spitting, idolatry, depravity, etc., did admit that at the close of the Chapter certain 
words were used that might bear the interpretation the opponents of the Order sought 
to put upon them. According to the tenets of the Roman Church absolution is a 
sacramental office, that can only be performed by a Priest, who alone can say " Absolvo,' 
and so release from sin. But a prayer that God may absolve is not sacramental nor 
judicial, as Indulgentiarn, absolutionem et remissionem peccatorum vestrum, tribuat vobie 

\Ibid, p. 173. 





Proceedings against the Templars A.D. 1307-11. 



69 



omnipotens et misericors Dominus, the form used in the Mass. It will be seen that the 
words admitted to have been used by the Templars assumed some power of remitting 
sins, and approached very nearly to the Sacramental form. Writers who are on the 
side of the Templars try to explain this act of the head of the Chapter as referring only 
to the forgiveness of the offences against the Order, not of the sins against God. But 
this is a modern idea, the defence set up by members was that there were words of 
limitation, the absolution given being " as far as I am able." 

Another great point made against the Order was that the Grand Master had 
confessed the charges of heresy (that is that the head of a Chapter gave absolution even 
when a layman), to the Pope before the general arrest in 1307, and that he and the 
principal preceptors had confessed all the charges to the Cardinals. After the arrest the 
Inquisitors in England closely pressed the different prisoners, as to whether they 
believed those confessions to have been made. The article, which refers to the Master 
alone, comes after the charges of Heresy, and says the Grand Master " confessed the 
aforesaid, but before the arrest, voluntarily." 

These alleged confessions of De Molay, the Grand Master, and the Preceptors, are 
very mysterious, they have already been referred to. They have an important bearing 
on the question of the guilt of the Templars, for the Grand Master and the Heads 
of the Order would hardly have confessed to these terrible and disgraceful crimes, 
en bloc, if they had not been true. But did they confess them ? The alleged con- 
fession " before the arrest voluntarily " does not seem to have been considered very 
seriously. A great deal was made of the alleged heresy later on, but at first it was 
treated rather as a matter to be corrected than a ground for the abolition of the 
Order and the terrible punishment of its members. If it be true De Molay remained 
on in favour at Court, and that the day before he was arrested he was one of the four great 
personages who carried the pall of Princess Catherine, Philip's sister-in-law, there was 
nothing in it to justify Philip the day after in his Acte d' accusation in calling the 
Templars " ravishing wolves, whose acts and words alone are capable of soiling the 
earth and infecting the air." l 

There is this further proof that De Molay made no vital confession before arrest, 
i.e., that the Pope, in his Bulls, which sets out all the circumstances of the case, 
makes no reference to any confession, except those made by De Molay and the 
Preceptors after arrest to the Inquisitors, etc., at Paris, in 1307, which the Pope says 
were reduced to writing. 

The articles, as we have seen, state that the Grand Master and the Preceptors of 
Cyprus, Normandy, Poictiers, and many other Preceptors and some brethren had confessed 
the premises (i.e., all the charges), as well in their trial and out of it, before distinguished 
persons (solempnibus personis), and in many places and even to Notaries (personis 
publicis) . a 

We have the depositions of these confessions, and they are no doubt difficult to 
reconcile with the innocence of the Order. These depositions profess to be taken in the 
ordinary way, before Cardinals or Priests and Public Notaries, some of whom belonged 
to the Pope, some to the King, and others even to the Empire. Everything seems to be 
regular and in order. But it must be remembered that there is no evidence 
that those who were supposed to confess signed the depositions or otherwise 
admitted their truth. The prisoners went back to prison and did not know 
what confessions they were alleged to have made. And it will be seen later on that 



1 Ante Eaynouard p. 51. 



1 Ante. 




'0 Transactions of the Quaiuor Ooronati Lodge. 

when De Molay was before the Papal Commissioners, and said he was ready to defend 
the Order, they enquired, " how can you do so after these confessions of yourself and 
the Preceptors." And when these were read to him he broke out in a rage, and 
and wished that such liars (perversi) might be beheaded or cut in two, as the 
Saracens would have treated them. This led to angry words from the Commis- 
sioners, the only ones they used in the enquiry. 

All that can be safely said is that though there is no reason to suppose the Grand 
Master was tortured or even threatened, we do not know how the Preceptors were 
treated, and that we have no admission outside the documents themselves, that these 
confessions were made, and that the only time the attention of one of the accused was 
called to their contents, he at once repudiated them. 

One of the most important of these alleged confessions was made by Gaufredus de 
Gonnavilla, Preceptor of Acquitaine and Poictiers. He was called before the 
Commissioners and refused to say anything except that the Pope had promised to take 
his case himself. But in 1307, De Gonnavilla is reported as having made a confession 
before the French Inquisitor. In it he is alleged to say that he was received in England 
at the Temple by the then Master de Torteville, by whom he was ordered .to deny 
Christ, spit upon a cross, etc. That upon his refusing De Torteville said it would not 
hurt his soul, as it was a practice of the Order introduced by some wicked Grand 
Master, who was in the power of the Soldan, etc. It is to be noticed that the confession 
does not give the name of the Grand Master, which must have been only too well known 
if the story was true. (Some witnesses, however, said it was De Bello joco.) 

In order to help their case the Inquisitors had a copy of this and another 
confession of a Templar received in England, sent over to England and placed with the 
other documents, as shewing, notwithstanding the universal denial of the English 
Templars, what was the real way in which the brethren were received here. As will be 
pointed out this argument cuts both ways. If there was only one method of reception, 
and De Gonnavilla confessed the truth, then the English Templars, led by Himbertus 
Blanke, swore falsely when they said that nothing impious or improper took place at 
the receptions. On the other hand, if they spoke the truth, then either De Gonnavilla 
never made the alleged confession, or under torture or fear of it swore falsely. 

Though the Commissioners had had a number of witnesses called before them 
for the purpose of saying they persevered in their confessions they did not refer to 
De Gonnavilla's confession, and it was not read over to him. If it had been, posterity 
would have known whether he accepted it as true or indignantly repudiated it. 

The final proceedings were taken in England and France against the Templars 
about the same period, 1309-1311. The depositions of the different witnesses, taken in 
both countries, have come down to us. In England we find them in the Acta Councilii 
Magnie Britannicas, and in France they are in the Proces des Templiers, the publication 
which was edited by Michelet. 

It is proposed to give a short account of the English inquiry first, and then a 
pricis of the evidence taken in France, as set out in the Proces des Templiers. 







Transactions of the Quatuor Coronati Lodqe. 



71 



A BELGIAN DAUGHTER OF THE GRAND LODGE 

OF SCOTLAND. 

BY BRO. COUNT GOBLET D'ALVIELLA, P.G.M., BELGIUM. 





i^r 1 


)Kf 


AS 


S/Vgs 





T is rather a common saying among Freemasons that all Blue Free- 
masonry in existence to-day can be traced, through some channel or 
other, to the Grand Lodge established at London in 1717. Yet this 
assertion ought not to be taken without qualification. If it simply 
alludes to the first appearance of speculative or theoretical Masonry, 
it does not admit a shadow of a doubt. From whatever source were 
derived the materials of the ideal Temple begun by the worthy Masons 
who met at the Goose and Gridiron, on St. John's the Baptist's Day, 1717, it is unques- 
tionably there we must look for the cradle of an institution which to-day fills the 
civilized world with its many thousand Lodges. But if it is intended to mean a kind of 
apostolic succession, namely, that every Lodge in both hemispheres has been founded 
either directly by the Grand Lodge of England or indirectly by other Lodges which 
drew their authority from this venerable body, we must remember that there is no rule 
without exception. 

To say nothing of the English operative Lodges, which were at work before 
1717, and which simply rallied round the Grand Lodge of London, there are all the 
subordinate Lodges of the Grand Lodges of Scotland and, I believe, of Ireland, which 
can both boast of a distinct and autonomous formation. This results plainly from their 
respective histories, as drawn for Scotland by Bro. Murray Lyon, for Ireland by Bro. 
Chetwode Crawley, for both by Bro. R. Freke Gould. The same remark includes the 
Lodges these two Grand Lodges founded abroad. I am not aware that, in the colonizing 
process, the Irish went far beyond the shores of the Emerald Isle. But the Grand 
Lodge of Scotland, for many years after its foundation in 1736, competed seriously on 
the Continent with its elder sister from London. " At an early period in its history," 
writes Murray Lyon, " it had daughter- Lodges in Denmark, Sweden and the Netherlands, 
in Russia, Prussia, France and Spain, in North America and in England, Carlisle being 
the only point in the sister kingdom into which a Scotch Charter was introduced. The 
Grand Lodges of Denmark and Sweden and Prussia (The Three Globes) derive their 
origin from Scotland." 1 

The local Lodges thus erected by Patents from Edinburgh have, for the most 
part, long disappeared from the roll of the Grand Lodge of Scotland, and, as they made 
themselves independent, became in turn Mother Lodges, or passed under other jurisdic- 
tions, but their history should prove tempting to another Murray Lyon, or some of his 
Scotch Brethren. To this chapter of Masonic History I should like 'to contribute a 
few pages concerning Belgium, where we still number at least one survivor of the 
Lodges which could claim a Scotch origin. 

I. 

Some years ago I had occasion to point out that just as the Mithraic mysteries 
were spread in the Roman Empire through travellers, merchants, and especially military 
1 P, Murray Lyon. History of Freemasonry in Scotland, 1 vol., Edinburgh, p. 40J, 




72 Transactions of the Quatuor Goronati Lodge. 

men, who opened mithrea wherever they stayed, so speculative Free-Masonry was 
propagated abroad by British travellers, residents and officers who founded the first 
Continental Lodges. 1 This was essentially the case in Belgium, where, between 1721 
and 1788, many Lodges were opened under English and Scotch warrants. The Lodge 
at Mons, La Parfaite Union, still in full prosperity, claims to have been instituted in 1721 
by the Grand Lodge of London under Lord Montagu, and we have proof, at any rate, that 
this claim was endorsed in the Lodge as early as 1749. Among the Lodges which went 
back, for their origin, to the Grand Lodge of Edinburgh, there were one Lodge at 
Brussels and two at Tournai. The "new" Statutes adopted in 1769 by the Lodo-e 
VVnanimite at Tournai state that in March, 1765, it had been constituted, under the 
auspices of H.R.H. Prince Charles de Lorraine, Governor General of Austrian Nether- 
lands, by some Masons belonging to " La Grande Loge de Saint Andre a Edimbourg." 
Although thus of Protestant origin, this Tournai Lodge was much frequented by Boman 
Catholic ecclesiastxs (quantum mutati ab Mis!), in spite of the papal anathema already 
in full force against Free-Masonry. One of its members was the Vicar-General of the 
Diocese. 

Another " Loge de Saint-Jean d'Ecosse," les Amis Inseparables, lately revived 
after a long sleep, was working in the same city towards 1765. "We have a copy of its 
proceedings from 1767. Its true origin remains unknown, but its Officers were annually 
elected on the day of St. Andrew, and on the roll of its members we find two Scotch 
uames, Alexander Gordon and John Cunningham. The latter was a Captain in the 
Dutch forces which at that period garrisoned some of the Belgian fortified towns. He 
must have been a zealous Mason, as, two years later, we hear of his petitioning the 
Grand Lodge of Scotland to obtain a Patent for the creation of a Lodge at Namur, 
where he had most likely been transferred. 

This was granted, and there sprang into existence, in the last month of the 
Masonic year 1769 (February, 1770), the Lodge which, in point of antiquity, has 
precedence, with one exception, over all other Belgian Lodges. 

Bro. Cordier, the Masonic historian, who searched, some fifty years ago, the old 
records of the Grande Loge Provinciate established at Mons in the eighteenth century, 
in order to write his -Histoire de VOrdre maconnique en Belgique, relates in the following 
terms how, after a few years, the Lodge of Namur left the jurisdiction of the Grand 
Lodge of Scotland : 

"A Brother Cunninghamo (sic) raised at Namur the standard of the Fraternity 
by the erection, in 1770, of the Lodge La Bonne Ami tie. . . . This Lodge did not 
show great activity daring the first years of its existence. Either through indiffer- 
ence or incapacity of its Officers, it neglected the condition insisted upon in its 
Warrant, to keep up a correspondence with its Metropolis, and to return every year a 
list of its members, as well as a summary of its proceedings. Towards 1776 some of its 
members tried to recall it to the observance of its sworn Statutes and Principles. . . . 
AH agreed on the necessity of placing themselves under some central Grand Lodge. 
They could no longer think of claiming the protection of the Grand Lodge of Edinburgh, 
as this Authority had entirely forgotten its Belgian offspring. . , . They resolved 
therefore to address themselves to the Provincial Grand Lodge of Austrian Netherlands." 

This Grand Lodge was the one erected at Mons in 1748 by the French Grand 
Master, Count de Clermont, to provide the Grand Orient of France with a Provincial 
Grand Lodge for Belgium'; but in 1770 it had transferred itself with all its subordinate 
Lodges to the jurisdiction of the Grand Lodge of England. 

1 A.q.C, vol. xiii. (1900), p. 90, 






A Belgian Daughter of the Grand Lodge of Scotland. 73 

When, recently, I took an opportunity to look into the archives of the Lodge at 
Namur, with the assistance of one of its most devoted members, Bro. Terpagne, I found 
its oldest records to be a Livre d'Or, dating from 1809, which contains a copy of the 
following documents : — 

1°. A Charter of Constitution in Latin, granted on February 9th, 1770, to Bro. 
John Cunningham by the Grand Lodge of Scotland, empowering him to open a Lodge 
under the name La Parfaite Union de Namur. 

2°. A Patent of Erection, Re-constitution and Confirmation, issued in favour of 
the same Lodge, on the 8th August, 1777, by the Provincial Grand Lodge of Austrian 
Netherlands, in which there is a reference to the warrant delivered by the Grand Lodge 
of Scotland seven years sooner. 

3°. A Patent of Affiliation and Reconstitution, delivered on the 18th June, 1808 
by the Grand Orient of France to the Lodge La Bonne Amitie a V orient de Namur, in 
which the Edinburgh Charter is again mentioned as the fundamental Warrant of the 
Lodge. 

4°. The Rules of the Lodge, as drawn up after its reconstitution in 1808, con- 
taining no fewer than 505 Articles ! 

5°. The signatures of all the members who have belonged to the Lodge from the 
9th of March, 1809, to the present day. 

The originals of the three Charters have disappeared with many other valuable 
relics, perhaps through the neglect or malice of an unfaithful Secretary, who was 
expelled from the Craft some decades ago, and whose papers have never been recovered. 
But their existence is sufficiently proved by their traces in the surviving Records of the 
different Powers which issued them in turn. 

I owe to the kindness of Bro. David Reid, the present Grand Secretary of the 
Grand Lodge of Scotland, the following extract from the Grand Lodge Minutes of 
Quarterly Communication on 5th February, 1770: — "Upon reading a letter from 
Captain John Cunningham at Ipros in Germany 1 requesting a Charter of Constitution 
under the name of La Parfaite Union de Namur — Granted." 

Bro. Reid, whom I visited last autumn at Edinburgh, explained to me that the 
original Charter was not engrossed in the Cartulary of the Grand Lodge, but that in 
1770- it would have been signed by the following officers : James Adolphus Oughton, 
Grand Master ; William Erskine, Dep. Grand Master ; Andrew Alison, Sub. Grand 
Master; James Lind, Sen. Grand Warden ; and William Baillie, Jun. Grand Warden. 
— Alex. McDougall, Grand Secretary ; David Bolt, Grand Clerk. 

The copy, found in the Livre d'Or of Namur, runs thus : 

Universis et singulis ad quorum notitiam prassentes haee litterse pervenerint 
Salutem in Domino sempiternam. Quandoquidem in petitione Liberis, Acceptisque 
Fratribus Latomis Supremi Regni Scotia3 Sodalitatis LatomicEe exhibita a perhonorifico 
Fratre Johanne Cunningham militante sub Imperatore Majoribans apud Ordines 
Generales Batavise ipsius ao quorumdam prseterea honorifioorum signorumque Fratrum 
apud Namurcum Flandria? urbem habitantium, nomine expositum est — eos liberos 
acceptosque esse Latomos rite et solemniter adscitos et hanc artem promovere 
prsasertim sub patrocinio Suprema) Sodalitatis latomice magnopere velle, ideoque 

1 Evidently the town of Ypres, one of the cities garrisoned by the Dutch in Flanders, according 
to the Treaty of the Barrier'. (iSTaniur is not in Flanders; but many foreign - documents used to 
locate it amongst the Flemish towns.) 






I 




74 Transactions of the Quatuor Ooronati Lodge. 

a fratribus dicta? supreme Sodalitatis latomice peteriint ut Chartam sibi 
Ereetionis et Constitutionig solemn! forma concedere illis placeat, qua Sodalitatem 
Latomicam justam ac regularem sub nomine et titulo de La Parfaite Union de Namur, 
instituere et tenere liceat et dictum Fratrem Joannem CunniDgham prsesidem, Malotam 
Dominum de Foolx seniorem et 0. V. Douxohamps juniorem Monitores, Godefroid 
Baronem de Maitrey seniorem et Saint-Pierre Koquet jnniorem Diaconos, Deprez et 
Baronem de Corbecq dispensatores, Mormal a Seoretis et N. J. Lemielle, Dominum 
Guillenghien, Roquet juniorem et Hock a consiliis et denique Defresne tegularium 
creari cupere Praases Supremus, Fratresque dictse Supremse Sodalitalis Latomica? hac 
petitione diligenter perpensa infrascriptum Ereetionis et Constitutionis Diploma in 
petitorum gratiam expediri decreverunt. Moveritis igitur colendissimum et perlionori- 
fioum Praasidem Supremum Fratresque Supremaa Scotias Sodalitalis Latomicee 
snpradictos erexisse, constituisse ac ordinasse atque his ipsis erigefe, constituere ac 
ordinare honorificos Fratres supranominatos, eorumque successores omni tempore 
futuro esse veram ac regularem Sodalitatem Latomicam Liberorum Acceptorumque 
Latdmorum sub nomine et titulo de La Parfaite Union de Namur, velle etiam ac censere 
otnnes Sodalitates Latomicas regulares sub Supremse Scotia? Sodalitatis Latomicee 
patrocinio constitutas agnoscere, fateri ac colere eos tanquam Liberos Acceptosque 
Latomos, rite ac solemniter creatos et constitutes, dando simul concedendo et commit- 
tendo iis eorumque successoribus plenam potestatem et auctoritatem conveniendi, 
* congregandi et in unum coeuudi, ut Societatem Latomicam decet, Cirones quoque 
adiscendi et accipiendi, fratres artifices sustinendi et ad gradum Architectorum 
promovendi soluta prius tali summa peennia? in subsidium Sodalitatis qualis illis 
videbitur, Prsesides quoque Monitores aliosque administros eligendi et creandi, idque 
quot annis vel aliter ut res postulabit requirendo fratres supradictos, eorumque 
successores ut superioribus suis in omnibus justis et honestis revereutiam et obedien- 
tiam tuendaa dignitatis et concordise artis Latomicas praestent fratribus dictis per 
acceptationem hujns preesentis chartee a stricte obligatis et devinctis, ne dictam Sodali- 
tatem ita constitutam derelinquant, neque sub ullo preetextu qualicumque qusevis 
separata aut shismatica conventioula sine consensu Prassidum et Monitorum pro 
tempore existantium habeant, neve quam pecuniam pecuniasve aliasque quasvis 
facultates a communi serario Sodalitatis sua? separatas, cum damno inopum ad eamdem 
pertinentium colligant, iis porro eorumque successoribus per omne tempus venturum 
obstrictis ut decreta, leges et instituta Supremee Sodalitatis Latomicse in utilitatem, 
commodum et beneficium Artis condita aut condenda summa olservantia, colant ac 
prosequantur, nee non solTere et praestare quidquid ab iis pactum aut postulatum fuerit 
ad tuendum dignitatem Sodalitatis Supremse et in libris quos per haec ipsa habere 
tenentur, preesentem hanc Chartam Ereetionis et Constitutionis cum institutis suis 
privatisque legibus singulis, singulisque temporibus actis proat evenient referre, ut 
eadem a fratribus suis facilius perspiciantur ac serventur cum singulis Supreme 
Sodalitatis Latomicas sociis semper pateant, inspiciendi ac eognoscendi causa, fratres 
denique dicti eorumque successores per hasc ipsa tenentur ad diem celebrare generales 
omnes conventus, communicationesque trimestres Sodalitatis Supremas, per Prassidem, 
Monitoresque suos pro tempore existentes aut per Vicarios legitimos suo nomine 
dummodo ii Vicarii Architect! sint, Fratresve artifices saneitse alicujus Sodalitatis 
sub patrocinio Sodalitatis Supremao Latomicas constitutes, ut in dicta Sodalitate Su'prema 
agant et suffragenter ac de rebus ibi gestis diligenter fiant certiores, declarando eorum 
locum et ordinem in dicta Sodalitate Supreme ab hoc diplomate dato exordium sumere, 
quae omnia ut diligentius custodiantur ac conserventur in libros Sodalitatis Supremas 
referre placuit. 

Datum Sodalitate Latomica Suprema, in urbe Edinburgo, TSTonis Februariis JEre 
Christiano millesimo (septingentesimo) septuagesimo et Lucis quinquies Millesimo 
septingentesimo septuagesimo quarto (?) ab venerando per quam amplissimo, prasstantis- 
simoque Legato imperatoris Oughton, prassente Scotias Supremo Prasside Latomo, a 
perhonorifico Andrea Alison armigero Supremo Prseside Substitute a perhonorifico 
Jacobo Lind medjeinas doctore et Gmllaume Baillj armigero Supremis Monitoribus 




A Belgian Daughter of the Grand Lodge of Scotland. V5 

a Jacobo Hunter, armigero Supremo Thesaurio et Sigilla? Supreme Sodalitatis Latomicee 
obsignation coram Alexandro M. Dougall armigero Supremo Secretario et Davide Bolt 
Supremo Scriba testibus. 

Signatum : Jao. Adol. Oughton, P.S. ; Andreas Alison, P.S. Subst. ; James Lind, 
S.M.S. ; Geo. Syme (?), J.M.S.; Jacobus Hunter, S.; Alex. Bongall, S.S. (Mac. Dougall?) 
David Bolt, Sup. Scriba. 

a Latere appositum erat Sigillum sub Cera rubra. 

II. 

Is this text the original one ? 

Bro. Cordier peremptorily disposes of the question by saying that the Grand 
Lodge of Edinburgh never used Latin in its Deeds. It may be so— although a few 
years later, according to Murray Lyon, there was .at least one Scotch Lodge which- had 
its minutes drawn up in Latin, the Soman Eagle, 1 — but it does not prevent us from 
supposing that, while the Charter was perhaps first written in the English language, it 
may have been at once translated into Latin for the benefit of the Namur Brethren who 
could not be expected to read or understand English. Latin, at that period, was still a 
universal language of the polite world, besides being exclusively used by the Roman 
Catholic Church. 

Another point, which must have struck our readers, as it did me at once, is that 
while the Namur Lodge is known under the name of la Bonne Amitie, the document 
alludes to a Lodge called la Parfaite Union. Cordier and other Masonic writers 
absolutely ignore its first name. Does therefore the Bonne Amitie, instead of being the 
direct continuation of the original Lodge, represent a hermit-crab which had crawled 
into the vacant shell after the disappearance of its legitimate owner ? 

Luckily, there are direct proofs that the Bonne Amitie was really at first called the 
Parfaite Union. It is still mentioned under this name in the Patent of Confirmation 
delivered in 1777 by the Grande Loge Provinciale of Austrian Netherlands. Besides, I 
have found in the Records of this Grand Lodge, some minutes which allow us to fix 
when, and perhaps why, the name was altered. On February 13th, 1777, the Grand 
Master read aloud a letter from the " Parfaite Union " of Namur, asking permission to 
work henceforward under the authority of the Grand Lodge. This request having been 
granted, the Lodge of Namur appears on the roll of the Grand Lodge for the next year 
under the following heading : " Loge de Namur, La Bonne Amitie, constitute par le 
R.\ F.\ Oughton, Grand-Maitre de la Loge d'Edimbourg le 5 Fevrier 1770 et confirmee 
par le TV. R.\ P.-. Marquis de Gages, Grand-Maitre provincial le 21 Aout 1777." 

The transition is clear and its reason plain enough. As the Grand Lodge had 
already in its jurisdiction a Lodge called la Parfaite Union at Mons), one of the conditions 
imposed upon the Lodge of Namur must have been that it should take a new name— 
" Good Friendship " having about the same meaning as " Perfect Union." 

The papers of. the Grand Lodge— carefully preserved at Mons in the interesting 
archives of the Parfaite Union— contain still another document, datiDg from 1775 or 
1776, which goes far to show the genuineness of the Latin copy made in 1808. It is a 
Memoir in two parts, addressed to the Provincial Grand Master, Marquis de Gages, by 
a former Secretary of the Namur Lodge, who signs M. (very likely Bro. Mormal, 
mentioned in Cunningham's Charter). After carefully perusing this document, in 
company with our learned Brother, Bro. Cloudt-Mirland, of the Parfaite Union, I am 
perfectly satisfied as to its authenticity. It not only contains an important extract of 

1 Murray Lyonj op. cit p. 257i 




76 



transactions of the Quatuor Goronaii Lodge. 



the Latin Charter, which entirely coincides with the text given above ; but it also throws 
a curious light on the circumstances which induced the Lodge of Namur to look for 
another jurisdiction. As it presents a good illustration of the Masonic psychology of 
the time, I ask permission to reproduce it fully in its quaint provincial French of the 
eighteenth century. 

OBSERVATIONS, 
faites au T.\ S.\ TV. E.\ & T.\ E.\ F.\ Marquis de Gages, 
Grand Maitre Provincial de toutes les Loges des Pays-Bas Autrichiens, 
par le F.\ M.* 

Post nebula Phoebus. 
Malgre l'esprit de paix et d'union qui doit regner parmi les vrais enfants de la 
Lumiere, de temps en temps par une fatalite irresistible il s'eleve entre eux des querelles 
qui sont bientot dissipees, des que la subordination est bien (Stablie et l'autorite 
respectee. De la la necessite d'un pouvoir fixe, premier et irrefragable. 

Cete Loge, peu nombreuse dans les commencements, n'avait besoin a sa tete 
que d'un homme qui jouissait d'une autorite precaire, par ce qu'on ne connaisait guere 
alors que la Loge d' Atelier 1 et que la mastication (sic) etait le principal travail des 
freres. 

Initie dans les nrysteres, je travaillais tout comme mes camarades et j'etais loin 
de me figurer que la Ma9onnerie procurait d'autres avantages, que ceuz de la table et de 
la bonne ehere. Nous etions tous, la dessus de la meilleure foi du monde. 

Le f.'. Cunninghame, deux fois Ecossais, qui avait leve ici l'etendard de la 
Fraternite nous avait procure, quelques annees apres, des Patentes de la Loge d' 
Edimbourg. 

On recut le parchemin avec tout le respect qu'il meritait; mais, tranquilles a 
l'ombre des pampres, nous coulions les plus beaux jours sans. nous mettre en peine de 
remplir les conditions de notre contrat. Nous n'ecrivimes plus a Edimbourg et sans 
doute la on nous oublia. De temps en temps, on nous montrait la pancarte dans un 
etui de fer Wane. Mais personne ne la lisaifc; tout le monde n'entend pas le latin, et 
ceux qui auraient pu le comprendre n'y faisaient pas attention. 

Arrive par sauts a une place que je n'avais garde d'ambitionner, je laissai quelque 
temps les choses sur le vieux pied. Oependant, a force de questionner les Freres visiteurs 
qu'on recevait alors, je commencai a douter de la verite du depot qu'on m'avait confie. 
Quelques Freres recus dans des Loges d'AUemagne, de Suisse et de Hollande et que nous 
venions d'aggreger a la notre, augmenterent mes doutes. Je m'informai ; j'ecoutai. Sur 
les temoignages de plusieurs et surtout du F.\ de Puts qui avait yu les principales r^ 
des Prpvinces-Unies, je n'hesitai plus a croire que nous faisions des qui-pro-quo. Je 
substituai enfin les ventables Paroles aux fausses qu'on nous avait transmises, mais vous 
ne sauriez croire, T .-. E .-. , (tres-Respectable) quelle ruse je dus employer pour cela. 
En donnant toujours celles que j'avais re ? ues 2 je recommendais aux recipiendaires d'en 
donner d'autres quand ils se pre^enteraient a quelqae □, par ce que, disais je, les Masons 
de tous ces pays-ci sont des modernes et nous sommes les seuls Anciens et Acceptes 
Masons! Avec tous ces managements, on criait encore que je deformais la Loge, 
surtout quand il fut question d'arracher du milieu de la colonne du midi, le second 
surveillant qu'on y avait ente avec son baton de Marechal. 

Les Edimbourgeois se promettent encore aujourd hui de retablir les vieilles formes, 
surtout le ballottage qui a ete adopte pour le plus sur garant'du lien fraternel, comme 
vous le sentirez, T.-. C: et T.-. E.-. Fr.-. , si vous voulez bien vous donner la peine 
de lire le memoire que nous vous joignons sous le numero j°. 

Toutes ces oppositions qu'on faisait naitre a la moindre occasion d'humeur ou de 
mecontentement nous faisaient sentir le besoin d'un recours a une autorite superieure 
pour contenir les brouillons qui ne respectaient plus rien. Depuis longtemps nous 

1 The Lodge of the first Degree. 

C allealtl h ;^ C Xir° rdS "~ The ° th6r L ° dgeS ° f B ^«— following the "modern "or so 




A Belgian Daughter of the Grand Lodge of Scotland. 



11 






savions le defaut de nos Constitutions qui etaient devenues nulles par la negligence de 
rapport et de correspondence avec notre Mere qui ne nous connaissait plus. Ecrire a, 
Edimbonrg pour en avoir des nouvelles, nous? n'avions plus de major Ecossais ! D'ailleurs, 
l'inconvenient aurait egalement subsiste. Nous connaissons, TV. C.\ E.\ , votre zele 
et la place que vous tenez dans l'Ordre. Nous n'hesitames pas un moment a prendre 
n6tre recours vers vous ; le succes lepondit a notre attente. C'est ce qui forme aujourd- 
hul deux partis, l'un qui se distingue par l'ordre et la convenance, l'autre en suivant sa 
passion et ses prej'uges. Au reste celui-ci n'etait compose que de trois freres, qui se 
declarerent (on sait bien pourquoi) apres l'election du f.\ Lamquet 1 . Depuis un 
quatrieme s'est joint a eux. 

Nous avons tente inutilement de ramener ces freres a l'ordre. Les armes de la 
douceur et de la raison, tout a blanchi vis a vis d'eux. Nous ne pouyons plus les 
considerer aujourd'hui que comme des gens qui cherchent absolument a faire bande a 
part. Nous vous joignons, T.\ S.\ E.\ le precis des points qui nous divisent. 

Les difucaltes qui regnent entre les deux partis doivent se reduire a deux genres 
de questions ; savoir aux questions d'ordre et aux questions d'interet. 

Les questions d'ordre sont celles-ci : 

1 Ya-t-il deux sortes de veritables Magons dans le monde ? 

2 Est-il vrai qu'il y ait des Anciens francs et acceptes Magons et des Modernes, 
que ceux-la appellant Batards ? 

3 Est-il possible qu'il n'y ait de bonnes Loges que celles qui ont obtenu des 
parchemins d'Edimbourg ? 

4 Est-il bien vrai que les Anciens francs et acceptes Magons savent tout ce que 
les modernes savent et savent encore bien des choses que ceux-ci ne savent pas ? 

(Comme j'ai l'avantage d'etre franc et accepte Magon et comme je tiens un pen 
aux Modernes, je me reserve la tache d'exposer au T.\ S.'. IV. Marquis de Gages la 
masse des connaissances des Anciens francs et acceptes et de lui faire sentir par la leur 
preeminence sur les Modernes.) 

5 Ne serait ce pas (je parle leur langage) se degrader que de reconnaitre une 
Grande-Loge provinciale des Pays-Bas Autrichiens qui n'a ete constitute que par la 
Loge de Londres et qui n'est rien du tout vis a vis de la Metropole d'Edimbourg ? 
D'ailleurs les Fraucs-Magons de ces pays-ci ne sont que des modernes, Cunninghame l'a 
dit et nous sommes les seuls anciens francs et acceptes. (On croit eependant qu'il 
pourrait bien y avoir a Tournai quelques bons Magons, parce que Cunninghame y a 
demeure). 

On veut bien reoevoir le TV. S. - . E.'. Marquis de Gages, comme on a regu le 
TV. B.\ P.-. baron d'Haltinnes, c'est a dire comme un Maitre en chaire visiteur, mais 
point comme un Grand'Maitre Provincial des Pays-Bas Autrichiens. Oil est-il dit qu'il 
l'est ? 

6 Nos Constitutions sont tres-bonnes et c'est a tort que nous souteuons que par 
le defaut de correspondance elles soient devenues nulles. Ces Messieurs, qui ne les ont 
point lues, disent que nous sommes dispenses de cela tout au long et nous qui les avons 
lues, nous savons ce que nous disons, quand nous rapportons les termes de ces memes 
Constitutions : " Fratres denique dicti eorumque successores per haic ipsa tenentur ad diem 
celebrate generates omnes conventus, communicationesque trimestres sodalitatis supreme 
per prcesidem, monitoresque suos pro tempore existentes, aut per varioslegitimossuo nomine 
dummodo ii Vicarii architecti sint fratres ve artifices sancitm alicujus sodalitatis supremw 
latomicej constitutor, ut in dicta sodalitate swprema agant et svffragentur ac de rebus ibi 
gestis diligenter fiant certiores." Quel coup de foudre ! 

N'importe, ces Messieurs tiennent a leurs vieilles Constitutions, et ils les 
soutiendront, ils ont m6me deja choisi entre eux un Grand-Maitre et 1'on verra plus 
tard. 

1 Henri Lamquet, Lord of Wagnee, burgomaster of Namur.who was still Master of the Lodge at 
the time of its change of jurisdiction. 






m 



78 



Transactions of the Quatuor Voronati Lodge. 



The remaining Observations are of less interest ; they deal mainly with personal 
squabbles or refer to the division of the Lodge property in view of the intended partition. 
As to the second part of the Memoir, it concerns exclusively the method for ballotting 
candidates. A unanimous vote was required by the Statutes ; but Bro. Mormal relates 
how. he induced the Lodge to substitute voting by ballot to the former show of hands. 
Hence new complaints. Finally the following system was adopted, -which gave good 
results (and still would nowadays in many Lodges) : " When a Brother has a friend to 
propose, he does not make him advances at once, but first warns the Master who sounds 
the other members. If some think lightly of the candidate, the Master advises the 
Brother to postpone the proposal or even to give it up. If, on the contrary, the members 
show themselves favorably inclined, the Master brings forward the candidate's name. 
A table is placed near the Chair; each member receives a white and a black ball and 
throws secretly one of the two in the box on the table. The urn is then opened by the 
Master and the Wardens. If there are some dissenters, they must reveal their motives 
to the Master within 24 hours. If they fail to do this, or if the poll shows unanimity, 
the proposer asks only then the candidate to file a petition to be received in the noble 
and ancient Society of Freemasons." 

Bro. Cordier, when he wrote his History, must have heard of this document, as 
he alludes to the same facts. But he does not.mention the Memoir itself, and anyhow 
he did not see all he could draw from it. In reality it carries the following conclusions : 

Capt. John Cunningham— of whom we should like to know more 1 — spontaneously 
created some Freemasons at Namur, and opened there a Lodge without a warrant, some 
'time before 1770. Early in that year he obtained from the Grand Lodge of Scotland 
a Charter of Constitution to regularize the situation. 3 Shortly afterwards he left 
the town, and was no more heard of by the Brethren. The Lodge kept up no com- 
munication with its Mother Grand Lodge. On the other hand, the Brethren discovered 
that they had not the same Words as the other Belgian Lodges which were practising 
then the Bite anglais reforme ; that their Wardens did not sit in the same positions, etc. 
A party grew which contended that, by the break of intercourse with the Mother 
Lodge, they had forfeited their Warrant, and that it would be better to seek a new 
shelter under a nearer jurisdiction, viz., the Provincial Grand Lodge of Austrian 
Netherlands, itself under the Authority of the Grand Lodge of England. 

The Scotch or Conservative Party answered that the Charter remained perfectly 
Valid ; that the founder, Bro. Cunningham, " twice Scotch," had given the real Words ; 
that the Scotch Ritual represen'tsd the methods of the Ancient and Accepted Masons, 
while the Brethren under the Grand Lodge of England were only " modern and bastard 
Masons." These differences of opinion were embittered by discussions on the mode 
of voting for the admission of candidates. Finally the "Ancients." had to give way, 

1 The valuable papers published by Mr. James Ferguson, under the auspices of the Scottish 
History Society, ou The Scotch Brigade in the Service of the United Netherlands, mentions several officers 
bearing the name of John Cunningham orCuninghame in the Regiment of General Marjoribanks. The 
one who best fits the requirements of the case is a Captain John Cunningham, stationed -with his 
battalion at Tournay in 1767 and at Fpres from 1767 to 1770. He was honourably discharged in 1772 
--about the time when the founder of the Lodge of Namur disappears from our Masonic horizon 
(Fersuson, vol. ii., pp. 409 and 482, and vol. iii., p. 138).— There" is also mentioned at Tournay, in 
1768, an Alexander Gordon, captain in the same Eegiment ; he was married to a Flemish lady, named 
Marie Petronilla Ghyben (id. vol. iii., p. 95). 

2 This may explain how the Lodge I'Unanimite at Tournay could claim to have been founded by 
the Grand Lodge of Scotland, without any trace of its constitution appearing in the Minutes of 
Edinburgh. It is just possible that Cunningham, with his friend Alex. Gordon, and maybe some local 
Masons, opened at Tournay a Lodge patterned after the Lodges of his native land, before petitioning 
the Grand Lodge of Scotland for a warrant, and that the matter dropped then and there, the Masonic 
recruits of the following years taking for granted, after the departure of the founders, that the Charter 
had been granted. 







A Belgian Daughter of the Grand Lodge of Scotland. 



79 



and left the Lodge after a last dispute concerning the partition of its property and the 
payment of expenses. The Author of the Memoir tried to patch up the quarrels, but his 
efforts were of no avail, and he seems himself to have favoured the transfer of the 
Lodge. 

Amongst the members of the Bonne Amitie at that time, according to the first 
list drawn up by the Grande Loge Provinciale, we find a Royal Highness, the Prince 
of Solms-Braunfels ; a French Duke, the Dae de Saure ; the Burgomaster of Namur, 
Bro. Lemquet ; a Canon of St. Martin at Liege, Bro. Mahy (whom Bro. Mormal, in his 
Observations, denounces as " le plus Jesuite qu'il y ait jamais vu," and who 
nevertheless died, towards 1783, in great odor of Masonic sanctity, having become Grand 
Orator of the Provincial Grand Lodge); several officers, amongst whom a Colonel • 
finally a score of noblemen, lawyers and merchants of the town. 

In 1778, the Grande Loge Provinciale met at Namur, where it was splendidlv 
received by its iiewly adopted daughter. The description of the rejoicings, processions 
and speeches made on this occasion has been religiously kept in the Minutes of the 
Grand Lodge. 

In 1786, the Bonne Amitie, like most of its Belgian sisters, was obliged to 
temporarily close its doors, on account of the restrictions imposed upon Masonic life by 
the Austrian government of the Netherlands. It has been said that the Brethren of 
Namur continued to meet secretly, and this is not unlikely, but of this phase of their 
history, nothing has remained. When Freemasonry revived in Belgium under 
Napoleonic rule, the Lodge reopened with the assistance of its surviving members who 
had religiously preserved the old Records, and swore allegiance to the Grand Orient 
of France. This happened in 1808. After the fall of the French Empire, in 1815 it 
placed itself under the jurisdiction of the " Grande Loge d'administration des Pays-Bas 
Meridionaux," the Southern Section of the Grand Orient of Holland. 



III. 

A few years later, the Bonne Amitie published in the Annates Magonniques des 
Pays-Bas, a set of documents, in which it styled itself as '.' the Mother Lodge of the Bite 
Ecossais Primitif," 1 a title which it kept till 1847. Amongst these papers there was a 
Historical Notice, trying to establish that this Rite, endowed with 33 degrees, had been 
the original Rite of the Lodge, having been introduced directly from the " Metropolitan 
Grand Lodge of Scotland," through a " gentilhomme ecossais, John Cunningham, then 
garrisoned at Namur, who possessed the highest grades of the Rite and had therefore 
the right of creating Masons." This was rather hard on poor Cunningham ! 

It is well known that the " Rite ecossais primitif " is not older than 1770, when 
it was organized at Narbonne, in the South of France, as an offshoot of the Rite of 
Perfection. Besides, there is no need to remind the readers of the A.Q.G. that the 
Grand Lodge of Scotland never dealt with any but the three symbolic and the 
Mark Degrees. How could Cunningham have transmitted in 1770 what be never 
received ? Foreseeing the objection, the authors of the Notice were careful to add • 
"The masonic zeal of Bro. Cunningham did not stop with this gift. A few -years 
later, he obtained from the Royal Arch Camp of Scotland belonging to Primitive 
Grand Encampment of Ireland a Patent to constitute a Grand Chapter of the 
Interior of the Temple." When, in 1777, the Bonne Amitie, in order not to remain 
cut off from the other Belgian Lodges, passed under the jurisdiction of the Grande Lose 

1 Annates chnnologiques, Utteraires et historiques de la Maqonnerie des Pays-Bas. t. iii. p 388 and 
seq. • * ''"' 



) 



80 Transactions of the Quatuor Ooronati Lodge. 

Provinciate, " the Great and Sublime Chapter of the Interior thought better not to 
inform, officially the Lodge of its existence." In 1808, when the Bonne Amitie re- 
opened its doors, the Grand Chapter obtained its recognition from the Grand Orient of 
France, under the guise of an ordinary Chapter of R.\ +.-. . But the College of the 
R.\ +.\ was itself controlled by a higher Power in the background, the Grand Chapter 
of the Interior, which conferred special degrees from the 23rd to the 33rd. It was only 
in 1817 that the time seemed to have come to reveal this organization to Masons at 
large and to claim for the Bonne Amitie the direction of the Bite ecossais primitif in 
Belgium. 

This document was signed by the Prince de Gavre, L* Grand Commander of the 
Rite, and by twelve other Grand Officers ; among them the Grand Secretary P. C. 
Marchot, who is generally held responsible for this elaborate scheme. He was a lawyer, 
settled at Namur, from the town of Nivelles, where he had for some years occupied the 
Chair of the Lodge, les Amis discrets. In 1812 the Bonne Amitie elected him an honorary 
Member, for valuable services, and from that time he took a prominent part in the 
management of the Lodge. Bro. Murray Lyon mentions him as holding intercourse 
with Alexander Deuchar, who was chosen, in 1811, as Grand Master for life by the 
* Knight Templars of Scotland. 1 It was the time when Encampments of Knight 

Templars were spreading all over Ireland and Scotland. This goes far to explain why 
Marchot should have turned towards this nail on which to hang the origin of his Grand 
Chapter. He could have argued— had he known the fact— that Mother Kilwinning 
established at Dublin, as early as 1779, a " High Knight Templars of Ireland 
Kilwinning Lodge," and she might have done something similar in Belgium a few years 
sooner, when the Namur Brethren were anxiously turning for help towards the shores 
of Scotland. But this cannot alter the fact that the Bite ecossais primitif has shown no 
trace of its existence at Namur before the year 1812 at the earliest, while the Bonne 
Amitie had, from February 18th, 1777, a regular Chapter of R.\ +.-., created and ruled 
by the Grande Loge Provinciale, which controlled also the higher Degrees, in accordance 
with the rituals of the Rite of Heredom or of Perfection. 

Yet we must not be too severe upon the memory of Bro. Marchot. He was a 
sincere and zealous Mason, who.bravely resisted the attempts of the Grand Master, Prince 
Frederic of the Netherlands, when the latter tried to encroach upon the independence 
of the Belgian Chapters. A remarkable scholar and a lover of symbolism, passionately 
devoted to the interest of his Rite, Marchot tried to graft it on the old stem by methods 
which agreed with the Masonic ways of his time — witness the example given, in high 
quarters, by the display of the so-called Charter of Cologne. — The Rituals of the Thirty- 
three Degrees, which he wrote, and, perhaps, illustrated with his own hand, are now in 
the Library of the Supreme Council at Brussels, where they were deposited, some forty 
years ago, after the Chapters of the Bite ecossais primitif were merged into the 
Scottish Ancient and Accepted Rite, another child of the Rite of Perfection. 

The Bonne Amitie still possesses a Record-book containing the Minutes of the 
Lodge, without interruption, from 1821 to this day, and another containing all the 
Minutes of the Chapter of R.\ +. - .. from 1821 to 1862. This last book opens with a 
copy of the General Rules of the Chapter, dated 1817. Rules 13 and 14 run thus : " The 
Sov .'. Chapter has authority over all the Degrees of the Rite, from the 1st to the 21st 
included. Yet this authority is subordinate to that of the Grand and Sublime Chapter 
of the Interior, chef d'Ordre du Rite." 

1 Murray Lyon, op. cit., p. 315, 






A Belgian Daughter of the Grand Lodge of Scotland. 



31 



After the Revolution of 1830, which parted Belgium from Holland, the Bonne 
Amitie passed under the jurisdiction of the Grand Orient of Belgium, which it had helped 
to create in 1832, and where it headed the list, as the oldest of the Belgian Lodges, till, 
in 1898, some documents were discovered, which assigned a still greater antiquity to the 
Parfaite Union at Mons. 

Henceforth the Lodge of Namur had rather an uneventful life, and, in 1870, it 
celebrated the first centennial of its birth, although, I am sorry to say, neither the 
celebration, nor the speeches recorded on the occasion, were worthy of the anniversary. 
It was especially the time when the Belgian Lodges meddled with politics, perhaps 
more than was good for them, and certainly more than would have seemed fit to our 
Anglo-Saxon Brethren. But account must be taken of the difficulties with which Belgian 
Freemasonry has to contend, especially ia country towns, on account of the bigotry and 
intolerance of the Catholic Church, which, nearly every Sunday in the year, from every 
pulpit in the land, hurls its thunderbolts at the head of Freemasons, their families and 
their supporters. To frequent a Lodge in a small city like Namur required a degree 
of endurance and courage our Protestant Brethren cannot even imagine. How could 
Freemasons not retaliate to a certain point ? 

Nevertheless the Bonne Amitie has remained a good and valiant little Lodge, ever 
faithful to the ideals of Masonry, working its Ritual with earnestness and care. It has 
rather increased in strength and numbers during the last decade, and looks forward 
with still greater confidence to the time when it will possess a new Temple, now in 
course of erection, on a larger and more convenient plot of ground, bought with the 
help of a few generous friends. But building costs money, even to masons and 
especially to Freemasons. I hope I shall not be accused of turning this essay into a 
booming modern-style advertisement, with the sting in the tail, if I conclude by strongly 
recommending to the generosity of the Grand Lodge of Scotland these long forgotten 
children, who felt so keenly their dereliction . some hundred and thirty years ago. 



% 







82 



Transactions of the Quatuor Goronati Lodge. 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 




'ARLY Philippine Nasonry.— My brief note on the " Knights of the 
Holy Sepulchre of Jerusalem" (A.Q.C. vol. xix., p. 69) called forth a 
wealth of information as unexpected as it is gratifying, from two 
eminent, though widely separated Masonic savants — Brothers L. de 
Malczovich (p. 137) of Hungary and F. de P. Rodriguez (p. 141) of 
Cuba, Grand Chancellor and Secretary General of the Supreme Council 
of Colon. This result places these Transactions in a new light, at least t 
the writer, and illustrates their value as a cosmopolitan clearing-house of Masonic lore. 
My first venture having proved successful I am tempted to utilize the Transactions again. 
During my residence in the Philippines I have become especially interested in the origin 
and early history of Masonry in this jurisdiction and it occurs to me that perhaps Bro. 
Rodriguez, with his abundant learning in the field of Spanish Masonry can give me some 
light. Of course I might obtain this through private correspondence but that might 
also deprive our members and the Craft generally of the benefit of one of Bro. 
Rodriguez's luminous letters. 

There has recently come into my hands a Spanish Ritual of the third degree 
(Maestro) entitled " Obras Masonicas Officiates " (Madrid 1906) which contains as an appen- 
dix an interesting survey, from the standpoint of the Spaniard, of Masonry throughout 
the world. From this I learn that Masonry was introduced into the Philippines in 1850 
by a Spanish naval officer, Malcampo, who was followed in 1859 by Vice-Admiral 
Nunez, and in a work entitled " Inhabitants of the Philippines " by an English writer, 
Frederick H. Sawyer, it is stated that the first Masonic Lodge iu the Philippines was 
organized at Cavite in 1860. I have not been able to learn anything authentic regarding 
the details of these events, or the antecedents of the Brethren who transplanted the 
Ancient Craft to these Islands, or how close the connection has been between Spanish 
and Philippine Masonry. Can Bro. Rodriguez or some other reader of the Transactions 
put me in the way of getting further light ? 
' Manila — P. I. Charles S. Lobingieb. 

Never in my life have I been in more earnest need of a good arsenal of data upon 
Masonic lore as now, in order to fill Bro. Lobingier's desire for knowledge of early 
Masonry in the Philippine Islands, so gallantly expressed in his note. 

Being so far from the field of action it matters not how well acquainted I may be 
with Spanish Masonry in order to give a satisfactory answer to Bro. Lobingier's ques- 
tions ; but judging from the Spaniards' behaviour in this country, as far as Masonry 
is concerned, I shall honestly give my opinion on that interesting subject. 

It is true that Spain introduced Masonry in her Colonies, but it was the Masonry 
of the early nineteenth century type, and whatever Masonry they introduced during the 
first quarter of that century was for their own benefit, without a thought for the wel- 
fare of the natives. They did so in Mexico, Peru, Uruguay, and other American vice- 
royalties. In Mexico at all events the natives had to apply to the American Minister 
Poinsset, in order to have Masonic Lodges of their own and those Lodges came from the 
United States and were soon working against the earlier Spanish Lodges whose member- 
ship was restricted to the Spanish officials and very few pro-Spanish natives, 




Notes and Queries. 83 

In Cuba we had no early Spanish Lodges, all we had came from the north save 
one or two which derived their existence from the Grand Orient of France. But what- 
ever we had not in those times came to us later, after the downfall of Queen Isabella. 

Spanish Masonry during the middle third of the nineteenth century, whatever 
Spaniards may claim, was a riddle : nothing is known with certainty. After the per- 
secutions of King Ferdinand VII. came those from the ministers of his daughter Isabella, 
the first were of a bloodthirsty class, the others, more benign, compelled the progressive 
Spaniards of the epoch to keep Masonry so much behind curtains that nothing can 
satisfy the Masonic student. 

I have often stated, and I am convinced of the truth of the statement, that from 
1830 to 1868 Spanish Masonry was problematic, i.e., it existed only on paper. The 
best that can be said is that they had governing bodies of the high degrees with very 
few or no blue Lodges to be governed, simply because they could do no better. 

In 1843 there was an attempt to organize a ruling body called the Grand Orient 
of Hesperia; D. Ramon Maria Calatrava one of the most enthusiastic of Spanish 
Masons was at its head, but although a Constitution and bye-laws were framed the idea 
was not a success and by 1848 nothing more was heard of it. Whatever Lodges met in 
Spain afterwards (secretly, of course) were of French origin or owed allegiance to the 
Grand Orient of Lusitania (Portugal), and there were very few even of these. 

It was during those days that we Cubans were so fortunate as to definitely organize 
our Masonry (1859) ; at first with no opposition from Spain, but as soon as Queen 
Isabella was overthrown by the revolutionary movement of September 1868 a revival 
of Spanish Masonry was effected and from that time henceforth the Spanish Masonic 
imbroglio dates. 

In 1879 Masonic Lodges of Spanish extraction first appeared in Cuba to oppose 
our local Masonry, more as disguised political clubs than as true Masonry, so much so 
that they used to call ours rebel Masonry and theirs faithful Masonry. 

During those days Admiral Malcampo, who is mentioned in the Spanish ritual 
of 1906, resided some time among us, but I never heard that he took any interest in 
Masonry, nor indeed did I know that he was a Mason. It was different with another 
naval officer, Admiral Oreiro, who frequented Cuban Masonic circles, and was even raised 
to the 33° by our Supreme Council. 

Can it be possible that in 1856, or even 1860, Malcampo introduced Masonry in 
the Philippine Islands ? Where did he draw his authority for so doing P What was 
the name of the governing body then flourishing in Spain ? 

The Grand National Orient of Spain used to print an uninterrupted series of her 
Grand Commanders, or Grand Masters, dating from the Count of Aranda in the 
seventeenth century to our days, but nothing more than that list is known of their 
doings during more than half a century, until after the dethronement of Isabella. 

In 1870 a new Grand Orient was formed in Spain, presided over by the eminent 
statesman, Eomero Ortiz, and soon afterwards— 1874 — by the celebrated Prime Minister 
Sagasta, and from this Grand Orient, the present one headed by the eminent historian 
Morayta came into existence. This Grant Orient has been always noted for its success 
in organising Lodges outside of Spain ; it has done so in Cuba, Dominican 'Republic, 
Puerto Rico, and even in the United States. It also formed Lodges in the Philippine 
Islands, and from it I have obtained the first sure statement of the existence of a Lodge 
there in 1880. This date I have seen confirmed in a book called Gyclopmdia of 
Fraternities, edited at New York, in 1899, by A. C. Stevens. 









84 



Transactions of the QuatuOf Oorohati Lodge. 



Many educated Filipinos were made Masons abroad, among whom may be men- 
tioned that glory of his country, Dr. Rizal. Many Spanish Masons, specially naval and 
military officers, may have resided in those islands, but as we know how easily Latin 
Masons are prone to start Lodges and work Masonry of their own, with no regular 
warrant or authority of any kind, we may well doubt the veracity of the introduction of 
true Masonry in the Philippines by Malcampo in 1856, or by Nunez in 1860. 

In the New International Encyclopedia, Dodd, Mead and Co , New York, 1906 
(vol. xv., page 719), it is stated, without mentioning the authority, that Masonry was 
introduced in the Philippines in 1860, but that it was not until more than a quarter of 
a century afterwards that the natives gained access to the Lodges and, guided by Dr. 
Rizal, formed the " Liga Filipina" and the " Associacion Hispano-Filipina," which led 
to the establishment of the Katipunam. This certainly seems to confirm my statement 
that Masonry, if started in 1860, was only an attempt without any solid foundation. 

There is another book, which I have never seen, named " La Masonizacidn de 
Filipinas: Rizal y su obra," edited at Barcelona in 1897. It claims that the Masonic 
spirit was spread in his country by Dr. Rizal for revolutionary purposes. This, 
however, is from a Spanish point of view, and even if it is true, it could not have been 
before 1880, as Rizal graduated at the University of Madrid in 1882, travelling after- 
wards for several years in Europe before coming back to Manila. 

Therefore, until sufficient proof to the contrary can be produced, I shall insist 
upon the year 1880 as being the true date of the starting of Masonry on those 
shores. 

I hope that all this may be of any interest to Bro. Lobingier, or to any other lover 
of Masonic lore, and that it may, at least, serve as a clue for new investigations. 
Havana, Cuba. F. de P. Rodriguez. 

Dp. Anderson. — While I was searching in the British Museum, in a vain 
attempt to ascertain whence the Rev. James Anderson (author of the Book of Con- 
stitutions) got his degree of D.D., I discovered the following about him, which, so far 
as I know, has not been mentioned before. 

In 1719, on February 19th, a meeting of Presbyterian Ministers in London was 
held at the Salters Hall Meeting House (whence it is known as the Salters Hall Synod) 
to discuss some proceedings that bad recently occurred among the Presbyterians of 
Exeter ; there was a sharp division among those at the Salters Hall Synod as to sub- 
scribing to the First Article of the Church of England, and three parties arose— 
Subscribers, Non- Subscribers and Neutrals— each party published pamphlets, and in 
one, now in the Museum, called " A true relation of some proceedings at Salters Hall by 
those Ministers who signed, &c. " the name of James Anderson occurs three times among 
the signatories. And Drysdale, in his " History of the Presbyterians in England," says 
on p. 556 : — 

" Both Dr. John Cumming and Dr. Anderson of Swallow St. took an active part 
as subscribers in the Salters Hall Synod and in the controversy that followed." 

Dr. Cumming received his D.D. degree from Aberdeen, in 1728, but I was unable 
to find any record of Dr. Anderson having been similarly honoured. 

However the name " Jacobus Anderson A.M." occurs -in the list of Alumni in 
Arts of Aberdeen University for 1713-17. But that seems a little late for him if he 
came to London in 1710. 

The name also occurs, but without " A.M.," in the lists for 1690-94 and 1707-11. 

E. L. Hawkins. 




Notes and Queries. 



85 






The Rev. James Anderson and the Earls of Buehan. (A.Q.G., xviii., 9).— 

To David, the same ninth Earl of Bachan, was also dedicated the original issue of 
" Christian Morals, By Sir Thomas Brown, of Norwich, M.D. And Author of Religio 
Medici. Published from the Original and Correct Manuscript of the Author, by John 
Jeffery, D.D., Arch-Deacon of Norwich. Cambridge. Printed at the University Press. 
For Cornelius Crownfield Printer to the University : And are to be Sold by Mr. 
Knapton, at the Crown in St. Paul's church-yard ; and Mr. Morphew near Stationers- 
Hall, London, 1716." 

In a short dedication by Mrs, Elizabeth Littleton, the Daughter of Sir Thomas 
Browne (whose work was thus posthumously published, he having died in 1684), the 
titles and styles of the Earl of Buehan appear in precisely the same terms as in the 
dedication of Anderson's 1723 sermon, except that " Glendowachie " is " Glendouachie," 
and, whilst " Stirling " is correctly spelt, " Britain" is mis-spelt " Britain." There is 
nothing noticeable in the wording of the dedication, beyond the phrases, " The Honour 
you have done our Family," and " Your acceptance of it will much oblige our Family," 
which suggest that the dedication was prompted by some kindness or good offices by 
the Earl. 

In what are supposed to be modern reprints of the first edition of "Christian 
Morals," the original mis-spelling is corrected, and the name " Littelton " gratuitously 
altered to " LittZeton." 

W. B. Hextall. 

BartomolO Berg-ami.— A query in A.Q.G., viii., 33, mentions a mug inscribed 
" Bartolomo Bergami," and bearing a man's portrait. This referred to the Bergami 
whose name was prominently before the public at the " Trial of Queen Caroline," in 
1820, and who figures in many contemporary caricatures by Cruikshank and others. 
That the portrait had no relation to the Craft seems certain, but it is also certain that, 
at some stages of the differences between the Prince and Princess of Wales, in the early 
years of the nineteenth century, indications of Masonic interest are not wholly wanting. 

The Earl of Moira, who took an active part with the accusers, in March, 1813, 
published in a newspaper a letter bearing his signature, and addressed to " A Member 
of the Lodge of Free-Masons." which produced comment in the House of Commons from 
Mr. Samuel Whitbread, M.P., and correspondence between him and the Earl. The 
" Delicate Investigation," in 1806, was the outcome of statements made to the Duke of 
Sussex by Major-General Sir John Douglas and his wife, and, some years later, after 
Lord Castlereagh, a principal Secretary of State, had in a speech in Parliament, on 
March 12th, 1813, made use of the expression "the degraded and guilty heads of Sir 
John and Lady Douglas," the consequence followed that (to quote as I find), " Sir John 
Douglas was dismissed from the household of the Duke of Sussex, and expelled from a 
Masonic Lodge." 

W..B. Hextall. 

Pasqually. — I have read with much interest the paper of Bro. Firminger on 
Pasqually. There are two points upon which I would desire a few words. He certainly 
seems to have drawn upon the Kabala ; and Oagliostro seems, very curiously, to have 
drawn upon the system of Pasqually for his own three degrees above the ordinary Craft, 
as they are identical in aim and arrangement. We may feel pretty certain that 
Pasqually had some adherents in London, and hence it may be true that Cagliostro 
obtained his first idea of his Egyptian Masonry, not from Swedenborg, but from some 
Pasqually MS., attributed to a certain George Cofton. The French Monthly 



I 



86 



Transactions of the Quatuor Coronati Lodge. 



"IS Initiation" is now printing the MS. Lectures of a copy, signed by Cagliostro, of his 
three advanced degrees :— 1— 4° Apprentice ; 2—5° the Hall ; 3—6° the Reintegration. 
Swedenborg's three degrees were quite different, if I know aught about them. In 
regard to Swedenborg it is quite possible that he may have had some sort of Initiation, 
either at London, or Lunden, as early as 1706, and it seems certain if the words of 
Royal personages are reliable. Findel says— {History of Freemasonry, English Ed., 
1869, p. 326) — "As a practical Art it had long before been exercised by the 
Stonemasons of the middle ages, who had erected the Gothic buildings of Sweden. 
'Ancient Manuscripts,' says Br. Dr. Otto, 'expressly state that Freemasons (Stonemason 
Fraternity) held meetings at Stockholm and Lund in the reign of Queen Margaret.' 
(See Bauhiitte 1860, p. 239.)" 

John Yabker. 

The Quatuor Coronati Lodge in Fiction.— The work of the Quatuor Coronati 

Lodge is not a matter of general knowledge even to the Craft, so that it is all the more 
surprising to find that it has played a part in popular fiction. In his book, " Twelve 
Stories and a Dream," Mr. H. G. Wells tells the " Story of the Inexperienced Ghost." 
Clayton, a member of a golf club is telling three or four of his fellow-members 
how he had slept the night before at the club by himself, and had encountered 
the ghost of a young man who, in life, had been of a weak, silly, aimless character. 
Clayton, having dined well, is not at all scared, but enters into conversation with this 
weak-minded phantom, and finally advises him, in a fatherly way, that the best thing 
he can do is to give up his feeble attempts at " haunting " and to disappear. But this 
is just what the unfortunate shade cannot do— he has forgotten the correct method, 
which consists of a series of " passes " or motions with the hands, and has been skulking 
about in cupboards and empty rooms for a whole day. However, he is persuaded to try, 
but cannot succeed in hitting upon the proper method. He thinks that if he could see 
the thing done he would be able to discover what was wrong. Clayton, having watched 
him carefully, is able to assist him in .this way, and goes through the whole performance 
slowly, until the perplexed apparition suddenly remembers the concluding gesture, by 
accomplishing which satisfactorily, he disappears into thin air. 

One of Clayton's auditors is Sanderson, who is described as " a Freemason, a 
member of the Lodge of the Four Kings, which devotes itself so ably to the study and 
elucidation of all the mysteries of Masonry past and present." This can be none other 
than the Lodge of the Four Crowned Martyrs thinly disguised. Clayton exhibits the 
" passes " made by the ghost, so far as he can remember them, and Sanderson (who is 
" by no means the least " among the students of this Lodge) recognizes them as being 
identical " with a series of gestures — connected with a certain branch of esoteric 
Masonry " — and he is, therefore, able to supply Clayton with the few remaining motions 
necessary to complete the series. 

The question is then raised whether it would not be dangerous for Clayton to go 
through these passes in full, but in spite of the dissuasion of his friends he decides to 
take the risk. He then goes through the whole series of signs, even to the culminating 
gesture, and at the conclusion he does not vanish, but his face is seen to change " as a 
lit house changes when its lights are suddenly extinguished," and in brief he falls down 
before them, dead. But whether he did indeed pass into the spirit- world by means of 
the poor ghost's incantations, or whether he was stricken suddenly by apoplexy in the 
midst of an idle tale, is left to the reader's imagination. 

F. BENDLEi 



I 






Transactions of the Quatuor Ooronati Lodge. 



87 



REVIEWS. 



HISTORY OF THE WESTMINSTER AND KEYSTONE LODGE, No. 10. 
COMPILED BY J. W. SLEIGH GODDING, P.M. (W. Brendan $■ Son, Ltd., Plymouth, a.d. 1907). 




RO. GODDING has done well in writing the history of the well-known 
No. 10, so far as records have been discovered, for its eventful past 
has an interest far beyond the members of that old atelier, and 
though, in common with most of the Lodges which began to work 
very early in the eighteenth century, many of the minutes are missing, 
yet by most zealous researches and aided by the help of other students, 
the author has succeeded far beyond my expectation, when he first 
consulted me on the subject of such a publication. 

We need histories of all the old Lodges, including those working from " time- 
immemorial," and others constituted during the Grand Lodge era, especially any dating 
from 1721 to 1729 (when the first enumeration is met with in an engraved List). It is 
a wonder, considering the attention that is happily being paid to such records, that we 
still lack histories of Nos. 2, 4 and 12, the time-immemorial trio. Bro. Piatt's sketch of 
the "Friendship " No. 6 is very barren, and of Nos. 8, 14, 18, 20, 26 and 29, we are 
lamentably ignorant. Not a few of us were glad to welcome the interesting account of 
the " Royal Alpha " No. 16, by the lamented Bro. Col. Clerke, G.Sec, and quite 
recently the indefatigable Bro. Henry Sadler, our esteemed sub- Librarian, has favoured 
us with worthy volumes concerning the eventful past of the "Emulation " No. 21, and 
the " Globe " No. 23. There is also a charming volume, by Bro. A. F. Calvert, on the 
" Old King's Arms " No. 28 ; and Bro. Braokstone Baker's early sketch of the old No. 21 
should be gratefully remembered. Now we have another to greet most warmly, viz., 
that of No. 10, going back to the year 1722. It is the fifth oldest on the English 
Register, having (presumably) been constituted on the 28th January, 1721-2 (i.e. 
1722 N.S.). There is only one on the Roll of the previous year, though there were 
doubtless several formed at that period, or even before, only they failed to continue at 
work so long even as down to 1728-9. 

The Lodge No. 10 owes its proud position entirely to the early members, who 
were most zealous Craftsmen, and not in any way desirous of amalgamating with an 
older Lodge, so as to secure a superior position. It was given the number 7 in 1728-9, 
then 6 in 1740, and 5 from 1755 to the blessed Union of December, 1813, when it became, 
and has continued to be, number 10 on the Roll of the United Grand Lodge. 

Its original Certificate of Constitution, 28th January, 1721-2, signed most 
probably by the M.W.G.M. (His Grace the Duke of Montagu), has long been missing. 
In fact, not one has been preserved by any Lodge prior to 2nd February, 1725-6. 
There is, however, a Warrant of Confimation, of 22nd April, 1822, which is of an 
erroneous character, about which Bro. Godding says some stroDg words, which are well 
deserved, and there is also a Centenary Jewel Warrant of 2nd May, 1860, authorizing 
the members to wear a most distinctive and appropriate decoration, but attached to sky 
blue ribbqn, not a special colour, as the members desired, 



#=« 



I 



88 Transactions of the Quatuor Coronati Lodge. 

Bro. Godding suggests that the Lodge may have been working prior to 1721-2, 
which is very likely, as in my opinion many more assembled prior to 1717 than is 
generally supposed. la one of his numerous and most valuable notes, the author cites 
the case of a Lodge " held for some time past at Bishopsgate Coffee House," praying to be 
constituted and admitted among the regular Lodges, in confirmation of his opinion. The 
names of members of the Lodge in the Registers of Grand Lodge, 1723-1725 and 1731-2, 
are reproduced, side by side, which enables one to trace those of the earlier years, who 
continued on the Roll some seven years later, of whom there were nine. The Engraved 
Lists have also furnished material for Bro. Godding, and every other source, likely and 
unlikely, has been ransacked for particulars concerning the old Lodge during the period 
for which minutes are lacking. The numerous attendances of the Lodge at Grand 
Lodge (and payments to charity) are duly recorded, as copied from the official Records. 
The fact that Returns were not required to be made between 1732-1768 is most 
unfortunate for all the old Lodges whose minutes are lost for that period, but the 
author was in no way discouraged, and has managed to render a good account of 
the No. 10, through all that apparently barren term. He has so skilfully described the 
facts at his command, that it will come as a surprise to the ordinary reader to find that 
Chapter in. opens with the declaration that reliance has had to be placed on indirect 
evidence mainly until the year 1792, when the preserved minutes begin, and are 
continued almost without a break to the present day. 

Many are the records I should like to quote from, but in view of there being a 
few copies for sale, at 10s. each nett, out of the 250 copies printed (numbered 
consecutively and signed by the author) it would not be fair to do so. I may state, 
however, that their interest is great, and will repay careful perusal by all Masonic 
students. The portion devoted to the revival of the Lodge (for it was all but dormant, 
only three members being left at the time) by the introduction of a number of 
distinguished brethren belonging to Oxford Lodges, but who had ceased to reside in that 
City or County, which is entitled "The Oxford Development, 1855-1878," is most 
intensely interesting even to non-members, and naturally " Our own Times, 1878-1906" 
come in for considerable notice, as should be the case. 

I am confident that all who read this able volume will be highly gratified with 
the manner in which Bro. Godding has discharged the difficult task as the Historian 
of the Lodge, and the members especially must be greatly pleased and very grateful. 

The numerous illustrations are special features of the work, and the many Tables, 
Lists of Members, various editions of the By-Laws, Rolls of W.M's, and Officers and 
other compilations, prove how diligent the author has been, to place all the information 
possible at the disposal of the members. 

W. J. Hughan. 



BRO. GOULD'S "CONCISE HISTORY.' 



Reviews of the English Edition of Bro. Gould's Concise History of Freemasonry 

by Bros. E. J. Castle and Count Goblet d'Alviella— appeared in A.Q.C., vol. xviii., 
pp. 120 and 230. The following review of the American Edition was written by the 
late Bro. W..H. Upton, and printed in the Proceedings of the Grand Lodge of 
Washington, for 1904. 

The most important events in Masonic history are not always the 
work of Grand Lodges, or recorded in Grand Lodge proceedings, and we 



TK* 







**•' 



Reviews. 



89 



have little doubt but that posterity will declare that the incident most 
important to Masonry which occurred in the year 1904 was the publication 
of a small book — " A Concise History of Freemasonry," by Robert Freke 
Gould. This epoch-marking book is to be contrasted, rather than compared, 
with all other histories of Masonry. Its author, about twenty years ago, 
firmly established his claim to rank as the Historian of Masonry, by the 
publication of his larger History — a work best known to American Craftsmen 
through an edition issued in four large volumes. But that monumental 
work, while a mine of correct and accurate Masonic knowledge, and while 
justly praised as the first general " history " of the Fraternity written by an 
historian, as distiuguished from a romancer or a recorder of fables, was — by 
reason of its great bulk, the somewhat discursive literary style of its author, 
his habit of presenting not only his conclusions, but the evidence upon which 
he based those conclusions, and the absence of an index — wholly unsuited 
to the needs of the great mass of brethren — men who have a reasonable 
desire for a correct general idea of the development of our Fraternity, 
but neither time nor inclination to make a profound study of the subject. 
From all those, in a sense, objectionable features of the larger work, this- 
" Concise " history is entirely free. In one volume, of moderate size, the 
long career of our ancient Fraternity is laid before the reader as clearly 
as a panorama ; the author has employed a style that makes the book 
easy reading ; and a good index guides the reader to any special subject in 
which he may be interested. Another matter which adds to the value of 
the smaller book is that many problems, connected with the history of our 
Institution, which were still unsolved when the larger work was published, 
have since been worked out by the industry of a school of students of whom 
Bro. Gould is the head ; and the book before us gives the latest and best 
results of modern Masonic scholarship. In this respect, as well as in many 
others, it differs also from all other general Masonic Histories. We say 
"general" Masonic Histories, for a notable exception must be made in 
favour of some local and lodge histories and some books, of which the 
writings of Speth, Crawley, and Sadler are examples, which treat of but 
some one branch of the subject. And when compared with other general 
histories, the new work must be held to stand in a class by itself. It is the 
only brief history of our Fraternity which can be placed in the hands of the 
unlearned reader with the assurance that he may believe what he reads — 
that there are in it no pious fictions or old wives' tales narrated as facts. 
In saying this, we do not wish to be understood as implying that all of 
Bro. Gould's conclusions will be accepted as final. On the contrary, the 
" personal equation " enters into all the products of man; Bro. Gould has 
touched upon some questions that are still sub jndice, and has reached some 
conclusions — notably in " A Digression on Degrees," and in his almost 
contemptuous dismissal of Speth's hypothesis as to the Cathedral Builders — 
which are sure to awake lively dissenting discussions from some of tha 
leading Masonic scholars ; but the merit of the book is that in nearly, if not 
quite, all such cases he lays the facts before his readers and lets them know 
that other scholars draw different conclusions from those facts. Our 
purpose in thus calling attention to the Concise History is to recommend its 
general perusal by all members of the Craft. Masonic law is based to a 






£ 



* 






#** 










90 



Transactions of the Quatuor Ooronati Lodge. 

very large extent upon Masonic usage ; and knowledge of ancient and correct 
Masonic usage is only to be obtained through knowledge of the real history 
of our Fraternity. We think it not too much to say that were no man 
hereafter to be installed Grand Master in an American Grand Lodge— or 
appointed on a Correspondence Committee— who had not read and digested 
this one little book, within ten years American Masonic Jurisprudence 
would reach a position which it has never yet attained ; most of its worst 
features would disappear; and many of the local, but unhistorical, 
peculiarities and usages which have caused friction between Grand Lodges 
would be abandoned by common consent. We especially recommend the 
book to young Masons. At the time they receive the degrees, even if at 
no later period in: life, the great majority of Masons have considerable 
curiosity to know something about the history of the Institution; and would 
gladly read such a book as the " Concise History," if placed in their hands 
at that time. We, therefore, suggest to our lodges that they would be 
rendering Masonry a very great service were they to keep on hand half-a- 
dozen copies of this book, and give or sell or lend one to every newly-raised 
brother. We understand that lodges who thus buy the book in quantities 
can obtain it, bound in cloth,. for about 2.50 dollars. There are two editions 
of the book— both copyrighted and issued with the author's sanction. One 
is published by Gale and Polden, Limited, 2, Amen Corner, Paternoster-row, 
London, E.C., England ; the other by the Macoy Publishing and Masonic 
Supply Co. (Inc.), New York. As to one difference between the two editions, 
we concur in the opinion expressed by a writer in " The Palestine Bulletin," 
as follows : " The English edition contains in the way of illustrations only 
six full-page plates. The American publishers, probably with an honest 
desire to improve the book, have added upwards of 150 wood engravings 
and half-tones. We cannot say that we think the result upon the whole an 
improvement. If a judicious selection had been made of about one- third of 
the additional illustrations they would perhaps have done no harm, for 
although not as many as that could be selected that would be any ornament 
to the book, there are perhaps as many as that that illustrate something 
Masonic. But what has been done is to dump in a miscellaneous lot of cuts 
evidently from the publishers' stock on hand, of which two-thirds have no 
reference to anything in the book and one-third swear at the text. A 
reader's first introduction to a book is important. The publishers of this 
book recognize that fact. But they occupy a different point of view from 
ours. We think this book should have a severe and scholarly appearance, 
so that the reader will understand that it is that kind of a book, and 
approach it accordingly. But the publishers doubtless think it will sell 
better if it looks light and popular, and so they conceal the text by a lot of 
trashy cuts." 






Transactions of the Quatuor Coronati Lodge. 



91 






OBITUARY. 






I 




T is with regret that we have to announce the death of Brothers : — 

Herbert Bradley, of Monclair, New Jersey, U.S.A. He 
joined the Correspondence Circle in January, 1904. 

Alfred Bumstead, of 9, Strada Mercanti, Valletta, Malta, on 
18th December, 1906. He joined the Correspondence Circle in 
October, 1896. 

Robert Marr, of 29, Corn Exchange Chambers, London, E.C., on the 25th May, 
1905. He joined the Correspondence Circle in June, 1896. 

Charles Cobham, F.S.I., of The Shrubbery, Gravesend, on the 18th January. 
He joined the Correspondence Circle in June, 1900. 

Colonel Sir Charles Hughes-Hunter, Bt., F.R.S.Edin., F.S.A.Scot., of,Plas 

Coch, Anglesey, on the 2nd February. He joined the Correspondence Circle in January, 
1902. 

Joseph Henry Bean, J.P., of Gas Works, Cairns, North Queensland, on the 
•23rd December, 1906. He joined the Correspondence Circle in May, 1898. 

Brandon Dansie, of 45, Devonshire Chambers, Bishopsgate Street, London, E.C., 
on the 21st February. He joined the Correspondence Circle in January, 1896. 

Charles Leteh Mason, of 40, Womersley Road, Crouch Hill, London, N., on 
the 5th March. He joined the Correspondence Circle in June, 1887. 

George W. Hall, of 1131, Arch Street, Philadelphia, U.S.A., on the 14th 
December, 1906. He joined the Correspondence Circle in January, 1891. 

Alex Streathern Penn, of Masonic Club, Singapore, on the 9th February. 
He joined the Correspondence Circle in October, 1902. 

Carl MoritZ Emil Zobel, of 4, Beach Street, Penang, Straits Settlements. 
He joined the Correspondence Circle in November, 1900. 

E. H. Pike, of Fire Engine Station, Mile End Road, London, E., on the 17th 
March. He joined the Correspondence Circle in March, 1903. 

Charles Napier Jaekson, of 1, Cleveland Villas, The Green, South Tottenham, 
London, N., on the 2nd April. He joined the Correspondence Circle in May, 1901. 

Henry William Payne Makeham, M.R.C.S., L.R.C.P., L.S.A., of 330, New 

Cross Road, London, S.E., on the 20th March. He joined the Correspondence Circle in 
October, 1896. 

B. W. Hammet, of 2, Barking Road, East Ham, London, E., on the 2nd April. 
He joined the Correspondence Circle in March, 1899. 












92 



Transactions of the Quatuor Oofonati Itodge. 



Edwin Stephens, of 86, Bridge Street, Hereford, on the 31st March. He joined 
the Correspondence Circle in January, 1003. 

John Dysart McCaW, M.D., F.R.C.S., of St, Levau, Wallington, Surrey. He 
joined the Correspondence Circle in May, 1897. 

G. Shallcrass, of 2, Gilslead Road. Singapore. He joined the Correspondence 
Circle in May, 1898. 

F. Trehawke Davies, of 9, Cavendish Square, Loudon, W., on the 20th April. 
He joined the Correspondence Circle in October, 1900. 





Jf.WEL 0P Ttmm LODOJJ, OOSKECTICDT. 

In the possession of Bro/G. Coinstock Baker. 






ADVERTISEMENTS. 
*►■»■«♦ 

This page will be reserved for Members who desire to advertise their 
Masonic wants. The charge will be One Shilling pep line of twelve 
words, strictly payable in advanee. Advertisements should be sent to 
the Secretary, 61, Lincoln's Inn Fields, London, W.C. Replies must in 
all cases be addressed direct to the Advertisers, as the time of the 
Secretary is too fully occupied to permit him to aet as intermediary. 



FOR SALE. 

A large Library of Masonic Books. Catalogues sent free- on application. 
Author," 14, Marlborough Road, Gunnersbm-y, London, W. 



WANTED BT : 
E. L. Hawkixs, Bai'ham Hou.se, St. Leonards. Constitutions, 1756 and 1871, 8vo. 



Quatuor Coronati Lodge, No. 2076, London. 

PUBLICATIONS, 



ARS QUATUOR CORONATORUM. 
COMPLETE SETS OF THE TRANSACTIONS.— Very few complete seta of Ars Quatuor Coronatorvm, vols. I. 
to XIX., now remain an Bold. Prices may be obtained oa application to the Secretary. Bach volume will be accompanied 
so far aa possible, with the St, John's Card of the corresponding year ; but the Card for volume I. is no longer available. 

ODD VOLUMES. — Snoh copies of Volumes aB remain over after completing sets, will in f attire be on sale to iiiemberB at 
12a, 6d. per volume. Pols, I., III. and VI. are, however, only sold in complete sets. 

The principal contents of those volumes are as under, but many shorter articles, as well as reviews, notes and queries, 
biographic, and obituary notices, &c, &c, will also be found in each volatile. 

Vol. I., 1886-1 8S8, not sold separately. On Some Old Scottish Customs, R. J 1 . Qould ; The Steinmetz Theory Critically 
Examined, 67. TV. Speth; An Early Version of the Hiramic Legend, Prof. T. Hayter Lewis ; Freemasonry and Hermeticisra, 
Rev. A. F. A. Woodford; On the Orientation of Temples, Sir G. Warren ; Connecting Links between Ancient and Modern 
Freemasonry, TV. J, Snghan; The Eeligion of Freemasonry illuminated by the Kabbalah, Dr. TV TV. Westcott; English. 
Freemasonry before the Era of Grand Lodges, It. F. Gould ; Threefold Division of Temples, TV. Simpson; The Unrecognised 
Lodges and Degrees of Freemasonry, etc., J. Tarher; A Word on the Legends of the Cotnpagnonnage, Part 1., TV H. Rylands ; 
Two New Versions of the Old Charges, G. TV Speth ; Scottish Freemasonry before the Era of Grand Lodges, 0. W. Speth ; 
The Roman L^Kcnd of the Quatuor Coronati, S. Russell Fortes ; An Attempt to Classify the Old Charges of the British Masons, 
Dr. Begemann ; Masters' Lodges, J. Lane ; " Quatuor Coronati " Abroad, G. TV Speth; Scottish Freemasonry in the Present Era, 
E. Macbean ; Notes on the Relations between the Grand Lodges of England and Sweden in the last Century, 0. Ku.pfersch.midt. 

Vol.11., 1889. The Worship of Death, TV Simpson ; The Compagnonage, Partii.; Hogarth's Picture, "Night," TV H. 
Bytcttuis ; Foundation, of. Modern Freemasonry, Q. TV Speth-, Freemasonry in Rotterdam 120 years ago, J. P. Vailfatnt; 
Origin of Freemasonry, B. Cramer ; Grand Lodge at York, T. B. Wliytehead ; Freo and Freemason, F. F. Schnitger ; &c. 

Vol. Ill-, 1890, not sold separately. The Antiquity of Masonic Symbolism, R. F. Gould; Evidence of the Steinmetz 
Esoterics, F. F. Schnitger; A Symbolic Chart of 1789, G. TV Speth; Masonic Character of the Roman Villa at Morton, Isle of 
Wight, Col. J. F. Grease, C.B.; Masonry and Masons' Marks, Prof. T. Sayter Lewis; Masons' Marks, Dr. TV Wi/nn Westcott; 
Masons' Marks, F. F. Schnitger ; Mummers and Guisers, W. Simpson ; Mosaics at Morton, S. Russell Faroes; Freemasonry in 
Holland, F.J. W. Crowe; The Grand Lodge of Hnngary, L. de Malczovick ; Brahminical Initiation, W. Simpson; A Masonic 
Curriculum, G. W. Speth; Freemasonry in America, C. P. MacCalla ; A Forgotten Rival of Freemasonry : The Noble Order of 
Backs, TV B. Rylands ; Navmus GrioGUB, Wyatt Papu-orth ; Formation of the Grand Lodge of Scotland, E. Macbean. 

Vol. IV., 1391 . The Druses and Freemasonry, Rev. Baskett Smith -, Freemasonry in Austria and Hungary, (continued in 
Vols. V. to IX.,) L. de Malczovick ; Freemasonry in Holland, Dr. H. W. Vieperink, J. P. Vaillant, F. J. W. Crowe ; The Swastioa, 
Mrs. Murray Aynsley ; Martin Clare ; Albert Pike, R. F. Gould ; Masonic Landmarks among the Hindus, Rev. P. J. Oliver Minos ; 
Unidentified MSS., W. J. Hurjhan ; The AJban and Athelstan Legends ; Naymus Greens, 0. C. Howard; Masonic Musicians, 
Dr. W. A. Barrett; A Masonic-built City, Dr. S. BuieelLFortes ; Old Lodge at Lincoln, W. Dixon; The W. Watson MS., 
Dr. Begemann; Legend of Sethos, Sir B. W. Richardson; Cobham Church, W. M. Bywater; Royal Arch Masonry, TV. J. Hwjhan ; 
An Early Home of Masonry, W. F. Version, &c. 

Vol. V., 1892. The Noose Symbol, IV. Simpson ; FreomaBonry in Holland, J". P. Vaillant, Dr. Dieperink, J. D. Oortman. 
Gerlings ; Masonic Clothing, F. J. TV. Crowe; The Craft Legend, De. Begemann; Masonic Genius of Robert Barns, 
Sir B. Ward Richardson; freemasons and the Laws of the Realm, W. Foolts ; Thomas Manningham, R. F.Gould; The Proper 
NameB of Masonic Tradition, Rev. 0. J. Ball; Date oE Origin of Grand Lodge (Ancients) 1751, John Lane; The Masonio Apron, 
W. E. Rylands ; The Assembly, B. F. Gould, tee. 

Vol. VI., 1893, not sold separately. W. M. Williams, Sir B. W. Bickardsoni The Tabernacle, Rev. C. H. Maiden, 
Dr. W. W. We.iicoll; Sikh Initiation j Consecrabion of Parses Priest, W. Simpson; The Tracing Board in Oriental and 
Medieval Masonry, 0. Purdon Clarke; Aneient Stirling Lodge; OW Charges, W. J. Hughan ; Rev, W. Stukeloy; Dr. V 
Plot, R. F, Gould; The Assembly, G. W. Speth, Dr. Begemann; Masonic Clothing, F. J. W. Crowe, &c. 

Vol. VII., 1694. From Labour to Refreshment, TV F. Vernon ; Continental Jewels and Medals, F. J. W. Crowe; The 
Rosierneians, Dr. W. Wynn Westcott ; Masters' Lodge at Exeter, W. J. Ruglian ; Master Masons to Crown of Scotland, F. Macbean ; 
The True Text of MS. Constitntions, TV. H. Upton; Bandom Courses of Scotch Masonry, J. Mclntyre North; Medical Profession 
and Freemasonry, R. F. Gould, &e. 

Vol, VHI., 1895. The Arch and Temple in Dundee, Thomas A. Lindsay; The Hon. Miss St. Leger, S. Conder, jun.; 
Notes on Irish Freemasonry, Dr. Chetwode Crawley; Some Masonic Symbols, W. H. Rylands; Duke of Wharton, and the 
Gormogons, B. F. Gould ; The Cabin, G. Fitz G ib'bon ; Barly Lodges and Warrants, J. Lane; The two Saints John Legend, 
Dr. Chetwode Crawley ; Death and the Freemason, E. J. Barron, &c. 

Vol. IX., 1896. Notes on Trish Freemasonry, Dr. Chelwode Crairley; The Masons' Company, B. Conder, jun.; German 
Freemasonry, G. Greiner, C. Wiebe, C. Kupferschmidl ; Law of Dakhiel, S. T. Klein; A Gurioua Historical Error, Dr. W. Barlow; 
Bibliography of the Old Charges, TV J. Eughan, Ac. 

Vol. X.,1897. Sir B. W. Richardson, E. F. Gould; Free and Freemasonry, G. W. Speth; Furniture of Shakespeare Lodge, 
J. J. Raineyj Lodge at Mons, G. Jottrmtd; Masonic Contract, TV. J. Rughan ; Masonio Symbolism, Rev. J. W.Borsley; The Great 
Symbol, S. T. Klein ; The Three Degrees, TV. J. Rnyhan ; J. H. Drammond, B. F. Gould ; Masonic Medals, G. L. Shackles ; The 
Kirkwall Scroll, Rev. J. B. Craven, &o. 

VOL. XL, 1898. Bodleian Masonic MSS., Dr, Chetwode Crawley ; Hidden Mysteries, 8. T. Klein ; Two Degrees Theory, 
G. TV. Speth; Order of the Temple, J. Tarher ; Freemasonry in Greece, W. Philon; Charles n. and Masonry, E. Conder, jun.; 
Batty Langley on Geometry, Henry Lavegrove ; Robert Samber, E. Armitage j Basses Notes, W. R. Rylands ; The John T, Thorp 
MS., W. J. Bughan, &c. 

Vol. XIL, 1899. T. H. Lewis, 0. Purdon Clarke; English. Lodge at Bordeaux, G. W. Speth; Intimations of Immortality 
J. W. Hordey j West African Secret Societies, E. P. Fita-Ge'rald Marriott; Leicester Masonry, <?. TV. Speth ; Descriptions of King 
Solomon's Temple, 8. P. Johnston ; Jacob Johndah Leon, TV J. Chstioode Craidey; Establishment of Grand Lodge of Ireland 
TV. Begemann; W. Simpson, B. Macbean; VeBtigia Quatuor Coronatorum, G. Pardon Clarke. 



Yol. XIII., 1900. The York Grand Lodge, John Lane, TV. J. Rughan ; The Chevalier Burnes, P. F. Gould ; Prince Hall's 
Letter Book, TV. H. Upton; The 31st Foot and Masonry in West Florida, R. F. Gould; Quatuor Ooronati in Belgium, 
Count Goblet d'Alviella; Belies of the Grand Lodge at York, T. B. Whytehead ; The Sackvibe Medal, Dr. TV. J. Ghetwode Crawley j 
Chivalrio Freemasonry in the British Isles, Sir Charles A. Cameron; Inaugural Address, E. Conder, jun. ; &o. 

VOL. XIV., 1901. The Alnwick Lodge Minutes, TV H. Rylands; The 47th Proposition, T. Greene, TV. H. Rylands; 
Military Masonry, R. F. Gould; The Miracle Play, E. Conder, jun.; The "Settegast " Grand Lodge of Germany, G. TV. Speth; 
In Memoriam— G. W. Speth : Sir Walter Besant, TV H. Rylands ; NaymuB Grecus, G. W. Speth; Marcus Greens Eversns, 
Dr. Chetwode Crawley; Leicestershire Masonry, E. Conder, jun.; Remarks, Ac, on the " Sloane Family," Dr. W. Begemann; 
The "Testament of Solomon," Rev. IV E. Windle; Antony Sayer, A. F. Calvert; Inaugural Address, Gotthelf Greiner; 
"Wheeler's Lodge," Dr. Chetwode Crawley ; &c. 

Vol. XV., 1902. Sir Peter Lewys, H. F. Berry ; Sir John Doyle, R. F. Gould; Theodore Sutton Parvin, R. F. Goutd; 
Building of Culham Bridge, TV H. Rylands ; Solomon's Seal and the Shield of David, Rev. J. TV Horsley; The Gormogon Medal, 
G. L. ShacHes ; Coins of the Grand Masters of the Order of Malta, G. L. Shackles; Samuel Beltz, E. A.' ' Ebblewhite ; Two French 
Doouments, TV. H. Rylands; The Wesleys ard Irish Freemasonry, Dr. Chetwode Crawley, Summer Outing, F. J. Rebman; 
Charter Incorporating the Trades of Gateshead, TV H. Rylands; The Reception (Initiation) of a Templar, E. J. Castle; 
Inaugural Address— Secret Sooieties, B. J. Castle; Early Irish Certificates!, Dr. Chetwode Crawley ; The Old Swalwell Lodge, 
X Yarker ; Craft Guilds of Norwich, J. C. Tingey ; &c, &o. 

Vol. XVI., 1903. Some Notes on the Legends of Masonry, TV H. Rylands; Masonic Certificates of the Netherlands, 
F. J. TV Crowe; The Degrees of Pure and Ancient Freemasonry, R. F. Gould; A Curious Old Illuminated Magic Boll, 
IV. J. Hughan; Order of Masonic Merit, TV J. Hughan; Notes on Irish Freemasonry, No. VII., Dr. Chetwode Crawley; 
William of Wykeham, E. Conder, jun.; Three Great Masonic Lights, R.F.Gould; Philo Musicse et Architecture Societas 
Apollini, R. F. Gould; A French Prisoners' Lodge, F.J. TV Crowe; The Magic Scroll (text and facsimile); Koyal Templar 
Certificate of 1779, J. Yarlcer ; The Patent of a Russian Grand Lodge, 18 IB, J. Tarker; A Curious Carbonari" Certificate, 
F. J. .W. Crowe; A " Pompe Funebre," John T. Thorp; Order of St. John of Jerusalem, TV. U. Rvlands ; Freemasonry in 
Gounod's Opera, Irene the Queen of Sheba, John T. Thorp ; The Ionic Lodge, No. 227, London, W. John Songhur&t ; Knighta 
Templars, F. H. Goldney; Speth Memorial Fund; Chichester Certificates!, 18th century, John T. Thorp; Summer Outing, 
June, 1903, TV John Songhurst; The Chevalier D'Eon, TV. /. Chetwode Cnnvlcg ; The Magic Roll, Dr. TV Wynn Westeott, 4c. 

Vol. XVII., 1904. Colours in Freemasonry, F. J. TV. Crowe ; Dr. Robert Fludd, E. Armitage ; Minutes of an Extinct 
Lodge, E. A. J. Breed ; Budrum Castle, Admiral Sir A. H. MarTcham ; The Very Ancient Clermont Chapter ; The High Grades 
in Bristol and Bath, J. Tarker; The "Chetwode Crawley" M.S., W.J. Hughan; Irish Certificates, S. C. Bingham, TV.' John 
Songhurst ; Accounts of Re-building St. Paul's Cathedral, Canon J. TV. Horsley, Andrew Oliver ; Summer Outing, Worcester, 
TV. John Songhurst ; The Grand Lodge of Ireland and the Grand Lodge of Pennsylvania, Dr. Chetwode Crawley ; A Glance at the 
Records of Two Extinct Hull Lodges, G. L. Shackles; Templaria et Hospitallaria, L. de Malczovich; Inaugural Address— The 
Government of the Lodge, Canon J. W. Horsley ; Notes on Irish Freemasonry, No. VIII., Dr. Chetwode Crawley ; &c, &c. 

Vol. XVIII., 1905. The Rev. James Anderson and the Earls of Buchan, J. T. Thorp; The "Mareneourt" Cup and 
Ancient Square, H. F. Berry ; The Rev. Dr. Anderson's Non-Masonic Writings, Dr. Chetwode Crawley ; Speculative Members 
included in Bishop Cosin's Charter incorporating the Trades of Gateshead, 1671, St. Ifaur ; The Kipperah, or Bora; An 
Unrecorded Grand Lodge, H. Sadler; Origin of Masonic Knight Templary in the United Kingdom, W.J. Hughan; Jean 
Baptiste Marie Eagon, W. J. Songhurst ; Moses Mendez, Grand Steward, J. P. Simpson; Mock Masonry in the Eighteenth 
Century, Dr. Chetwode Crawley; Masonic Chivalry, J. Littleton; Some Fresh Light on the Old Bengal Lodges, Rev. TV K. 
Firminger; A Newly Discovered Version of the Old Charges, F. W. Levander; An Old York Templar Charter, J. Yarker; The 
Naimus Grecus Legend, I., E. H. Dring ; Summer Outing— Chester, W. J. Songhurst; Contemporary Comments on the 
Freemasonry of the Eighteenth Century, Dr. TV. J. Chetwode Crawley ; Rev. Fearon Fallows, M.A., W. F. Lamonby ; Installation 
Address, G. L. Shackles ; A Forgotten Masonic Charity, F. J. TV. Crowe ; &o., &c. 

Vol. XIX., 1906. Old City Taverns and Masonry, J. P. Simpson ; The Carolus of our Ancient MSS., J. Yarker ; The Sirr 
Family and Freemasonry, H. Sirr; The Naimus Grecus Legend, II., E. H. Dring ; Seals on " Antients " Grand Chapter 
Certificates, J. T. Thorp; The Lodge of Prudent Brethren, H. Guy; Templaria et Hospitallaria, L. de ■ Malczovich ; A Unique 
Engraved List of Lodges, " Ancients," a.d. 17.53, W. J. Hughan; The Sea Serjeants, IV. B. Hextall ; "Demit" and Jewel of 
Ancient Lodge, G. L. Shackles ; King Solomon and the Queen of Sheba, F. J. TV Crowe ; J. Morgan, and his " Phcenix 
Britannicus," H. Sirr; Order of the Knights of the Holy Sepulchre of Jerusalem, L. de Malcsovich; Studies in Eighteenth 
Century Continental (so-called) Masonry, Rev. W. E. Firminger; The Equilateral Triangle in Gothic Architecture, Arthur 
Bowes; Summer Outing, Shrewsbury and Ludlow, W. John Songhurst; Notes on the Grand Chaplains of England, Canon 
Horsley; Eighteenth Century Masonic Documents, Archdeacon Clarke; Gnosticism and Templary, E. J. Castle; An Old 
Engraved Apron, St. Maur ; Notes on a Curious Certificate and Seal, TVm. Wynn Westeott; Arab Masonry, John Yarker; 
&c, &c. 

Vol. XX., 1907. John Cole, TV. John Songhurst ; On Masonic History, John Yarker ; Some old London Taverns and 
Masonry, J. P. Simpson; Proceedings against the Templars, 1307-11, E. J. Castle; A Belgian Daughter of the Grand Lodge 
of Scotland, Count Goblet d'Alviella ; 

In progress. 



MASONIC REPRINTS. 

Of these Masonio Reprints, consisting mainly of exquisite facsimiles, a few copies ia each case of the following volumes 
Me still in stock. Vols. I., II., III., IV. and Till, are oat of print. 

QUATUOR CORONATORUM ANTIGRAFHA. 

Volume I. (out of print contains : — 

Facsimile and Transcript of the " Masonic Poem " MS., Bib. Reg. 17 A. 1. (British Museum). This MS. is the 
earliest document (circa 1390) in existence, in any tongue, relating to Freemasonry. It was first published in 1840 
by J. Orchard Halliwell with a facsimile of four lines, and again in 1844 with a facsimile of the first page. This 
was at once translated into several languages, causing great iuterest throughout the Craft. 

Facsimile and Transcript of " Urbanitatis " Oott. MS., Caligula a. u,, f l. 88. (British Museum). 

Facsimile and Transcript from "Instructions for a Parish Priest," Cott. MS., Claudius A. II., fol. 127. (British 
Museum). These two old MSS. contain passages identical with some of those which appear in the " Poem." 

"The Plain Dealer," No. 61, Monday, September 14th, 1724. An article on the Freemasons, concluding with the 
celebrated letters on the " Gormogons." This is reproduced from the copy presented to the Lodge by Bro. 
Ramsden Riley, and only one other copy is known to exist. Portions of the article were printed in "The Grand 
Mystery," 2nd edition, 1725. 

"An Ode to the Grand Khaibar," 1726. This reproduction is also made from the copy in the Lodge Library, 
presented by Bro. T. B. Wbytchead, no other copy being known to exist. The Khaibarites were apparently a some- 
what similar Society to the Gormogons, and were equally the rivals of the Freemasons. 

"A Defence of Masonry," The Free Mason's Pocket Companion, 2nd edition, 1738. (Grand Lodge of England Library). 

"Brother Euclid's Letter to the Author." The New Book of Constitutions, ... by James Anderson, D.D., 
London, . . . 1738. (Grand Lodge of England Library). 

A Commentary on the "Masonic Poem," " Urbanitatis," and " Instructions for a Parish Prie3fc," by Bro. R. F. Gould. 

Maps and Glossary. 

In Vols. II. to VI. is reproduced a series of the MS. Constitutions or " Old Charges," which fully represents ttie 
various " families '* into which all known copies of these interesting documents have been classified by 
Dr. Begemann. 



Volume II. (out of print) contains : — 

Facsimile and Transcript of the " Matthew Cooke MS," Add. MS., 23198 (British Museum), with Commentary 
thereon by Bro. G. W. Speth. This MS. is believed to have been written about the beginning of the 15tli century. 
It is next in point of interest to the " Regius MS," {Masonic Poem) published in Vol. I. and is probably equal to it 
in interest. 

Facsimile and Transcript of the " Landsdowne MS." No. 98, art 48, f. 276 b. (British Museum). The late Mr. Bond 
estimated the date of this MS. at about 1600, bat as it is believed to have formed part of the collection of Lord 
Burghley, who died A.n. 1598, its age is probably greater. 

Facsimile and Transcript of the " Harleian MS." No. 1942. (Briiisft Museum). The question of the date of this MS. is 
all-important and has given rise to much discussion. Mr. Bond and others ascribe it to the beginning of the 17th 
century, though other commentators such as Bro. Gould believe that the contents are scarcely compatible with this 
theory. 

Volume III. (out of print) contains : — 

Facsimile Of the " Harleian MS." No. 2054, fo. 22. (British Museum). With Introduction and Transcript. This MS. 
is of the 17th century and contains, besides the usual legends and laws, a curious list of payments made " to be a 
mason," also the Freemasons" oath in the handwriting of Eandle Holme, the herald and antiquary. 

Facsimile of the " Sloane MS." No. 3848. (British Museum). With Introduction and Transcript. 

Facsimile of the "Sloane MS." No. 3323. (British Museum). With Introduction and Transcript. The dates of 
these two MSS. are 1646 and 1649 respectively. 

Facsimile of the "William Watson MS." Roll. (Masonic Library, Province of West Yorkshire, Wakefield). With 
Transcript, and Commentary by Bro. C. C. Howard. For many reasons this is ona of the most interesting and 
important in the series of " Old Charges" which has yet been discovered. It is dated 1687, and is the only one 
shewing signs of derivation from the celebrated " Matthew Cooke MS." 

Facsimile (one page) Of the " Cama MS." With Introduction and Transcript. This MS. is in tho possession of the 
Lodge, and has not before been published in any form. It supplies a link long missing between the " Grand Lodge " 
and " Spencer" families of these old writings. 



Volume IV. (out of print) contains ■■ — 

Facsimile Of the "Grand Lodge No. 1, MS." Roll. (Grand Lodge Library). With Introduction and Transcript. 
This Roll is dated 25th December, 1583, is the oldest one extant with a date attached, presumably the third or 
fourth oldest known, and its text is of especial value, insomuch that in Dr. Begomann's classification it gives its 
name to the most important family of these documents and to the most important branch of that family. 

Facsimile of the "Grand Lodge No, 2, MS." Roll. (Grand Lodge Library). With Introduction and Transcript. 
The great value of this MS. apart from its beauty, lies in the fact that it corroborates the text of the Harleian 1D42 
MS. (see Vol. II.), whoBe authority has been severely called in question by some studentB. 

Facsimile of the " Buchanan MS." Roll. (Grand Lodge Library). With Introduction and Transcript. This MS. 
hats once before been printed (in Gould's " History.") Its date would presumably be about 1670. 

Facsimile ef "The Beginning and First Foundation of the Most Worthy Craft of Masonry . 

Printed for Mrs. Dodd . . . 1739." With Introduction. This print is so rare that in addition to the 
copy m the Library of Grand Lodge, from which our facsimile is taken, only two others are known to exist, and both 
of theso are in the D.S.A, 

Facsimile (two pages) of the "Harris No, 2 MS." (Bound up with a, copy of the " Freemasons' Calendar for 1781," 
in the British Museum, Ephemerides, pp. 2493, gaa.) With Introduction and Transcript. Although of so late a date 
the additions to the ordinary text presented by this version are of great interest aud curiosity. 



Volume V., price 10s. 6d., contains : — 
Facsimile and Transcript of the Scarborough MS. Roll of the Constitutions. Thia Ms. dates previoaa 

to 1706 and bears a beautifully coloured oo&t oi the Masons' Arms, besides a valuable endorsement of Makings 

in the year 1705. It ia in. the possession of the Grand Lodge of Canada, and was kindly entrusted to us by the 

Grand Master for the purpose of reproduction. 
Facsimile and Transcript of the Phillipps No. 1 MS. A beautiful MS. in two coloura of the 17th century. 
Facsimile (partial) and Transcript of the Phillipps No. II. MS. Very similar to the above. 
Facsimile (partial) and Transcript of the Philiipps No. 111. MS. Early 18th century and has never been 

published in any form. The above three MSS. are now in the possession of the Rev. J. E. A. Fenwick, Cheltenham. 

Volume VI., price 10s. 6d., contains:— 
Facsimile Of the so-called InigO Jones MS., formerly In the library of our late Bro. Woodford, and now in the 

collection of the Provincial Grand Lodge of Worcestershire. It ia a specially beautiful MS., rubricated throughout, 

and has a curious frontispiece, signed Inigo Jones, and dated 1607. 
Facsimile of the Wood MS. This ia dated 1G10, which is undoubtedly authentic. A beautifully written and rubricated 

MS. with marginal references, and a copious index, the latter being a unique feature in this class of documents. 

" Newly© Translated by J. Whytestones for John Sargonsonne, 1610." It was formerly in the library of the late 

Bro. A, F. A. Woodford, and is now the property of the Provincial Grand Lodge of Worcestershire, 
Facsimile and Transcript Of the Lechmere MS., 17th century, undated, the property of the Provincial Grand 

Lodge of Worcestershire. 

Volume VII., (nearly exhausted), price 10a. Gd., contains: — 
A photolithographic facsimile of "The New Book of Constitutions," by Dr. Anderson, 1738, with aa 

introduction by Bro W. J. Hngha.n, P.G.D. This is one of the rarest, and to the student one of the most important books in the 
whole range of Masonic literature, giving as it does, the earliest account, of the first twenty-one years of the Grand Lodge of 
England. Our facsimile is tok- he copy in the library of W. Bro. J. E. Le Feuvre, who kindly lent it for the purpose, 

and is an exact reproduction, and not a mere imitation in old-faced typo. 

Vo ] vill >'•) Masonic Certificates being Notes and Illustrations (thirteen plates) descriptive of those 
Engraved Documents of the Grand Lodge and Grand Chapter of England, from the Earliest to the Present Time, by 
J. Ranuden RUey, P.M., etc. 

Volume IX., price 10s. (3d., contains the full test of a valuable and hitherto unedited MS. in the British Museum :— 
"The Book of the Fundamental Constitutions and Orders of the Philo Musicae et Architecture 

Societas London 1725-1727," twenty-two pages of facsimile, and a treatise on the history and masonic importance of 
This Society from the pen of W.Bro. W. H. llyiauds, F.S.A., P.A.G.U.G., Past Master. A point of great importance is that we 
have in this MS. the first evidence of tor. cees in Freemasonry, and a glimpse of the way in which Freemasonry 

was earned on only a few years after, the foundation of the Grand Lodge by brethren imbued with the methods m vogne 
immediately before that event. The Society, as its name implies, was composed of musicians and lovers of musio who were at 
the same time Freemason as "«t * Lodge recognised by the Grand Lodge of England, it earned on Masonic 

work, apparently by the inherent right of its members, whenever they thought convenient so to do. 



>»a 






FACSIMILES OF THE OLD CHARGES. 

FOUR ROLLS, viz , Grand Lodge Nos. I 8., Scarborough MS., and the Buchanan MS., as above, are also 

published separately, without Transcript, in the original Roll form lithographed on vegetable veilmii and stitched in exact 
imitation of the originals. They are enclosed in lettered leather cylinders. Price One Guinea each. The edition is 
strictly limited to 100 of each (only a few left), and each case and roll numbered and registered. 

OTHER PUBLICATIONS. 
The Masonic Genius of Robert Burns, by Sir Bcn^m Ward Bichflrdson, drawing-room edition, extraiUustrationa £0 5 

Facsimile of the Regius MS. or Masonic P. 1390, bound in imitation of the original m the Brit. Museum £0 12 6 

Oaementaria Hibernica, by Dr. W. J. Oh <dey, a collection of faesi miles of early Irish Haaorno Documents, 

with commentaries, &c, Fasciculus ■'. . , - ft 

Do., Fasciculus II., Fasciculus VtL, cad, complete in itself tm1 es available ... each £0 

The Orientation of Temples, bv Bro. W. Simpson, uniform in swe to bind with the TrmMUlMM ... ... *0 

The MacNab Mas. MS., bv Wm. Wateon and W. J. Bughtm, Beprottnction and Commentary ,'" ( «i M . '" 

British Masonic Medal.;, with twelve plates of illustrations. This Look is praoticaBj , and contains every 

British Ma enio Medal of a commemorative character htttwrl Hast rate, 1 ob verse 

i ud historically treated. The book i d* hound in blue cloth vath gold 

lettering ... ... ••• ■•• "' _. -_ „ .1" 

b. Masonic Curriculum. irse of study in -Freemasonry, by.«. W. spstft ... .... 

Olsrified Catalog*' Ooronati I, -J, Hos. I bo P with original library slips ... 

The «; 1 ^^;;;: ^ ^ & pricea ^ and t0 be obtained only'by application to the Secretary, 







BINDING. , 

nbere returning ' ■ Secretary can have them half-bound, dark blue Morocco, lettered gold, for 5s 

volume. The Secretary will supply cases, as above, at 2a. (id. per volume. 

MEMBERSHIP MEDAL. 

Brethren of the I later Circle arc entitled to «va «■ a C, >dge Modal, to be pKMMUad of the Secretary. Price, with ring to 
bronze 4s. s i. .east jewel in bronze 

- are informed that a special jewel is provide:! for their use, silver gilt, blue and red enamel, price 51s. 6d. 

May 1 




Q,uatuor Coronati 3lo6ge, 



NO. 2076, laONlf>ON. 




BRITISH MUSEUM. ADO, MSS-, 19. SSI, 
K CIRCA. 1500 A. P. K 



8ECBETAMY; 

W. JOHN SONGHURST, F.C.I.S., A.G.D.C. 



OFFICE, LIBRARY AJSJD BEADING- BOOM i 

61, LINCOLN'S INN FIELDS, LONDON, W.C. 



FRIDAY, 3rd -MAY, 1907. 




HE Lodge met at Freemasons' Hall, at 5 p.m. Present— Bros. Hamon le Strange, 
Prov. G.M., Norfolk, W.M. ; Geo. L. Shackles, I.P.M. ; Canon J. W. Horsley, 
P.G.Ch., Chap.; B. Armitage, P.D.G.D.C., S.W. ; J. P. Simpson, S. Stew., as J.W. ; 
W. H. Rylands, P.A.G.D.C., Treas.; W. John Songhurst, A.G.D.C, Secretary ; W. 
M. Bywater, P.G.S.B., D.C.; J.T. Thorp, P.A.G.D.C, S.D.; G. Greiner, P.A.G.D.C, 
P.M., as I.G.; E. J. Castle, P.D.G.Reg., P.M.; and E. L. Hawkins. 

Also the following members of the Correspondence Circle — Bros. Thos. 
Cohu, P.G.St.B. ; A. T. Mayell, H. H. Montague Smith, W. Howard-Flanders, S. S. 
Partridge, T. Ambler, R. Manuel, I. V. Henderson, J. W. Eisenman, W. A. S. Humphries, W. B. Hextall, 
E. M. Searle, J. M. Prillevitz, G. J. Gissing, G.'H. Luetchford, Rev. M. Rosenbaum, W. C. Cave-Browne, 
R. Potter, Herbert Barrows, J. Walter Hobbs, W. F. Suttaford, R. Blount Lewis, W. J. Coles, John Church, 
H. F. Whyman, F. J. Eedle, S. R. Baxter, H. Barnard Watson, David Flather, G. Blkington, 0. E. 
Turnbull, Horace Nelson, J. F. H. Gilbard, W. H. Harris, A. A. Milward, J. F. Roberts, G.Std.B. ; J. C 
Lyell, W. C. P. Tapper, Harry Guy, F. Mella, F. W. Levander, T. Leete, B. V. Darbishire, H. Hyde, T. 
Cato Worsfold, H. J. Dalgleish, W. L. Smith, J. I. Moar, G. R. D. Rust, R. J. Harrison, W. R. F. Smith, 
J. T. Phillips, J. Pullen, A. C Forrester, W. Mercer, H. E. Brown, M. Thomson, J. Johnson, W. 
Wonnacott, W. R. Poole, Sydney Meymott, S. Walshe Owen, G. Vogeler, D. Bock, J. A. Richards, Lewis 
Wild, G. S. King, W. G. Linsell, G. G. Lean, B. W. Derry, W. S. Lincoln, R. S. Ellis and W. Hammond. 

Also the following visitors — Bros. H. P. Kottmann, Lodge de Ster in t'Oosten, Batavia ; Charles 
H. Watson, Queen's Westminster Lodge No. 2021 ; W. E. Soar, Mendelssohn Lodge No. 2661 ; H. E. 
Waring, Anglo-Colonial Lodge No. 3175 ; A. W. J. Russell, Royal Albert Hall Lodge No. 2986 ; James 
Stuart, Tweed Lodge (Kelso) No 261; John H. Tyars, Staines Lodge No. 2536; and U. L. Cooke, 
Addiscombe Lodge No. 1556. 



Letters of apology for non-attendance were received from Bros. S. T. Klein, P.M. ; Dr. W. Wynn 
Westcott, P.G.D., P.M.; W. J. Hughan, P.G.D.; E. Macbean, P.M.; Dr. W. J. Chetwode Crawley, 
G.Tr., Ireland; H. F. Berry; Sir A. H. Markham, P.D.G.M., Malta; T. B. Whytehead, P.G.S.B.; B. 
Conder, jun., P.M.; H. Sadler, G.Ty., I.G. ; J. P. Rylands ; W. Watson; R. F. Gould, P.G.D. ; L. A. de 
Malczovich; F. H. Goldney, P.G.D. ; F. J. W. Crowe, P.G.O., J.D. ; and E. H. Dring. 



One Lodge and eighty-three brethren were admitted to the membership of the Correspondence 



Cirele. 



■On ballot taken, Bro. Henry Fitzpatkick Berry, I.S.O., Asst. Keeper Publie Records, Ireland, 
M.A., Barrister-at-Law, Member of Royal Irish Academy, Fellow and Member of Council of Royal 
Society of Antiquaries, Ireland, etc., etc., P.M. Trinity College Lodge No. 357 (I.C), P.K. University 
Chapter R.A., residing at 51, Waterloo Road, Dublin, author of " Sir Peter Lewys, Ecclesiastic, Cathe- 
dral and Bridge Builder and his Company of Masons," "The 'Marencourt' Cup and Ancient Square," 
etc, was elected a joining member of the Lodge. 



<• - -_ . - ,• -V Sa 






94 



***• 



Transactions of the Quatuor Goronati Lodge. 

It was resolved, on the proposition of the W.M., seconded by the S.W. : 

"That Brother Robert Archibald Shirrefs having, for twelve years, been exceptionally 
active in New Jersey as the Local Secretary of the Quatuor Coronati Correspondence 
Circle, the Lodge cannot accept his resignation of that office without putting on record 
its sense of the valuable service which he has rendered, and its sincere regret that he has 
felt it incumbent upon him to retire, and that this resolution be suitably engrossed and 
presented to him." 



A vote of congratulation was passed to Bros. Archdeacon Cunningham, Thomas Fraser, Sir F. S. 
Graham Moon, F. Broadsmith, A. Burnett Brown, T. Whitmore Chant, W. ,Tohn Songhurst, C. J. 
Drummond, Col, J. A. Carpenter, J. F. 'Roberts and Walter H. Brown, on their having received Grand 
Lodge honours at the Grand- Festival, held On the 24th of April. ■ " : 



Bro. E. J. Castle, P.M., gave notice that at" the next meeting he would move: 

' "That after the 30th November, 1907, the entrance fee for membership of the Correspond- 
ence Circle he 21s., to include the first year's subscription, future subscriptions remaining 
as at present." 



' EXHIBITS. 

By Bro. Dr. J. T.. Chev.es, Plymouth. 

Mark Jewel, made in the West Country about fifty years ago. ' The " Mark: " is a representa- 
tion of a greyhound, in frosted silver. 

By Bro. Milnes Het, London. 

Bronze Finger-Ring. This was purchased- by Bro. Milnes Hey at a village near Boppard, and 
was said to have been found in the bed of the River Rhine. It is probably of 16th-century make, and 
may have belonged to a member of some German guild. 



m 



By the Lodge. ' ' ' 

Carved Tortoiseshbll Snuff-Box of Frenchmake. 

R.A. Breast Jewel, made for Jno. Molony, January 4th, 1815. In the centre of the interlaced 
triangles is an irradiated G. 

By Bro. Harry Guy, London. 

Apron, probably Irish, late 18th century. 

" French Prisoners' " Jewel, in stamped silver frame. The" " Prince of Wales's feathers " at 
the back indicate the date of manufacture. 

A vote of thanks was passed to those brethren who had lent objects for exhibition. 



Pro. J. T. Thorp read the following paper :— 



■HH 



Aes Quatcor Coronatorum. 










Old Mark Jewel in the possession of Bro. Dr. Cheves. 






II 



Aks Quatoor Coronatorum. 




OR. THE 

*t?*Qf Id brought out of Qarknefs 
to LI G H T. 

3 £ 1 N G, 

An A ut Hentick Account of all t3h,e Secrets of 
the Ardent Society, of free Maf&ts, which have 
'\xca handed down by Oral Tradition only, from 
&,: aifuruiioiT, to the prefent Time, 
IN WHICH 

ftJoriarty defcribed, die Whole Ceremony ufed 
ftSktajLMASONi, as it has been hitherto praftiferi ia 
jaU the IJofcoea ^rnjnd the Globe; by which any Peribn, 
■Who \m never nude, may introduce himfeii' into a -Lodge. 
■WITH 

I^o^£Jfe£xp1atatorVi HIAorkal, and Critical. 

''** winch Bt Bided, 

^|b£ /.-;/ tkoh's JUasons for the Publication hereof ini 
^jdhc SJew «mlc i on fc CotidoA of tba Aether o£ a Fimj&tttj 
."*®i(J» MASONRY DISSECTED, 

with' 
' ATs'ty? £ni Correft L*£f tf all the Reg^iar Codges, 

;£* C«*aiwtioii r according to their lace Rcraa- 
ai-Aci:io 

JE^ ALEXANDER SLADE, 

fdk JJ4flfer <>f Zfret Mtgular Cmtfifufti Lo&x, 

-/ ofNoav 



fetal ft 



■ d q : 
;<> St.. 

M.UCCU*. 



i-y*rf. 



Title Page of Slade's "Freemason Examin'd." 

(First Edition, 1754.) 

From the Original in the Library of the Provincial 
Grand Lodge of Worcestershire. 



I 



Transactions of the Quatuor Goronati Lodge. 



95 



FREEMASONRY PARODIED IN 1754 

BY SLADE'S "FREEMASON EXAMIN'D." 

BY BRO. J. T. THORP, F.R.Hist.S., P.A.G.D.C. 




MONG the host of spurious rituals or " exposures " which hampered 
and pestered Freemasonry throughout the eighteenth century, pro- 
fessing, as they did, to describe accurately the whole of the ritual 
and ceremonial of a Masonic Lodge, one publication stands out as 
quite separate and distinct from all others. Whilst the majority agree 
in many details, the later ones being probably copied from the earlier, 
this alone differs from the rest in every particular. It seems, 

therefore, desirable, as the pamphlet is. rare, briefly to describe it, to endeavour to 

ascertain its origin, and the probable reason for its publication. 

The following is the Title-page of this curious pamphlet, taken from the copy in 
the Library of the Provincial Grand Lodge of Worcestershire, which is the only copy of 
the first edition I have been able to trace. 

The 

Free Mason 

Examin'd ; 

Or, the 

World brought out of Darkness 

Into Light. 

Being, 

An Authentick Account of all the Secrets of 
the Antient Society of Free Masons, which have 
been handed down by Oral Tradition only, from 
the Institution, to the present Time, 

In Which 
Is particularly described, the Whole Ceremony used 
at making Masons, as it has been hitherto practised 
in all the Lodges round the Globe : by which any 
Person, who was never made, may introduce himself 
into a Lodge. 

With 

Notes, Explanatory, Historical, and Critical. 

To which are added, 
The Author's Reasons for the Publication hereof, 
and some Remarks on the Conduct of the Author 
of a Pamphlet, call'd Masonry Dissected. 






Transactions of the Quatuor Coronabi Lodge. 

With 

A New and Correct List of all the Regular Lodges, 
tinder the English Constitution, according to their 
late Removals, and Additions. 

By Alexander Slade, 

Late Master of Three Begular Constituted Lodges, 

In the City of Norwich. 

London : 
Printed for R. Griffiths, in St. Paul's Church-yard. 

M.DCC.LIV. 

[Price Sixpence."] 

Other editions followed rapidly, copies of five being still preserved, viz. :— 

Second Edition, 1754, copies of which are in the British Museum and in 
the splendid Library of Dr. W. J. Chetwode Crawley, of Dublin. 

Fourth Edition, with additional Notes, 1754, the only copy I know of being 
in my own Library. 

Fifth Edition, N.D., probably 1758, a copy of which is in my own Library. 

Sixth Edition, N.D., probably 1758, copies being in Dr. Crawley's Library 
and also in my own. 

Another Edition, published in 1770, was noted in the Freemasons' Magazine for 
1859, p. 309, as " E. Stade, Freemason Examin'd, London, 1770," and Dr. Crawley thinks 
there was also a Dublin edition. Having collated the first, second, fourth, fifth and 
sixth editions, I have found them practically identical, the Notes in the later issues 
being somewhat fuller, and the lists of Lodges longer. 

Since this paper was first prepared, about three years ago, a reprint of the Fifth 
Edition, bearing on the outer cover the date " 1740," has been published by a second- 
hand bookseller of Leicester. The real date of this Fifth Edition is 1758, or later, 
inasmuch as the last Lodge in the list of Lodges at the end of the pamphlet is a " Lodge 
at Bombay, in East Indies, March 24th, 1758." The edition of this reprint, which was 
issued without the list of Lodges, consisted of one thousand copies, and having been 
extensively advertised, many have got into the hands of both Masons and non-Masons. 
As soon as I heard of the reprint, I called on the bookseller who owned the original, 
purchased and added it to my collection ; it is the only copy of that edition I have been 
able to trace. 

As a proof of the rarity of this pamphlet, I believe there has been, in the whole 
nineteen volumes of the Transactions of this Lodge, only one reference to this Nimrod 
Masonry. This was a short Note in vol. iv., p. 69, by Bro. John Yarker, on " Nimrod 
as Buck and Mason," in which he stated, " It is said that John Holt printed in New 
York, in 1768, the ritual of this Nimrod Masonry from a London copy," and briefly 
referred to the three degrees of the pamphlet. 

Curiously enough, The Minor's Degree and The Officers Part are given verlatin 
as an appendix (p. 63-72) to " Hiram, or The Grand Master Key," 3rd edition, Dublin, 
circa 1764. 






. 





F, 



reemasonry 



Parodied in 1?54. 



9? 



#' 



According to Bro. R. F. Gould, the spurious productions, to which I have referred, 
may be roughly divided into three groups, commencing in 1723, 1730 and 1755 
respectively. 1 

Thus the First Group consisted of — 

1. "A Masons Examination," which appeared in 1723, and is said to have 

caused a greater stir among the Masons than any subsequent 
" exposure." 3 

2. " The Secret History of the Free-Masons," and 

3. " The Grand Mystery of Free-Masons Discover d,"hoth. of which were issued 

in 1724. 3 

The Second Group was composed of* — 

4. " The Mystery of Free-Masonry," and 

. 5. " Masonry Dissected," by Samuel Prichard, both of which were published 
in 1730. 

The Third Group was much larger, and comprised 5 — 

6. " A Mason's Confession," 1755, 

7. " The Three Distinct Knocks," 17G0, 

8. " A Master-Key to Free-Masonry," 1760, 

9. " Jachin and Boaz," 1762, 

10. " Hiram, or The Grand Master Key," 1764, 

11. " Shibboleth, or Every Man a Free-Mason," 1765, 

12. " Solomon in all his Glory," 1766, 

13. " M— B-, or the Grand Lodge Door Open'd," 1766, 

14. " Tubal Kain," circa 1767, and 

15. " The Free Mason Stripped Naked," circa 1769. 

It was thus after the issue of the two first groups, but before the large third 
group appeared, that " The Free Mason Examined " was published and issued by Alexander 
Slade. Of this man I have not succeeded in obtaining much information. Almost all 
that we know of him he tells us himself, viz., that he was "Late Master of Three 
Regular Constituted Lodges in the City of Norwich," although, according to his own 
statement, he was never legally initiated, It is highly probable that this statement is 
false, for Bro. G. W. G. Barnard, D.P. G.M. of Norfolk, informs me, that his name does 
not appear in the existing lists of Masters of the early Norwich Lodges, nor in any of 
the old minute-books, and the only reference to Slade, apart from the pamphlet, is on 
the print of " A Freemason Form'd out of the Materials of his Lodge, published 
Aug. 15, 1754, by W. Tringham, Castle Alley, Royal Exchange, price 6d., colour'd 1 
shilling," which is marked "A. Slade delin," who may possibly be the same person. 

I have sought in contemporary Masonic books for some reference to Alexander 
Slade, but absolutely without result. Both he and his " spurious ritual " had practically 
disappeared, when this unfortunate reprint brought him again into temporary prominence. 

In the year 1754, the date of the first issue of the pamphlet, eight Lodges were 
in active work in the City of Norwich, viz. :- — 6 



1 A.Q.G., 1903, vols, xvi'., p. 35. 
5 A.Q.G., vol. xvi., p. 58. 



2 Ibid, p. 36. 3 Ibid 

6 Vide Lane's "Masonic 



3 Ibid, p. 37. 4 Ibid, p. 40. 

isonic Records," 2nd edit., 1895. 



i 




98 

No. on List of No. on 
Grand Lodge Slade's 
List. 

19, 



transactions of the Quaiuor Coronati Lodge. 



in 1754. 

27, 

131, 



95, 



Meeting-place. 

Three Tuns, 
King's Head, 



198, 

199, 
205, 

207, 
232, 

239, 



148, Bear, 



149, Maid's Head, 

155, Guild, 

157, HoleintheWall, 

181, Castle and Lion, 



Days of Meeting. 

1st Thursday, 
Every other 

Thursday, 
2nd and 4th 

Tuesday, 
2nd Thursday, 
1st and 3rd 

Monday, 



Consti- 
tuted. 

1724, 
1736, 

1747, 

1748, 
1750, 

1751, 
1753, 

1754, 



Erased in 1809. 
Still working. 

At Lowestoft since 

1814. 
Erased in 1809. 
Erased in 1853. 

Lapsed in 1805. 

At Harleston since 

1854. 
Lapsed about 1800. 



Chequers, 

If we are disposed to accept Slade's statement, then three of these Lodges must 
have been honoured (?) by him presiding in them. 

It is interesting to note that " M— B— ," another of these "exposures," also 
emanated from the City of Norwich in 1 766. 

In his Address " To the Reader," with which the pamphlet commences, Slade, 
after declaring that the author of " Masonry Dissected " is quite unworthy of credit, 
proceeds to explain by what means he obtained the secrets of Freemasonry, having 
never been initiated. His father, he says, was made a Tree-Mason about the year 1708, 
in the Lodge meeting at the Goose and Gridiron Ale-house in St. Paul's Church-Yard, 
and continued a member of that Lodge about 34 years. At his father's death, all his 
effects came into the possession of the son, among which, in a private drawer in a bureau, 
he discovered a document entitled A Free Mason's Instruction, which he studied and 
mastered. Settling soon after in the City of Norwich, an opportunity presented itself 
of testing his surreptitiously obtained knowledge, when he found himself accepted as a 
genuine Mason, received as a member of a local Lodge, and two years later was installed 
Master. In consequence of misfortune, of the character of which we are left in 
ignorance, he returned to London, where he was advised by some of his friends, who 
were not Masons, to publish this account of Freemasonry for a small support in his 
necessitous circumstances. All this is a common explanation and excuse by " Dissectors " 
and " Exposers,'' but how much truth it contains we shall probably never know. 

There then follows, commencing on page 9, the professed explanation, which, 
following the lead of Prichard, Slade divides into three parts, viz., Part I., Call'd the 
Minor's Degree. ; Part II., Call'd the Major's Degree ; and The Officers Part, or 
Ceremony of Installment. All three parts consist, as in other similar professed 
" exposures," of catechism, a series of questions and answers as to the details of certain 
ceremonies, between a presiding officer and a candidate duly prompted or previously 
prepared. 

The Officers in the working of the Lodge, as narrated and described by Slade, 
are six in number, viz. : — 

Belus, the Master, 

Sabas, the Superintendent, 

Evilas, | 



Sabathes, 
Sabactas, 1 
Ramus, 



the two Wardens, 



> the two Deacons, 

1 Galled " Sabaotus '' on p. 23. 






Freemasonry Parodied in 1754. 

and here there is a radical difference between this alleged " exposure," and all others 
which have come under my notice. 

The names given to the officers of the Lodge are those of the six sons of Cush, 
the eldest son of Ham, and grand-son of Noah. The sons of Cash are variously named, 
e.g., in Genesis x. and I. Chronicles i., they are called Seba, Havilah, Sabtah, Raamah, 
Sabtechah and Nimrod, while in Josephus— Ant. Bk. i., p. 34. — they are named Sabas, 
Evilas, Sabathes, Ragmus, Sabactas and Nimrod. 

It is clear, therefore, that Slade adopted the names of his Lodge Officers from 
Josephus, substituting the name of Belus for Nimrod. For this he gives the following 
reason (p. 9) : — 

" Nimrod, which signifies a Rebel in the Jewish and Chaldean Languages, was the 
name given him by the Holy Family, and by Mioses ; but among his Friends in Ghaldea 
he was called Belus, which signifies Lord ; and afterwards was worshipped as a God by 
many Nations, under the name of Bel, or Baal, and became the Bacchus of the Antients, 
or Bar-Chus, the Son of Ohus." This explanation is taken practically verbatim from the 
1723 Book of Constitutions, p. 4. 

Slade also explains (p. 23) that Belus, the youngest Brother of the six, became 
their Master " Because he was an active, enterprising Man, and was the first Person who 
proposed the Building of the Tower ; he was likewise the original Projector of forming 
Men into Society, for which he will be always celebrated by the Masons, which is the 
most antient Society on Earth." 

Now what do we know of Nimrod or Belus ? 

In Genesis x., we read, "And Cush begat Nimrod : he began to be a mighty one 
in the earth. He was a mighty hunter before the Loed : wherefore it is said Even as 
Nimrod the mighty hunter before the Lord. And the beginning of his kingdom was 
Babel [Babylon], and Erech, and Accad, and Calneh, in the land of Shinar. .Out of that 
land went forth Asshur [or, he went out into Assyria], and builded Nineveh, and the 
city Rehoboth, and Calah, and Resen between Nineveh and Calah : the same is a great 
city." 

Josephus writes thus of Nimrod and his share in the building of the Tower of 
Babel' :— 

"Now the sons of Noah were three, . . . These first of all descended from 
the mountains into the plains, and fixed their habitation there; . . . Now the plain 
in which they first dwelt was called Shinar. God also commanded them to send colonies 
abroad for the thorough peopling of the earth, . . . but they were so ill instructed 
that they did not obey God ; . . Now it was Nimrod who excited them to such an 

affront and contempt of God. . . Now the multitude were very ready to follow 

the determination of Nimrod, . . . and they built a tower, neither sparing any 
pains, nor being in any degree negligent about the work; . . . When God saw 
that they acted so madly, . . . He caused a tumult among them, by producing in 
them divers languages ; and causing that, through the multitude of those languages, 
they should not be able to understand one another. The place wherein they built the 
tower is now called Babylon ; . . . After this they were dispersed abroad, on 
account of their languages, ... But Nimrod, the son of Chus, stayed and 
tyrannized at Babylon." 

In many of the " Old Charges," too, Nimrod is named as the earliest Builder 
in the world to organize workmen, and to place them under authority, subject to rules 
and regulations. 

1 Ant., Book i., chaps, 4, 5 and 6 ; Whiston's translation. 



100 



Transactions of the Quatuor Ooronati Lodge. 



Thus in the " Grand Lodge No. 1 MS." of 1583, we read : " and at the making 
of the Tower of Babilon their was Massonrey made muche of. And the kyng of 
Babylon that heighte Nemroth was a masson himself and loved well the Crafte as yt 
said w th maist rs of stories. And when the Cittie of Nynyvie & other Cities of the Est 
shoulde be made Nembroth the Kyng of Babylon sent thith 1 fortie Massons at the 
Rogacon of the kyng of Nynyvie his Cossen. And when he sent them forth he gane 
them A chardge on this manner that they should be trwe one to another & that they 
should live trnely togither and that they should sve their Lorde truely for their paie so 
that their m r maye haue woorship and all y 4 long to him and other moe Chardges he 
gaue them. And this was the first tyme that eu' any Masson had any chardge of his 
Crafte." 

This tradition was naturally introduced by Anderson into the historical portion 
of the first Book of Constitutions, published in 1723, while in the 1738 edition he 
designates Nimrod " Grand Master," and the Masons "Noachidas," which, according to 
some old Traditions, was the first Name of Masons. 1 He also affirms, that the Confusion 
of Dialects " gave Rise to the Masons Faculty and universal Practice of conversing 
without speaking, and of knowing each other by Signs and Tokens.'"* 

In " Masonry Dissected " which Slade condemns as unreliable, we are informed 
that " at the Building of the Tower of Babel, the Art and Mystery of Masonry was first 
introduced." 3 Indeed, in most Masonic writings of the first half of the eighteenth 
century, there is some reference to Nimrod and the Tower of Babel. 

This continued association of Nimrod (or Belus) with the oldest traditions of 
Masonry, amply justified Slade in adopting him, and incorporating him and his work in 
the supposititious Lodge of Freemasons which he describes. It is quite clear that 
Slade obtained many of the details of Nimrod' s work from the 1738 Book of Constitutions, 
a copy of which, although not a Mason, he would find no difficnlty in obtaining. 

It will be well now to give a brief description of the catechism, calling attention 
to the special features of each part. 

Part I. 



Call'd the Minor's Degree. 

Freemasonry began " About one hundred and fifty-four Years after Noah's Flood, 
at the building of Babel's Tower." 

The Grand Master there was " Nimrod, called by Masons Belus." 

The first Lodge was held " In a pleasant Plain of Babylon, called Shinar, on the 
Banks of the River Tygris." 

The object of the Lodge was " to contrive and lay a Plan for a Building of 
Friendship, and also for the Building of that stupendous Edifice." 

After the Confusion of Tongues, Belus assembled another Grand Lodge, and 
instructed his Men how to converse by Signs, etc. whereby they were capable of 
executing his future Designs." A note here explains that " This was what gave Rise 
to what is called Free-Masonry, being fifty-three years after the first Assembly or Lodge 
held. This Tradition is firmly believed." 

The Success attending his Instructions was great, " for soon the Plain of Shinar 
became far more splendid than all other Parts, in the Magnificence of its Buildings," 



1 B. of C, 1738, p. 4. 



! B. of 0„ 1738, p. Q. 



3 M, D„ p. 3. 






Freemasonry Parodied in 1754. 



101 



The first Injunctions Belus laid on the Masons were Silence, Secrecy and 
Brotherly Love. " Silence and Secrecy were enjoined us, that none but the Initiated 
should ever know our Art and Mystery ; and Brotherly Love, that by our unparallel'd 
Esteem and Regard for each other's Welfare, and that of the Craft in general, our Fame 
might spread over the Face of the whole Earth and Waters, so that we might be 
remembered among the Sons of Men till Time shall be no more." 

The Masons "travelled into Assyria, where they built several Cities, for which 
Reason Belus was called the Pounder of that Monarchy : They afterwards dispersed, 
and multiplied over the Earth, and formed themselves into Lodges, in which they made, 
and instructed Masons, in the usual Manner." 

Then follows this doggerel :— 

" Q. In what Manner was you made ? 
A. Tell me by what Authority 

Thus strictly you examine me, 

How I was made a Mason Free ? 
Ex. From Belus great I had this Power, 

Who laid the Plan of Babel's Tower ; 

Then who has such Authority 

As 1, who Master am to thee ? 
A. Since from that mighty Man of Fame 

The Pow'r you have, you justly claim ; 

From thee the Secret I'll not hide, 

Who art my true and faithful Guide." 

A catechism on the alleged ceremony of admission follows, the Candidate having 
been previously announced with a loud Voice, thus : — 

" Here stands a Candidate for Masonry, 
Who fain wou'd know our Art and Mystery : 
Shew him the Light* by which we work, and then 
Perhaps he'll learn the Art,. like other Men. 
* That is, Take him into your Care, and give him all due instructions." 

The only details of the curious ceremony which need be here repeated, are, that 
the candidate was first stripped naked, and then " cloathed " by the Master " with the 
Badge of Innocence," which is described as "a loose white Garment, generally made of 
Holland, or some other fine Linnen, and sometimes of Silk." An oath was administered, 
during the taking .of which the Master " held the Point of a Sword which he had in his 
Hand to my Throat." The Edge of the Sword was kissed to render the Oath binding, 
" as it was always esteemed by the Masons of old, that to swear by the Sword, was the 
most binding of all Obligations." The white robe was then taken off, the Candidate was 
" cloathed " by the Brethren, and " a white Leather Apron, to wear while at Work," 
was presented to him by the Master, who informed him that he " was now become a 
Fellow and Brother to Kings and Princes." Secrecy was enjoined, and he was told, 
that if importuned by his wife to reveal the secrets to her, he was to persuade her that 
there was " nothing more in it than a Set of Friends well met, and assembled to be 
merry, or tell her any Tale that is plausible." 

This interrogation follows : — 

" Q. What do you call yourself ? 
4. A Minor. 



• 



M 




102 



Q. 

A. 



\ 



Q. 

A. 



A. 



Q. 
A. 



Q. 
A. 

Ex. 
A. 



Q. 

A. 

Ex, 

A. 

Ex. 



Transactions of the Quatuor Goronati Lodge. 

.What is the chief Care and Business of a Minor ? 
The Minor's chief Care and Business, is to sharpen the Tools, clear 

the Shop from Rubbish, and sometimes to carry the Hod, &c. 

He is likewise to attend the Senior Brethren, to take Care 

that none enter but Masons, and to keep a watchful Guard all 

round the Lodge. 
Can you give me a Sign ? 
No, because Signs, Tokens and Words, we are not entrusted with, 

while we are in this Degree. 
Why so ? 
Because this is only a Degree of Probation, which all must pass 

thro', who are made Masons ; it being necessary the Lodge 

should have some Trial of their Behaviour, before they are 

admitted into the next Degree. 
What Proof of their Behaviour is necessary ? 
The Proof they desire is this : 
The Minor is enjoined to Secrecy 
Before he can be made a Major Free ; 
Before he can receive the Major's Word, 
He oft must guard the Lodge with flaming Sword : 
He must be silent, sober, and discreet. 
And to his Brethren all affectionate ; 
Then may he to great BabeVs Tow'r repair, 
And on him take a Major's Character. 
Are you desirous of knowing the Major's Secrets ? 
Yes. 

Your good Behaviour alone will not obtain them. 
By that alone they could not be obtain'd, 
But I by that a Golden Signet gain'd ; 
Which will admit Me into that Degree, 
That I may work among the Major's Free. 
What is that Signet ? 
A Ring. 
Produce it. 

Behold it here. [Here he shows the Ring.] 
Attend my Brethren all that round me stand, 
While I obey great Belus' dread Command, 
Our Brother here, upon Examination, 
Desires I'll place him in a higher Station ; 
A Minor's Character has well maintain'd, 
And answer'd all things well ; by which he's gain'd 
The Signet rare, which Belus did ordain 
For such as could the Minor's Art attain, 
That they may to the Tow'r repair, and be 
Receiv'd to work among the Majors Free. 
'Tis then my Will and Pleasure, that he may 
Begin to work, and enter into Pay." 



Freemasonry Parodied in 1754. 



103 



, , . This Note follows at the end of Part the First. 

".NJ3. A Minor is always thus examined before his Admission into the 
Major's Degree ; which Examination, if he cannot learn, he must give 
every Member of the Lodge, a Pair of Gloves for himself, and a Pair 
for his Wife, which will entitle him to the Ring before-mentioned ; 
which he must have, it being a Warrant for his Admission ; but he 
must not commit any Part of this to Writing, because it may be 
exposed, by Negligence or Accidents. [Witness this Book.] " 
Some extracts from the second Part must also be given. 

Part II. 

Oall'd the Major's Degree. 

The points in this Degree, to which attention should be called, are the following, 
viz. :- — 

The Major's Degree was obtained by virtue of a Signet, earned by " good 
Behaviour, and also after a true and just Examination." 

The Examination was conducted "in a secret Arbour, on the Banks of the 
Tygris." In a Note we are informed, that " The secret Arbour is a Room joining to the 
Lodge ; and the operative Free Masons when they are employ'd in any great Building, 
have a Shed near it, which they call the Arbour, here they keep their curious Tools, 
Utensils, &c, and likewise examine strange Brethren, here they also retire at Noon, in 
sultry Weather to refresh, and sometimes to instruct each other." 

The Art of Masonry is " cutting Stone, according to Geometry, by means of 
Square, Level and Plumb, and cementing them to each other ; and also the Art of 
Examination, by which one Mason may know another." 

The Examination was conducted by Sabas, who afterwards led the Candidate 
"round the Tower, and then knocked at the Brazen Gate nine Times. . . . In Order 
that the Watchman of the Gate might know, that he had been with me round the 
Tower, which was nine Miles." The diameter of the Tower was three miles, its height 
5146 paces. "The Passage that went to the Top, was on the Outside, and, like a 
Winding Stair-Case, of a very great Breadth, so that Camels and Carriages might go up 
and down, and turn with Ease " ; 500,000 men were employed on the work for 53 years. 1 
The reason this Tower was built so very extensive was " to make them a great Name, 
and also to save them from a second Deluge." 

The Candidate was led to Belus, who charged him — 

To obey the Master, Superintendent, Wardens and Deacons of the Lodge ; to 
submit to their Directions, and do his " Daily Task with Freedom, Cheerfulness and 
Sobriety." 

To " behave like a true Noachidaa, and instruct the younger Brethren, using all 
Endeavours to increase Brotherly Love." 

To be cautious in his " Words and Carriage, that the most penetrating Stranger 
may not discover or find out, what is not proper to be intimated." 

To prudently and cautiously examine strangers. 

To " relieve your distressed Brethren, if it is in your Power, or else direct them 
how they may be relieved." To " employ them, or recommend them to be employed, 
always preferring a poor Brother, that is a good Man and true, before any other poor 
Person whatever." 

1 Some of these details are taken from Herodotus, Bk. i. 



I 



104 Transactions of the Quatuor Goronati Lodge. 

To "be a peacable Subject, and conform chearfully to the Government . . . 
be a good Parent, and a good Husband, loving your Wife as yourself. ..." 

The Candidate was then instructed in the Nature of Signs, Tokens and Words. 
Two Signs, two Tokens and two Words belong to the Major's Degree. 

The first Sign is " by pointing the Fore-Finger of his Right-Hand to his Mouth, 
which is an Emblem of Silence." 

The second Sign is " by drawing his Hand across his Mouth, which is much like 
the former, and likewise signifies Silence or Secrecy ; but some other Traditions affirm, 
that this is of later Date than Babel, and that it took its Rise from the Story of Sampson, 
Judges xv., who, after he had slain a Thousand with the Jaw-Bone of an Ass, he was 
sore athirst, and he prayed, and behold a Spring proceeded from a Rock, called the Jaw, 
by reason of this Exploit ; the Masons, after this, frequently used this Method of asking 
a Brother to drink, by drawing their Hand across their Mouth, or Under- Jaw." 

The first Token "is given by shaking Hands, and, at the same Time, pressing the 
Fore-Finger hard into the Palm of the other's Hand." 

The second Token " is likewise given by shaking Hands, and at the same Time 
placing the Fore-Finger on one Side the other's Wrist, and the Middle-Finger on the 
other." 

The first Word " Eureka, which signifies Truth, or Fidelity, is very properly 
used by the Masons, as a Tessera, or Watch- Word, to distinguish those they stile True 
and Faithful; and its often occurring amongst them, reminds them of that Secrecy they 
undertake to observe, and which, to do them Justice, they have so religiously preserved, 
even to a Proverb." 

The second Word is " Philadelphia, or Brotherly Love. This their second Word, 
must likewise be allowed no less judiciously chosen, and doubtless has inspired and 
given Rise to many generous Acts of Esteem and Benevolence among them." 

Belus then presented the Candidate " with the Square, Level, Plumb-Rule, and 
Compass." 

" That we may work both regular and true, 
And Virtue's Path3 most ardently pursue ; 
For by these Tools we learn Morality, 
As well as learn the Art of Masonry." 

The form of the Lodge was a Circle, " Because the Foundation of the Tower was 
a Circle." The Brethren stood in a circle, " Belus the Master, and Sabas the Superin- 
tendent, stood diametrically opposite; Evilas and Sabathes, the two Wardens, and 
Sabactas and Ramus, the two Deacons, stood opposite likewise. Though Six are a 
sufficient number to make a Lodge ; yet in Fact it is not regular, without being form'd 
by the Grand Master's Warrant, and the Regular Lodges are not to countenance them, 
'till they make due Submission and obtain Grace." 

Then follow these lines : — 

" Ex. If thou to Babel's Tow'r hast been, 

And hast our first Grand Master seen; 
Of that same Tow'r thou had'st the Plan, 
From that renown'd and mighty Man. 
A. The Plan of Babel's Tow'r I have, 
Which last of all great Belus gave. 




Freemasonry Parodied in 1754. 105 

Ex. Welcome loving faithful Brother, 
Thou well hast answer'd all ; 
If we keep true to one another, 
The Craft will never fall." 

N.B. — " When a Mason is admitted into this Degree, a Tower is raised in the 
Lodge-Boom, about eight Feet high, and in some of the Grand Lodges, 
it is really a very curious Piece of Workmanship ; it is made of Wood, 
and though in many Pieces, can be raised in about two Hours ; the 
Joints being made to fit with great Ease, and such Exactness that 
they are scarcely perceptible. A Plan of this Tower is likewise given 
him at the same Time." 



The 
Officers Paet ; 

OR 

Ceremony of Installment 

is very short, occupying only two pages of the pamphlet. 

The principal points are these : — 

The following Tools belong to the Officers. " Belus, the Master, wears the 
Compass, pendent, in a white Ribbon, round his Neck ; Sabas, the Superintendent, 
wears the Square ; Evilas and Sabathes, the two Wardens, wear the Level and Plumb-Rule, 
and Sabactas and Ramus, a twenty-four Inch-Rule in each of their Hands." 

The officers were installed in the Observatory on the top of the Tower. 1 " In this 
Observatory the Plan of Free Masonry was laid by Belus only, and then he instructed 
his Officers in the Art, after which he assembled a general Lodge, and with the 
Assistance of the Officers he convey'd the Method of conversing by Signs, Tokens, &c. 
to the whole Assembly." 

The officers have a secret word, communicated thus — 

" On my two Knees he order'd me to kneel, 
Before he could the secret Word reveal ; 
A Word to all but Officers unknown, 
Because we give it when we are alone ; 
The Word is Belus, be it known to thee, 
'Twas that great Man gave Birth to Masonry." 



% 



The foregoing, then, is a brief outline of this curious production, the advent of 
which, we may be sure, caused considerable surprise to the members of the Masonic 
Fraternity, even if it did not also arouse their mirth, while the uninitiated or popular 
world, which believed that in the "exposures" hitherto current, the whole secrets of 
Freemasonry had already been revealed, would perhaps begin to have a lurking 
suspicion that, after all, it had been duped by previous writers. 

I do not propose to discuss the details of the ceremony as described in the 
extracts- 1 have quoted, nor the valuable side-lights they contain. These cannot but 

1 Cf. Book of Constitutions, 1756, p. 9. 



106 



transactions of the Quatuor Coronati tioAge. 



prove of considerable interest to the student of the so-called " exposures " of past 
times, while the many curious points of resemblance, and of difference, are full of 
suggestion to every thoughtful Mason. It will, I think, be more useful to endeavour 
to ascertain the motive which prompted its production, for which purpose consider for a 
moment the condition of Freemasonry at the date of its original publication, viz., 1754. 

The middle of the eighteenth century was a time of great unrest among the 
Freemasons of England. The " Antients " Grand Lodge had just been established, 
and had made a good beginning, thirty-six Lodges, 1 haviDg been constituted by the end 
of the year 1754. The absence abroad of Lord Byron, the Grand Master of the 
" Moderns," and the discontinuance of the Quarterly Communications tended still 
further to unsettle the Lodges, so that it causes us no surprise to find, that in the space 
of eleven years — 1745 to 1755 — no less than fifty-three Lodges 2 had, from one cause or 
another, been erased from the Boll. The advent of " A Mason's Examination," in 1723, 
had caused a great stir, and Freemasonry was, in consequence, so much discussed by 
Masons and others, that when Prichard published his "Masonry Dissected" in 1730, 
four editions were required within thirty days to satisfy the public demand, and by the 
year 1754 it had run to nearly twenty editions. If we accept as an axiom, that it is the 
demand for any article that produces a supply, then there was clearly a wide-spread 
interest in these publications, either because they did really contain some useful in- 
formation for the members of the Fraternity, or because they professed, and were 
believed, to contain such, and consequently were sought out and purchased both by 
Masons and non-Masons, for there is nothing like a little mystery to stimulate 
curiosity. It is true that '''Masonry Dissected" was contemptuously described by 
D. G. M. Blackerby "as a fo.olish thing not to be regarded," 3 but nevertheless the sale 
of it continued, and the demand being there, the supply naturally followed. The 
" Scald Miserables," a body organised and directed about 1741 to 1745, 4 by a few dis- 
appointed members of the Craft, had also done their utmost to bring discredit on 
Freemasonry by their mock processions, which could not fail to deter many desirable 
recruits from joining the Fraternity. All these things combined must have tended 
seriously to unsettle the Brotherhood. Some Brethren would, no doubt, retire altogether, 
disgusted by the unenviable prominence given thereto by these attempts to crush the 
Society out of existence, or if that should prove impossible, so to damage its reputation, 
that no one with any self-respect would care to be openly associated therewith; while 
others, still continuing their membership, would take at best a luke-warm interest in 
the Society and its concerns. This was the condition of Freemasonry when, in 1754, 
" The Freemason Examin'd " was published by Alexander Slade. 

Now, is it possible to ascertain the object and purpose of the publication of " The 
Freemason Examin'd " ? No one would take the trouble and incur the expense of pro- 
ducing such a work without some definite object in view, which to his mind fully 
warranted the expenditure of time and money. Three hypotheses suggest themselves : — ■ 

Firstly — -That the statement contained in the title-page of the pamphlet is true, 
and that this curious production really represented the ritual and ceremonial, if not of 
all, at any rate of some, Masonic Lodges actively at work in 1754. As there is no 
corroboration anywhere, as far as I know, of the statement referred to, and very many 
reasons for disputing it, I think this may be dismissed without much consideration. 

1 Vide Lane's " Handv Book to the Lists of Lodges," p. 136. 

2 Ibid, pp. 44, 45, 48. " 

3 A.Q.C., vol. xvi., p. 41. 

4 4.Q.C, vol. viii., p. 137. . 




Freemasonry Parodied in 1754. 



107 



Secondly — That it was published with the express intention of bringing ridicule 
upon the Grand Lodge of the " Antients," by attributing its foundation to the semi- 
mythical period of ISTimrod and the Tower of Babel. Reference has already been made 
in this paper to the establishment of this Grand Lodge in 1751, and to the extra- 
ordinary success which had attended the organisation. It is well known that this body 
claimed to perpetuate the " old working," which it declared the earlier Grand Lodge, 
designated by it the " Moderns," had discontinued. Is it not quite within the bounds 
of possibility, that the publication of the pamphlet was intended as a counterblast 
to this claim, with the express object of inducing those who became possessed of a 
copy, to accept it as a true and faithful exposition of the working of this recently - 
established Grand Lodge, and thus to bring it into ridicule on account of the claim it 
made to a remote antiquity ? 

Thirdly — That it was an ingenious and cleverly-constructed parody of the work 
generally practised in the Masonic Lodges of the time, with the object of misleading 
those into whose hands a copy of Prichard's " Masonry Dissected," or other " expo- 
sure," had fallen. As. I have previously stated, about twenty editions of "Masonry 
Dissected" had already, by the year 1754, been issued from the Press, so that many 
copies of that pamphlet must have been in the possession of those who were not 
Masons, and who would not fail to use their surreptitiously obtained knowledge for the 
irritation, annoyance and hurt of the genuine members of the Fraternitv. It can 
easily be imagined that a publication on fresh lines altogether, and differing in every 
detail from " Masonry Dissected," and from other productions of a similar kind, would 
create confusion in the minds of those who read them, and tend to cast serious doubts 
on the genuineness of Prichard's work. From Slade's reference to Prichard as a 
Ic sham Dissector of Free-masonry," it is clear that there was a desire thus to discredit 
him and his work, and to induce those who had accepted Prichard's pamphlet as a 
genuine revelation, to discard it for the new version, or even to throw both aside as 
equally unworthy of credence. 

Whatever the motive, the fact remains that four editions were issued from the 
Press during the year 1754, indicating a considerable demand for the pamphlet ; the 
author's object being probably thereby fully attained. 

The whole object and purpose of the production of " The Freemason Examin'd" 
is shrouded in mystery, and I shall be pleased if this enquiry of mine should lead to 
some reasonable solution of the problem thus placed before us. 



A hearty vote of thanks was passed to Bro. Thorp for his interesting paper. 



Bro. W. B. Hextall writes : ■ 

The mention of ISTimrod and Belus in the pre-1738 Constitutions seems to stand 
thus. In " The Old Constitutions," 1722, it is " Nemorth." In " The Constitutions of the 
Freemasons" 1723, accompanying " Nimrod the Founder of that Monarchy," (Shinar 
and Assyria,) is a footnote, " Nimrod, which signifies a Rebel, was the name given him 
by the Holy Family, and by Moses ; but among his Friends in Chaldea, his proper 
Name was Belus, which signiSes Lord ; and afterwards was worshipped as a God by 
many Nations, under the name of Bel or Baal, and became the Bacchus of the Ancients 
or Bar Chus, the Son of Chus." " A Booh of the Ancient Constitutions" 1726, has "the 
King of Babylon, the mighty Nimrod, was a Mason himself," whilst " The Constitutions 
of the Free Masons" Dublin, 1730, incorporates bodily into its text (with an immaterial 



108 



Transactions of the Quatuor or onati Lodge. 



transposition of words) the above footnote of 1723. Turning from our early Craft 
histories, Geoffrey of Monmouth (d. 1154) says that the London Billingsgate was built 
by " Belin, a King of the Britons, about 400 B.C.," and that from him it took its name : 
and Stow adopts this in his " Survey of London," published 1598. In 1715, John 
Bagford (letter in Leland's Collectanea) records an ancient custom followed by porters 
at Billingsgate, and adds, " I believe this was done in memory of some old image that 
formerly stood there, perhaps of Belus or Belin." In Habben's "London Street Names," 
(1896) is the following : " Billingsgate ... is believed to be indebted for its name 
to one Belin, a Saxon, evidently of some repute, although there is no direct evidence 
repecting him, who settled by the old Roman Watergate. The descendants of himself 
or of a common ancestor were widely spread, having settlements at Billinge (Lanca- 
shire), Billingham (Hants), Billingshurst (Sussex), Billingley (Shropshire), Billingtjn 
(Beds.), and at some half-dozen other places." If for any reason it was desired to 
furnish an alternative appellation for Nimrod in the 1723 Constitutions, and such was 
the work of London writers, then either association of ideas in minds acquainted with 
local tradition, or unconscious cerebration, may explain the "Belus" of our early 
Masonic works ; and the more, as that name ranges so well with " Bel " or " Baal," 
with which it was bracketed. 

There are fuller references to Belin and Belinus in Dr. George Oliver's 
"Religious Houses formerly situated on the River Witham" and "Remains of the Ancient 
Britons .... between Lincoln and Sleaford," both dated 1846, where he says — ■ 
citing authorities, some before 1717 — that Belin was the British name of their chief 
Diety, the Sun, and identical with Hee : there being a triad, " Hesus-Thamis-Belenus, 
unus tantummodo Deus ;" and " Hee and Beli constitute but one character. The latter 
is certainly the Celtic god Belinus, mentioned by Ansonius, and expressly identified 
with Apollo, the solar divinity." Historically, Oliver, relates of Belinus that both he 
and Brennus, who accomplished the sack of Rome, were the sons of Molmutius, or 
Dunwallo Moluneius, who flourished a.m. 3529, and " planned the four great roads in 
Britain, the Foss and the Hermen, the Watling and the Ikeneld streets, which were 
completed by Belin his son ; " and that at the division of Britain between Belinus 
and Brennus, a.m. 3574, it was proposed that Belinus should have all England south of 
the Humber and Cambria, and Brennus from the Hnmber to Caithness in Scotland. 

A fair conclusion seems to be that the names Bel, Belin, or Belinus, were ready 
to the hands of early Masonic historians, with enough of legendary and historic flavour 
attaching to account for their selection and appropriation. 

Additional references to the subject of Bucks and Mmrod Masonry will be found 
in A.Q.G., iv., 69, by Bro. John Tarker, and xii., 145, by Bro. W. H. Rylands. 



Bro. W. John Songhtjrst writes: — 

I am not at present prepared to accept the theory that Slade's "Freemason 
Examin'd " was intended as a parody of the Masonic ceremonies. in nse at the time of its 
publication. Certainly many arguments might be brought forward in favour of this 
view, but 1 fancy it may hereafter be found that the history of the building of the 
Tower of Babel played a prominent part in early Masonic ceremonial. There are several 
references here and there which appear to give some colour to the idea. 

As Bro. Rylands has shown in his interesting paper on the "Bucks," (A.Q.G., 
vol. iii., p. 140,) Nimrod was closely connected with that Society as well as with the 
" Society of Leeches," in the one case because he is described as a " mighty hunter," and 
in the other because he is stated to have brought the " vintage to perfection." In 




Freemasonry Parodied in 1754. 



109 






Anderson's rhyming " History of Masonry," printed in full in the 1723 Book of Consti- 
tutions. Nimrod is given as prominent a place in Part n., as Solomon is in Part til., 
though it must be admitted that in another song of a later date it is stated that " he was 
no excellent Mason." 

The degree of "Noachite, or Prussian Knight" is based upon legends connected 
with the Tower of Babel though the ritual of 1768 bears very little resemblance to that 
printed by Slade. 

The Tower of Babel figures on old " tracing-hoards" and jewels in such a manner 
as to leave little doubt that it was at some time an important symbol in Freemasonry. 
I therefore think it is possible that Slade's publication may contain something which if 
not actually in use in his day had been worked at an earlier period in some such manner 
as he describes. 






Bro. J. 0. Brookhouse writes : — " 

The very interesting paper read by Bro. Thorp upon Slade's " Freemason 
Examined " leads on to a further consideration beyond the " exposure " itself, for a later 
author has seized the matter therein contained, has attributed the ritual to an actual 
society and has gone so far as to give a history, certainly rather sketchy but a history 
none the less, of the masonic body working the ceremonies which are thereby laid open. 

Among the modern books which have at various times and with various motives 
professed to publish to the world our secrets, " The Mysteries of Freemasonry," by John 
Fellows, A.M., is one of the best known ; the edition in my hands was published in 
London and bears date 1866. The section of interest in this connection runs from the 
middle of page 324 to the foot of page 327 and is headed " The order of Noachites or 
Chevaliers Prussian." 

Mr. Fellows opens his account of this order by stating that there is reason to 
believe that it was instituted by the ancient Prussians and that it claims priority over 
that of the Freemasons of England. He continues that the ceremonies of the Noachites 
seem to have served in some measure as a model upon which those of Freemasonry were 
founded. Next there appear some extracts from Polish and Prussian history with the 
suggestion that the order was evidently a military organization and undoubtedly 
intended as a rallying point for the recovery of the civil and religious liberties of the 
nation, and a statement that the society was probably founded in the year 1000. A 
short quotation from Bernard follows :— " The Grand Master- General of the Order, 
whose title is Chevalier Grand Commander, is Frederick William, King of Prussia. 
His ancestors, for 300 years, have been protectors of this Order. The Knights were 
formerly known by the name of Noachites. 

" The Noachites, formerly called Prussian Chevaliers, are descended from Peleg, 
the Grand Architect of the Tower of Babel, their origin being more ancient than that 
of the Masons descended from Hiram. The Knights assembled on the night of the full 
moon in the month of March (the vernal equinox) in a secret place, to hold their 
Lodges ; and they cannot initiate a candidate into the mysteries of this Order ualess by 
the light of the moon." 1 

So much for the quotation from Bernard ; we return to the ingenious Mr. 
Fellows, whose next paragraph deserves to be set out in full. 

" Great innovations have been introduced into the ceremonies of this Order. I 
have a copy of its ritual, which, from its antiquity and Druidical style, may be presumed 

1 This is apparently taken from Les Plus Secrets Mysteres des hauts grades de la Magonnerie 
divoiUs, &c, 1768, in which the description of the grade of Le Noachite, ou Chevalier Prussien is said to 
be translated from the German by M. de Berage. 



I 



110 



Transactions of the Quamor Goronati Lodge. 



genuine. It was reprinted from a London copy, by John Holt, New York, 1768. As 
a curiosity, and as bearing a relationship to the ancient mysteries, I will give an 
abstract of it." 

Here we may pause a moment. What a magnificent thing is a well-constructed 
and artistic lie ! A pretended expose written by a probably pseudonymous author— 
for no trace of Slade remains— rises upon stepping stones of its dead editions to higher 
things, and, crossing the Atlantic, becomes a ritual of a Prussian Order of Knights 
presumably genuine and at any rate distinguished for its antiquity and Druidical style. 
The only literary episode with which I can compare this is the discovery by Mark 
Twain of his Jumping Frog story in the original Greek. 

We next arrive at a very brief paragraph to the effect that the Order consists of 
two degrees, Minor and Major ; the officers forming what masonically might be termed 
a Chapter to which other members were not admitted. This Chapter comported with 
the Royal Arch of Freemasonry, for there the secret word, Belus, was revealed, which, 
we are assured, is the same as Osiris, personated by Hiram. 

At this point the historical part of the description closes, and the ritual, abridged 
considerably, is reached. 

It opens with the Minor's Degree, and while certain quotations and answers are 
omitted in the abridgement every detail given accords almost verbatim with Slade's 
pamphlet. The question, " Are you desirous of knowing the Major's secrets," with the 
following questions and answers to the close of this part, appear in full, but curiously 
no ritual of the Major's part is added. Mr. Fellows proceeds at once to the " Ceremony 
of Installment of Officers," which similarly is in Slade's words so far as it goes, for 
it also is abridged. 

If I might be allowed in conclusion to hazard a suggestion as to a possible object 
and purpose actuating the original publisher of the pamphlet, it would be this. 
Shortly before the issue of the " Freemason Examined " five separate various spurious 
rituals or exposures had appeared, of which all had created a stir, and more than one 
had run into many editions, to the no small profit of the persons concerned, demonstrat- 
ing a demand for such matter. In this case the whole ritual is absolutely at variance 
with Masonic work, and we cannot trace any Masonic connexion in its originators— may 
it not have been a pure " fake," issued as an expose in order to sell (a purpose it 
achieved, as it ran to six editions in England, in addition to one each apparently at 
Dublin and New York) somewhat on a par with George Psalmanasar's account, alleged 
to be true, but in fact fictitious, of the Isle of Formosa ? 






The Worshipful Master said : — 

Although it is proverbially difficult to prove a negative, I am not disposed to 
accept Alexander Slade's statement that he presided over three Norwich Lodges. I 
have carefully examined all such records of the Norwich Lodges working at that date 
as have come down to us, and can corroborate the statement of Bro. G. W. G. Barnard, 
D.P.G.M., that Slade's name does not occur in any of them. These records, however, 
are very defective. It is possible of course that the author adopted a pseudonym, and 
might have served three Masterships under his real name. I therefore examined the 
lists to see if I could find the name of any Bro. who had been Master of three Lodges 
before 1754, but failed to do so. I did, however, discover two Brethren who had each 
served as Masters of two Lodges, viz., Bro. Thomas Craske, who was W.M. of No. 27 in 
1746, and of No. 199 in 1749 , and Bro. Richard Twiss, who was W.M. of No. 27 in 
1748, and of No. 199 in 175L Of Bro. Craske I know nothing further. Bro. Richard 




Freemasonry Parodied in 1754. 



Ill 



Twiss was a Mason of some eminence, for he was twice selected by the Grand Master, 
Lord Byron, to represent him in the "Deputation" for the act of constituting two new 
Lodges, viz., the Union Coffee House Lodge, Norwich, in 1748, and the Angel Lodge at 
Yarmouth in 1751 ; it appears to me therefore extremely improbable that Bro. Twiss 
would have been the man to publish a parody of Freemasonry under a false name. I 
think that we may safely assume that Alexander Slade had nothing to do with Norwich, 
and only assumed a connection with what was then a somewhat remote province in 
order to disguise his real identity. 

It is somewhat significant that in his enumeration of the Officers of a Lodge 
Slade mentions two Deacons, This seems to me to indicate that he belonged to, or at 
all events was familiar with the working of the " Antients," who alone at that period 
had Deacons as Officers of a Lodge. 

I should like to ask Bro. Thorp if he can account for the date 1740, given on the 
outer cover of the recent reprint of Slade's pamphlet. 



Bro. Canon Horsley said : — 

With regard to Bro. Thorp's three hypotheses, the first I agree is not worthy of 
consideration. As regards the second I think that had its intention been to bring 
ridicule on the " Antient " Grand Lodge by extravagant historical claims, possibly an 
exactly contrary effect might have been produced, considering the ignorance and 
gullibility of Masons in the middle of the eighteenth century. His third hypothesis is 
of course tenable; but on the whole I incline to suggest a fourth, namely, that the 
brochure was a bit of pure invention prompted by pure greed. Seeing how eager and 
gullible the public was, as shown by the issue of four editions of another " exposure" 
in thirty days, Slade seems to me to have said, " Populus vult decipi, decipiatur ergo. 
There is money in this. Humbug will bring grist to the mill." 



Bro. J. T. Thorp thanked the Brethren for the vote of thanks, and replied to 
the criticisms as follows : — 

I am pleased that my Paper has been the means of calling forth some Notes, but 
there is still ample scope for more criticism. 

Although I am still inclined to consider the production as a parody of Free- 
masonry, there is very much to be said in support of the theory that it was the ritual 
of an eighteenth century Society, established, perhaps, by some discontented "opera- 
tive" Masons, in opposition to the Grand Lodge of England. That such Societies 
existed is well-known, and, inasmuch as the account of Nimrod and the Tower of Babel 
occupied a very prominent position in all old Masonic documents, and may even have 
been incorporated in the early rituals of the Craft, they would naturally lend themselves 
as a foundation for the ritual of such a Society. 

The adoption of the date — 1740 — for the reprint is easily accounted for. The 
pamphlet from which the reprint was made would, if complete, have ended with a list 
of Lodges, occupying pages 28 to 32. This list was not reprinted, as the whole of the 
last leaf — pp. 31 and 32 — was missing, and only a very small portion of the penultimate 
leaf — pp. 29 and 30— remained. The last Lodge on this small fragment was, " 117, The 
Third Lodge, Calcutta, in East India, 1740." Hence the adoption of 1740 instead of 
the proper date. 

With respect to " Deacons," these officers were appointed in Chester as early as 
1743, although as a rule they were unknown in "Moderns" Lodges until the Union in 
1813. 



Hi 



Transactions of the Quaiuor Ooronati Lodge. 



PROCEEDINGS AGAINST THE TEMPLARS IN FRANCE AND 
ENGLAND FOR HERESY, ETC., A.D. 1307-11. 

TAKEN FROM THE OFFICIAL DOCUMENTS OF THE PERIOD. 

BY BRO. E. J. CASTLE, K.C., P.M. 




PART 2. 

N the previous part I. (see pp. 4-7-70) an account was given of the 
causes that led to the arrest of the Templars, both in England 
and France. It may be remembered that the English Templars 
were confined in the Tower of London, and in York and Leicester 
Castles in the country, and Dublin Castle in Ireland. For some" time 
nothing beyond their arrests seems to have been done, until, as we 
have seen, the Pope sent over the Abbot of Latigniaco and the Canon 
of Narbonne with Bulls addressed to the Archbishops of Canterbury, York, etc., already 
referred to, and a copy of the questions the same as those upon which the French 
Templars were to be examined. 1 In France, as we have seen, torture was freely used, 
but in England it was not, at least until the end of the examinations, when it appears 
to have been applied on one or two occasions. The examination of the witnesses was 
regulated and controlled by the Council held by the Archbishops and Bishops in 
London, York, etc., and the depositions as taken down were apparently returned 
to these Councils and kept amongst their records, and have been printed in Wilkins' 
Concilia Magna, vol. ii., from which source the following extracts have been taken :— 

London. 

s The first examination of the Templars took place on Friday, before the feast of 
St. Luke, in the month of October, 1309, iu the Church of Holy Trinity, before the 
Bishop of London and those venerable men D. by the divine permission Abbot of 
Latigniaco and Siccard de Vauro, Canon of Narbonne, Chaplain of My Lord Pope, 
&a. It appears that the Templars detained in the Tower 3 were examined, except 
those sick and infirm, and the articles contained in the Pope's Bull were exhibited to 
them in the Latin, Anglican and Gallic tongues, upon these they were to be examined 
and were admonished, willingly &c. to tell the full and whole truth, and then the Bishop 
and Inquisitors told the Templars about the citation that all Templars in the city and 
diocese should appear in the Bishop's hall on the next Monday. At the request of the 
Templars this day was changed to the next day. 

1 These questions will be given in an appendix. 

2 Wilkins (2) p. 334. 

3 There is a list of the names-of the Templars sent to the Tower of London from the different 
counties. Amongst others were the Grand Master Willielmas de la More, Bro. Himbertus Blaneke 
foreign Preceptor for Auvergne (Alvernia), Radulphus de Barton, Priest and Prior of the New 




others, and he was the only one ordered by the Bishops to be imprisoned," etc." Yet" he* must have had 
friends who thought him wronged. For it will be seen that on the death of the English Master, Moore, 
his pension was transferred to Blaneke. 




Proceedings against the Templars A.D. 1307-11. 



113 



On this Tuesday, being the 21st October, there appeared before the Bishop and 
others Radulphus de Barton, who was the Master of the New Temple in London, 
Himbertus Blancke, the Preceptor of Auvergne (Alvernia), the leader of the defence in 
England, with several others, and William de la Moore, the Master or Preceptor of 
England. By these, the articles in the Bull being expounded, the same were promptly 
denied, upon which the Bishop and Inquisitor adjourned the proceedings, either to be 
held in Holy Trinity, or elsewhere, as they might consider expedient. 

On the 10 Cal Nov. (23 Oct.) William Raven, one of those mentioned above, 
was examined upon the mode of his reception, on the next day Hugo de Tadcaster, and 
on the third Thomas le Chamberlain. 

Wm. Raven said he was received five years before, in Coombe, in the diocese of 
Bath, by "William de la Moore and others. He said he asked the brethren to admit him 
for the service of God and the blessed Virgin Mary, and to end his life in their service. 
He was asked if this was a firm desire and he said yes, and he was afterwards told of 
the hardships of the Order, and he swore obedience, not to hold property, chastity, &c, 
not to put violent hands on anyone, except in self defence or against the Saracens, and 
he had afterwards the rules read "to him. Asked if after this he made any other 
professions, secretly or openly, he said no. 

The Examiners ordered Edmund de Vesey and William de Herdly, the jailors of 
the brethren, that they were in no way to allow this brother, William, to be with his 
brethren, nor to speak with them, or any of them, lest they might guess what bad been done 
or should be done in the matter, under the penalty of the greater excommunication. 

J Hugo de Tadcaster said he was received at Elaxflete, Yorkshire diocese, by 
W. de la Moore, a little after sunrise, no secular person was present, nor was it 
customary for any such person to be present at the reception, and he then described 
the way he was received. He had been the claviger, and he asked to be admitted. He 
had the rigours of the order explained to him and he swore to keep the three principal 
oaths of the order and to keep the good and praiseworthy customs of the Order, &c. He 
said he had seen Philip de Mews, a knight, received, and he was received in the same 
way that he was, and in no other way were the brethren received. 

Thomas le Chamberlain said he had been six years in the Order, and he said he 
believed the same mode of reception was used here and over the seas, &c. He said 
he had seen others received as he was. He said he had heard of the matter set out in 
the Pope's Bull for the first time two years ago. Asked if he believed these things to 
be true about which the Lord Pope, the Cardinals and Inquisitors had testified, he said 
he did not believe it. 

The Examiners now determined to examine the heads of the order, and on 6 Cal 
Nov. (27 Oct.) Radulphus de Barton, Priest, the Master of the New Temple in London, 
was sworn upon the Holy Gospels, his oath is given at some length, in the depositions. 
He was to speak the truth for himself and as principal, and all the articles were put to 
him one by one, and the depositions generally state that he replied to them by the 
word non only. With regard to the first, the deposition is, " asked upon the 1st Article, 
which begins : Primo quod in recepcione sua, &c." He denied one by one the contents in 
all parts of the article.' To the question whether the Chapters were held in daytime 
or at night, he answered during the day. Notwithstanding that some of the depositions 
were put together, as in Articles 52, 53, 54, 55, 5.6 and 57, he denied all their 
contents {Omnia in eis contenta negavit). He only got as far as No, 57 on the first 

1 Ibid p. 335. 



114 



Transactions of the Quatuor Goronati Lodge. 



day. It appears there were present witnesses besides the Bishop and Inquisitors, 
Radulphus of Canterbury, Prior of Holy Trinity, and Brother John de Wrotham, Prior 
of London, and Brother Peter de Kenington, Reader and Master of Sacred Theology 
of the Preaching Friars, and Robert de Basingstoke, of the Minor Friars. 

2 On the morrow, 27th Nov., Barton was examined on the rest of the Articles, 
which only numbered up to 87, as given in the proceedings in England. All these 
Barton explicitly denied, where they could be so answered, except he said in answer to 
No. 52, which stated that many of the Brethren, Knights and Priests had confessed to the 
Pope, he had only heard of this confession from Bernard Pelet (sent over by 
Philip) but, however, he believed the Brethren had so confessed as the Pope's 
Bull said so. When the examination on the Articles was finished, he was asked 
when he was received, he said 15 years ago, by Guido de Foresta, the Grand Preceptor 
in England, and, asked how long he had lived in London, he said 10 years, as far as he 
could remember, and was the custos of the Church for that period and had been 
preceptor for two years. He said William de la Moore was present and others, and he 
had been present at other receptions. He said the laity were not present. He described 
the mode of reception as haying taken place in the usual way, and was then examined 
about the death of Walter Bacheler, formerly Preceptor of Ireland. He said he knew 
nothing except he was put in prison in fetters and died there, and he had heard 
that severe hardships were imposed on him, but as Chaplain he could not interfere in 
these matters, and being asked he said that the said Walter was not buried in the 
Cemetery (holy ground) because he was considered excommunicated on account of his 
disobedience against the Order. These depositions were taken 27th November before 
the same witnesses. 

On the 28th Himberttis Blancke was examined. He was asked whether all the 
brethren were received in the same way into the Order, he answered yes. He said he 
had been 37 or 38 years in the Order. He had been received by Bello-Joco (the Master 
who was said, being a prisoner of the Saracens, to have obtained his liberty by 
promising that in all future receptions the Saviour should be denied, &c.) He was 
asked particularly about the chapter and its secrets and gave the famous answer that 
they were only secrets from stupidity. Asked about the mode of his reception and the 
mysteries done there, he answered first that they swore to keep the secrets of the 
chapter and if they did the contrary they lo3t their religion (i.e. were expelled). Asked 
to tell the mode of his reception and the secret things done, he said they promised 
obedience, chastity, surrender of property, and that nothing was done there secretly 
that all the world might not see. Asked why then they kept them so secret. He said 
on account of stupidity (dicit, quod propter stultitiam). He was then asked about the 
articles one by one. He was asked about No. 29, that the Grand Master had confessed 
these things before his arrest and Blancke replied, if he said so he lied. And when 
asked about the confession alleged to have been made to the Pope and Cardinals he 
said he did not know what they had confessed or what they had said, but if they had 
confessed these charges (errores) they had lied. This examination was before the same 
witnesses, 

On the 29th Nov. William de Scotho was examined. He was a serving brother, 
and he described his reception and had all the articles put to him. To 29, the Master's 
confession before arrest, he said he did not know whether he had so confessed, and 
with regard to the confession to the Pope and Cardinals, No. 82, he said he knew 

1 p, 336. 




Proceedings against the Templars A.D. 1307-11. 



115 



nothing, but he believed the Apostolic letter which said they had confessed, stated 
what was true, i.e., that they had confessed. 

1 Another witness, Richard de Peitevyn, was examined on the 30th Nov. He said 
he had never heard of any of the contents of the said articles, except from the time 
when Bernard Pelet brought letters to the King of England against the Templars, 
Asked about the Master's confession before arrest, he said he knew nothing, nor had 
ever heard of the matters contained in the said articles. 

So universally were denials given to the articles that the depositions after this 
witness hardly do more than give a description of the particulars of when and where 
each witness was received, and then a short statement that he was interrogated about 
the articles, &c, without in many cases taking the trouble to give his denials. 

There were 47 witnesses examined. The object of the examination was, as 
stated, to get an admission that the Master, before arrest, and the Master Preceptors, 
after arrest, had confessed these crimes, that these confessions were true, and, 
therefore, as there was only one mode of reception, these crimes were committed in 
England. Some of them avoided the trap and said they knew nothing about it, 
and others, as we have seen, said if they did so confess they lied. One witness evidently 
thought the confession meant a religious confession, for William de la Forde said, 
when asked about the Master's confession, he did not know that he had confessed, but 
they were accustomed to go to Priests to confess and not to Magistrates. 

The Inquisitors had, it seems, got some information about the death of Walter 
Bacheler, for one of the. witnesses, John de Sautre, was pressed about his death, and 
the way he was buried, the taking of his confession, giving him the Sacrament, 
of the illness of which he died, &o. De Sautre said he had been buried as any other 
Christian, except that he was not interred in the Cemetery but in the plateau of the 
London House, and was confessed by Richard Grafton, a Priest now in Cyprus, and 
believed he received the Sacrament, bat does not know, and said that he and Radulphe de 
Brutus, no win the Tower, carried him out and buried him in the early morning. He was 
in prison, he believed, 8 weeks. Asked if he was buried in his habit he answered no. 
Why was he buried outside the Cemetery ? Because he was considered excommunicated. 
Why was he? Because, he believed, on account of the statute of the community that 
whoever took the goods of the house and did not account for them was to be 
excommunicated. 

This witness was also asked in what way the Order might be improved, and he 
gave the answer which seems to have been agreed was the one to give, that there should 
be a year's probation and that their receptions ought to be public. 

On the 29th Jany., 1310, the Inquisitors framed a fresh set of articles 3 (24 in 
number) for a further examination of the Templars. All the serious charges contained 
in the Pope's Bull were put into the first question : — • 

1. Whether they knew anything about the denial of Christ, spitting on the 

Cross, the depravity and idolatry in the other charges imputed to them, 
sent in the Bull. 

2. Whether they believed all the brethren received in England were good men 

and worthy of belief, and men who, whether from fear of the Grand 
Preceptor or of the order, or the hatred or grace of anyone, or from any 
other cause, would not deviate from the truth, and whether they wished 



1 p. 339. 



' p, 349. 



m 



, Transactions of the Quatuor Goronati Lodge. 



4. 
5. 



7. 
8. 

9. 

10.. 
11. 



la. 



13. 



14. 



15. 



16. 



17. 



18. 



19. 



to abide by their evidence (Stare eorum testimonium) they had each given 

about their receptions. 
Whether it was the same custom and mode of receiving in England, so that 

one knowing the mode of receiving one or many brethren, would know the 

way by which all and every were received. 
"Whether he who knew the mode used in England knew that in other places. 

Whether the Preceptors of the Order, especially the Grand Preceptor of 
England, received his observance from the Grand Master, and that all the 
brethren in England were received in the same way as the other brothers in 
Cyprus and in Italy and other kingdoms, provinces, and preceptories. 

Whether the said Brethren in England or elsewhere, in the present enquiry 
had not concealed these observances but of their own accord confessed 
them. 

Whether they did not wish to abide by their confessions. 

Whether these observances had not been delivered by the Grand Preceptor 
of Prance or the visitor. 

~ Whether when the Brethren held chapter they rang the bell and made any 
other sign of calling in the chapter, and did not he and all others attend. 

Whether he had been in any chapter, and did what was commonly done. 

Whether he knew or believed that what was done in the chapters and in the 
receptions and absolutions, or in other matters, was good and lawful, and 
well and lawfully done or that there were done there anything wrong, 
unlawful, heretical or vicious. 

Whether the things done in the chapter were by statute or custom and the 
approbation of the Order and all and each of the brethren. 

Whether they believed the absolutions had as much efficacy as they 

claimed to have. 
Whether matters in the book of confession and absolution were true, and by 

the Brethren commonly approved, and whether they observed them and 

in what way. 
Whether all and each believed and said that the Grand Preceptor and others 

had power to relax penancies enjoined by Priests for sins. 

Whether they believed the Grand Preceptor or visitor, or other Preceptors, 
being laymen, had power to absolve any laymen excommunicated because he 
had put violent hands on a brother or lay serving brother. 

Whether he and all and each believed any brother could absolve from the 
sin of perjury a serving brother when he came for discipline into the 
Hall and a serving brother flogged him in the name of the Father, 
Son, &c. 

Whether he believed, and all &c. believed, that absolution given by the 
Grand Master, Visitor or Preceptor, being laymen, was sufficient to absolve 
without confession and absolution, laymen from mortal sins except simony 
and laying violent hands on the clergy. 

Whether they commonly believed and the brethren so said that they and 
these priests could absolve the brethren and men from excommunication 
laid on them by the authority of the ordinary or delegate, 




20. 



21. 



22. 



23. 



24. 



Proceedings against the Templars A B. 1307-11. 117 

That De Molay, the Grand Master, and Hugo de Perant, the general 
visitor of the Order, had visited England and held chapters there with 
their own observances. 

"Whether the aforesaid Grand Master and visitor and other brethren in 
France and in other kingdoms kept the observance in the apostolic Bnll 
set out, and they and all brothers those observances which had been 
confessed in their trial. 

Whether there was not a common suspicion of the people against all and 
each of them and their profession and clandestine reception. 

Whether the said suspicion was not about these things contained in the 
articles sent in the Bull set out above. 

Whether all these things and suggestions are not manifest and notorious in 
England and elsewhere so that by no denial can they be concealed. 

These 24 articles are given here as an example of the cross-examining process of 
those days. They -constitute an attempt to show by inference that as there was only 
one way of receiving known in the Order, the same in England as in Prance and Cyprus, 
and the rules to be observed came from Prance to England, and that those in Prance had 
confessed they had observed the practices with which they were charged in the Pope's 
articles, i.e. abnegation, etc., then it followed that the English had done the same, and that 
this was confirmed by the popular suspicion. That the English Templars in addition were 
guilty of heresy in believing that the Preceptors, etc., being laymen, could remit and 
absolve and release from excommunication, etc. 

The first witness called on these new articles was Peter of Oteringham, but the 
Inquisitors made nothing of him. On the first article he said he did not know anything. 
On the second he believed the Preceptors, &c, were good and worthy of belief, and he 
wished to abide by his evidence, &c. On the 21 articles he said he had never seen any 
of the matters complained of done, and if any confessed they had, they lied, as far as he 
understood. He said the public suspicion bad not existed before the Papal Bull (in 
1309), etc. 

Roger Norreys, the second witness, gave similar evidence. He said that though 
De Molay had been in England he did not hold a chapter but a council, at which he was 
not present. Thirty-four witnesses were, it appears, examined on these twenty-four 
articles, who all gave similar evidence. 

The Examiners, not content, drew up five more articles. 1 Thirty-one of the 
Templars were re-called and examined upon these. These last articles were very 
short : — 

(1) What brethren they had seen received. 

(2) What brethren they knew in England in the Province of Canterbury. 

(3) Whether the receptions they had seen were in the same way as they had 

deposed. 

(4) Whether the things they had deposed were observed through the Order by 

those whom they knew and by all and each, and 

(5) Whether dead brethren were secretly buried. 

The witness, Philip de Mews gave the names of those he had seen received, and 
brethren were not buried clandestinely but before many witnesses in the parish next the 
J^ew Temple, 

1 p. 352. 




118 Transadtions of the Quatuor Coronati Lodge. 

John de Conggeston gave the names of those he knew, &c. He had never seen 
any brother buried, except those who had died in the tower. He said, however, anyone 
could be present and see them buried, as he had heard. 

The Bishops and Examiners made another attempt to get some evidence out of 
the Templars. They, it seems, determined to try and prove that the Templars were 
heretics in believing the Master, Preceptor, &c, being laymen, could give absolution, and, 
in the month of Jane, 1310, witnesses were examined in the following form of 
Interrogatory. 1 

In what way the Grand Preceptor, or other Layman president of the 
chapter, gave special absolution and remission to the chapter, and what 
words he used. 

It appears thirty-nine Templars were examined, but the depositions are given 
very shortly thus. 22 usque ad 36 testes (names given) deposed as above. 

William de la Moore, the Grand Preceptor, was first examined, and gave his 
version of the words used, which, however, he afterwards altered on. the following day, 
when his deposition is : — 

On this day, i.e. 5 Id. Janii came Brother William de la Moore, Grand Preceptor 
of England, before My Lords the said Inquisitors and swore that in general chapter 
whenever he held it, after prayer, he was accustomed to say that those who had 
not acknowledged their faults and who. had taken any of the charitable funds of the 
house, could not have any part in the spiritual goods of the order. But all other sins 
which they had omitted to confess on account of shame, of the flesh, or the fear of the 
justice of the Order, from the power given to him from God and My Lord the Pope, he 
remitted to them as far as he could, and he said he believed he so deposed the previous 
day. Asked if he had discussed with anyone the way of deposing what he had, he 
said yes, with Brother Himbert Blancke, who told him that it was not in the way 
he had first deposed, but he should have said it in the way written to-day, and 
thus it was said in the order. Asked if he wished to keep to this deposition he said yes. 
The other witnesses used similar words. Moore denied that he used the sacramental 
words, Absoloo vel remitto tihi in nomine Patris, etc. 

3 The Brethren of the Midland Counties were examined in the Castle of Lincoln, 
sixteen witnesses were examined, the first being taken on the last day of March, 1310. 
Henricus de la Wole sworn, and asked about his reception, etc., said he promised 
obedience, chastity and the surrender of property. Up to Article 8 he separately denied 
their contents. Prom 9 to 15, he said all the matters contained in the said articles 
were false, etc. Asked about the Master confessing (Article 29). Did not believe he 
had confessed, but if he had he confessed falsely (Jalsum). As to Kos. 82—5, the 
confession of the Preceptors, he did not know that they had confessed, but he knew 
these (charges) were untrue. This evidence was repeated with little variation by 
all the other witnesses. 

Thomas de Walkington said he did not believe the Preceptors had confessed, but 
if they had they did so under terror of torture and lied (terrore tormentorum confessi sunt 
et mentiti) ; his examination finished April 10th, 1310. 

The Brethren at Lincoln were recalled and further examined in June, 1310, 
more particularly upon the words used by the President of the Chapter when he 
absolved the Brethren. s The first witness said he knew and hadheard nothing of what 
the Master said, etc. The second witness said that the President being a layman 

1 p. 356. 2 p. 365. 3 p. 367. 




Proceedings against the Teniptars A.t). ISO?-!!. 



119 



(laicus) said if any of the Brethren had not confessed their sins, etc., " I ask God that 
He may remit to you and I with the authority of the Apostles Peter and Paul pardon 
you, and ask you to remit to me." Another witness varied the words a little. " I remit 
to you as much as in me is " (et ego rernitto quantum in me est). Many of them said they 
did not know. John de Walkington said if any one had not confessed, etc., the President 
said, "may God remit them, and we remit them from the power given us by God," and he 
(the President) said the witness, then sent them to a Priest, being a Brother, to be 
absolved. And the Brother Chaplain, the general confession being made, and "God 
have mercy on us " said, absolved them generally, and he said he had seen a Brother 
receive from the Master near Belsale, and the Master flogging him, saying, " in the 
name of the Father," etc., and then said " God remit to you, and we remit you and go to 
the Priest, who will absolve you." 

1 The Templars at Lincoln it appears were brought to London and examined for 
the third time in the Church of St. Martin deLudgate, London, 30th, 1311 (1310?) in 28 
Articles. There is a remarkable alteration in these Articles from the 24 already 
mentioned. It appears that the Inquisitors had abandoned all hope of proving, the 
serious charges of the denial, etc., and the first question of the 24 was omitted and 
others inserted in its place directed to prove that the chapters were held secretly. 
These articles commence as follows : 

(1) Whether when the Brethren held their Chapter they rang the bells or made 

other signals for calling the Brethren to the chapter. 

(2) Whether the witness had been in any Chapter and did those things which 

other brethren commonly did there, &c, &c. 

These further questions were directed to proving by inference, as before, that as 
ere was one common mode of Reception, and the Master and Preceptors had confessed 
to the Pope and Inquisitors the charges about the Reception, therefore the English 
Templars did these things. 

The witnesses generally denied and said they did not know, and in fact repeated 
their evidence given at Lincoln. 

3 The examination of the Templars of the Northern Counties on the articles sent 
by the Pope took place at York. The first witnesses were taken on the 1st May, 1310. 
William de Grafton, asked about the mode of his reception, gave the usual answer 
about promising obedience, etc., and that this was the universal way of receiving, etc. 
Asked about the Master's confession (No. 29). Did not know what he had confessed, 
but if he had (as alleged) he lied. And he gave the same reply to No. 82. As to the alleged 
confessions of the Preceptors, etc., he did not know what they had confessed, but if 
they had they lied. 

The same evidence was given, with little if any variation, by the other brethren 
examined. The last witness of the 22 examined, Brother John of Sherton, asked about 
the 82-5 articles, said he did not believe that they had so confessed, unless under tortue, 
and if they had they lied. 

3 The Brethren were examined in Ireland in February, 1310, upon the articles 
sent by the Pope, which they denied, as all the other Templars in England had done. 
As usual, the deposition of the first witness is set out at length, but in some 
subsequent depositions the witnesses concur in what had already been deposed, but in 
others do not take the trouble to do that. 



th 



1 p. 368. 



1 p. 871. 



1 p. 373* 




120 



transactions of the Quatuor Ooronati Lodge. 



liicardus, the first witness, said he was received in the night at the break 
of day, swore obedience, etc. In answer to the articles, said neither at his 
reception nor after, nor ever had he denied Christ or the Crucifixion, or God or the 
Blessed Virgin Mary, nor was induced or asked by those who received him to do so, 
and so on about the other articles. Asked about the cat, he said he had never adored 
any cat nor knew, nor otherwise heard that any brother of the Order adored a cat. But 
in answer to No. 29, the Master's confession, he said hs fully believed it, and in articles 
82-5, Preceptors' confession, etc., said he had not heard of it except after he had been 
arrested, and he fully believed everything to be true which was contained in the Pope's 
Bull. He said he knew nothing about the heads and Idols, or who had charge of 
them, etc. 

The last witness, however, William Kilros, the Chaplain, who had agreed with 
the others in their general denial of the articles, said that a great suspicion had arisen 
against the Order for its sudden rise and its friendship and treating with the Saracens, 
and he spoke of the death of Walter le Bachelor, who died in the New Temple in 
London, and of another Brother, whose name he said he did not know, who died in 
prison, where he was put for depravity. 

x There were only two brethren examined in Scotland, and these by the Bishop of 
S*. Andrew's, on the 15 Cal. Dec. (19th November) , 1309. Both these denied everything. 
Walter de Clifton said he was an Englishman and a Templar. He gave the usual 
answers about his reception, swearing obedience, etc. He said he believed that the 
Grand Master, Preceptors, visitors, as well as the inferior clergy and laity could absolve 
the brethren from sin except homicide and violence towards the Priests, but he does not 
seem to say much on the other charges. He said he was alone in Scotland except the 
mext witness, William de Middleton, from Newcastle. He does not say much about the 
articles except he had seen and heard the Great Master absolve the laity of the Order 
by these words, " By the authority of God and blessed Peter and my Lord the Pope, we 
absolve you from any sin," and he committed thus his vices to the brother priest of 
the said Order. He, however, said he believed that the case of my Lord the Pope was 
excepted. 






OUTSIDE EVIDENCE. 

The documentary evidence shows that the Inquisitors in England were to a great 
extent nonplussed by the persistent refusal of the Templars to admit the charges 
preferred against them. They tried, as stated, to prove argumentatively the illegal and 
impious mode of reception, by getting the witnesses to admit the alleged confessions of 
the Master and Preceptors in Prance, and that there was only one mode of reception. 
They now determined to take outside evidence, to collect all the scandal that envy, 
hatred and malice could suggest and to invite anyone who had a story to tell, 
even if he had heard it second or third hand, to come forward and tell it. In Prance 
and elsewhere the Templars had to meet torture and the alleged confessions of their 
chiefs. In England they were supposed to be judged by the statements of their 
enemies. Rightly or wrongly the English law in modern days repudiates hearsay 
evidence or statements made behind the back of the accused. This may ba in some 
cases carried too far, but it is, perhaps, a reaction from -the practice of the Star 
Chamber, who tried persons upon confessions and statements made in their absence, 
often obtained by torture or threat of it. We know the Inquisition and the Council of ten 

1 p. 380. 




Proceedings against the templars A.T). 1307-11. 



121 



at Venice, etc., followed the same practice. Bat the intelligence of men must in all 
times, when their prejudices were not excited, have seen the weakness of this class of 
evidence, and it seems, as will be seen, to have had no effect upon the question of the 
guilt of the order in England. The only result of the present evidence, which, having 
been taken, has been preserved, is that the worst stories about the Templars have come to 
us from these outside witnesses. The stories are ridiculous, unworthy of belief, what 
someone has heard that someone else said, but they have become woven into the 
literature on the subject. Their origin is forgotten, the stories remain. For example 
1 M. Michelet cites in a note several of these second-hand stories (Reynouard uses our 
word and speaks of them as owi-dire), and says that these avowals (aveucc) had been 
obtained "without torture and that the "worst stories (les depositions les plus sales) which 
seem to have been the result of torture are those of the English witnesses who were not 
submitted to it." 

But this was not the case. The witnesses to these stories were not tortured it is 
true, but they were not Templars but volunteers, principally the Friars of the Minor 
order. It is said that St. Francis gave this humble title to his new order, the 
Franciscans, in recognition of their humble position in the Church, which they, amongst 
others, in the twelfth century came to reform. One can fancy their hostility to the 
proud Knight Templar. There seems to have been the same antagonism as later on 
there was between the Cavalier and Roundhead, and, still later, the Churchman and the 
Dissenter. The great dividing line, after all, is between those who have and those who 
have not, and from all time, pride and wealth and social position must produce envy in 
those who see no reason why they should not have these things themselves. " Down 
with the aristocrats " was the cry of those who wanted breeches (sansculottes) in the 
French Revolution. It was not only the Minor Friars but also the Dominicans, or 
preachers, who hated the Templars. Michelet says that originally they had been so 
closely allied that the former solicited legacies for the order of the Temple at the bedside 
of each dying person whom they confessed, but gradually they became their rivals and 
enemies. The Templars were nobles, the Dominicans were from the people (roturiers) 
and the latter hated the soldier-Monks who enjoyed the benefits of sanctity 
and the pomp of la 'vie Militaire. 

The witnesses who were not Templars were examined in Loudon, as seems to 
have been the general practice upon certain definite questions, as follows : — 

(1) The witnesses are to be asked whether they know or believe the Temple 

brethren wished their reception, or their mode of reception, to be kept a 
secret (occultum). 

(2) And if they say that is so, from what cause, proper or improper (an Jionesta 

vel inhonesta /), and whether on this account at any time they were suspicious 

of the Templars. Whether at any time they asked the brethren about their 

mode (of receiving) , whether they refused to reveal it, whether the reception 

of the brethren took place at night, whether they had seen anyone received 

at night, &o. 

The earlier depositions were dated 13 Kal Dec, 1309 (19th Nov.) and were taken, 

at the Church of Holy Trinity, before the Bishops, and the Inquisitors, the Abbot de 

Latigniaco and Siccard de Vauro. The first witnesses do not seem to help the Inquisitors 

milch, but it will be seen that as they went on they grew more unscrupulous and did 

not hesitate to say the worst against the Templars. 

1 " His. de France," vol. iii., p." 134. 






122 



Transactions of the Quatuor Ooronati luodge. 



* 
4 



1 William le Dorturer (other witnesses to the number of seventeen were sworn). 
Public Notary of London, said the Templars wished their receptions to be secret. 
He presumed rather from an improper than proper reason. Whenever he asked them 
why the receptions were secret they replied it was not their way (modus) that anyone 
should see their receptions, except brethren. He said the receptions were in the early 
morning, and he had seen those received leave at this time. And he said brethren rose 
in the middle of the night and held their chapters before dawn. He said he had been 
in two chapters near Dinestee, six years ago, and two before, to the rest of the 
interrogatories he either said no or he did not know. 

2. Gilbertus de Brueria, clerk, replied to the 1st Question, yes, but believed it to 
be for a proper reason. He had seen brethren enter in daytime and at night, but did 
not know they were received at night, &o., but said nothing more. 

3. Robert le Dorturer, Notary Public, of London, answered the first question, 
yes. Believed because they did improper things. He remembered Roger de Reily, now 
dead, being received at night, sometimes they received by night, sometimes by day. Said 
he had never been in a provincial chapter. This witness made charges against Gruido 
de Foresta. 

4. Adam de Dopliner said he knew they kept the reception secret for proper 
reasons, said they were held in the daytime, bat the chapters sometimes at night some- 
times by day, to the rest he said no. 

5. Rudulph de Rayndon said he knew nothing about the order or the persons of 
the Temple except what was good and proper. 

The 6th and 7th witnesses said they knew nothing against the Templars and 
never had suspicions, and being asked the mode of reception, said the receptions were by 
day and had never seen anyone received at night. The 8th, 9th and 10th witnesses were to 
the same effect. The 11th, Lord John of Holyngton, Rector of the Church of St. Mary 
de la Strode, was asked whether the Templars committed Idolatry, denied God, &c, he 
said be did not know unless from rumour. Asked the date of this rumour he said he 
did not know. Said he did not know the mode of reception as it was secret, he 
believed rather from a wicked than a proper reason. Said On this account he 
suspected them. He said he had asked to be told the mode of reception, but they 
would not tell him, he said he had not seen whether the receptions were by day or 
night, but he said it was notorious that they were held at night. He said he believed 
that they served the' sacraments as other priests. The other witnesses 12-17 being 
sworn and diligently examined said they knew nothing jurati et diligenter interrogati 
responderunt se nihil scire. 2 

3 The following witnesses, who were not Templars, were subsequently examined 
as to what they could say against the order. Bro. Henry James Hibernus said, 
with more effect, he had heard that a Bro. Hugo, &c, had left the camp and gone 
to the Saracens, denying his faith, and he had heard when abroad that a Preceptor had 
received many with the Denial, but he did not know the name of the Preoeptor or of 
the Brethren he received, and he observed in Cyprus that many of the order did not 
believe in the Sacraments of the order nor the other sacraments, and he had heard that" 
some Templars had a brazen double-faced head in their custody, and said that it replied 
to all questions. He had never heard that any brother adored this head, unless it was 
the Preceptor and the brethren received by him> or the above-named Hugo. 



, p.-"848i 



'■ p. 849. 



1 p.. 358. 






Proceedings against the Templars A.D. 1307-11. 123 

(2) Master John of Nassingham deposed that Milo of Stapleton and Adam of 
Everingham (Templars) told him that they and other Knights of St. Patrick, near 
Temple-hurst were invited to a big meeting, where many Knights were gathered for 
a solemn feast at which they adored a calf. 

(3) John of Eure said that before the arrest of the Templars in England a bad 
report (infamia) against them arose. Brother William of the Temple was a guest of a 
knight, he after dinner (post prandium) produced a book out of his breast and handed it 
to the Knight's wife to read, in which she found many heresies written, as Christ was 
not the Son of God, nor born of a virgin, but of the wife" of Joseph, after the manner of 
men conceived, &c, &c. 

(4) William de la Forde, Rector of Orofton, York diocese, said that William de 
Reynbur, a Priest of Saint Augustine, had told him that he had heard the confession of 
Patrick of Rippon, a Templar now dead, and Patrick had confessed that being received 
in his shirt and breeches, he swore that he would never reveal what they did or 
said, and afterwards he was told to deny God and Christ whom before he had 
loved, which he did, he was shown the crucified image, and told that as before he 
honoured him he must now insult him and spit on him, which he did, and he was told 
to drop his breeches and bare his back to the image, which with tears he did, after- 
wards he was shown an image as of a calf placed on an altar, and he was told to kiss 
the said image and venerate it, which he did, and afterwards with his yeiled eyes he 
kissed the brethren, but he did not know in what part. The witness was asked when 
he heard these things, he said after the arrest of the brethren in the City of York. 

(5) Robert of Oteringham, of the Minor friars, said that near Riblestan, after 
thanks were given, the Chaplain of the order taunted the brethren, saying " The devil 
will have you," or similar words, and, hearing a disturbance between them he stood up, 
and, as he said, he saw the breeches of a brother of the Temple, with his face to the 
west and back to the altar. Asked who he was he said he did not remember, but he 
believed it was Brother Radulphus de Roston, brother chaplain of the Temple 
now at York. Asked when, he said within (Septennium) seven years. He said 
about twenty years ago, near Wetherby, he heard that the Grand Master who was 
there did not come to collation because he was arranging some relics which he had 
brought from the Holy Land and wished to show them to the brethren, and afterwards, 
in the depth of the night, he heard a conf used clamour. in the chapel, and he arose, and 
through the keyhole he beheld a great light from fire or candles in the chapel, and in the 
morning when he enquired of a Templar to what Saint they had kept so great a feast 
daring the night, the Brother turned pale, as if stnpified, and fearing that he had seen 
something done by them, said " Go your way and as you love me and your own life never 
speak of these matters to the chiefs," and he said, near Rollestone, he had seen a cross 
with the figure of Christ thrown on an altar, and he said to a Templar that it was 
improperly put there, and attempted to raise it, and the brother said "Leave the cross 
and go in peace." 

The witnesses 6 and 7 are given as saying the same as Robert le Dorturier and 
others had deposed, but No. 8, John of Wednal, a Minor friar, said that he had heard 
it told how Robert de Basset, or Rygat, a Templar, walking in a field, was heard to say 
these words : " Heu, Heu that ever I was born, since it is necessary for me to deny God, 
etc., and ally myself with the devil." Another witness of the Minor friars told the 
Commissioners (significavit nobis) he had heard from Brother Robert of Tukenham that 
a Templar had a son who saw through a partition that they asked one professing 







124 



Transactions of the Quatuor Gorcmati Lodge. 



if he believed in the crucified, shewing him the figure, whom they killed upon his 
refusing to deny Him, but the boy, some time after, being asked if he wished to be a 
Templar said no, because be had seen this thing done. Saying this, he was killed by his 
father. Ten other witnesses were examined, but the report says that mutatis mutandis 
they say almost the same as above. 

To this report there is this significant note : — 

The supicion seems to be proved that all examined in something 
perjured themselves, as appears from the inspection of the process. 
Suspicio probare videtur quod omnes examinati in aliquo degeraverunt ut ex 
inspectione processum apparet. 

At this time Siccard de Vasno, who is now described as Cardinal of England, 
put in before the Commissioners the following confession : — 

(22) Robert de Sancto Justo, Templar, received into the order in England, at the 
house at Stanford, by Bro. Himbertus, then Grand Preceptor General of England. He 
said he entered a chapel of the house, &c, and asked for bread and water, and the 
fraternity of the order (the usual form) and the Preceptor put the mantle on his 
back, and brought him a book and swore him to observe the customs and charities of 
the house. Asked about the denial of Christ and spitting on the cross, he said the 
preceptor asked him to spit on the cross which was there and to deny him whose 
figure was there, and to spit on him, and by the order of the Preceptor he denied 
Christ. 

This apparently is the confession taken before the Inquisitors, in 1307, and was 
sent over, as De Gonnavilla's was, as proving the unlawful form of reception observed 
in England. 

The 23rd witness, a Knight, said that his uncle entered the order healthy and 
joyfully, with his birds and dogs, and the third day following he was dead, and he 
suspected it was on account of the crimes he had heard of them ; and that the cause of 
his death was he would not consent to the evil deeds perpetrated by other brethren. 
Adam de Heton, the 24th witness, said when he was a young secular lad all the boys 
cried out publictly and as a common expression one to the other, " Guard yourself from 
the kiss of the Templars." 

The numbers 24 to 36 are wanting, but from 36 to 44 the report says that they 
deposed about the same as above. The 45th, William de Berney, of the order of St. 
Augustine, said he had heard from a Templar, whose name he did not know, but he 
believed a preceptor, that a brother of the Temple said " No man after death had a soul 
more than a dog." (46-50) same as above. (51) Roger, Rector of Godmershem, sworn, 
said fifteen years ago, or about, he proposed to enter the order, and consulted a brother, 
Stephen, who replied : " If you might be my father, and could become the Master of the 
whole order, I would not wish you to enter it, because we have three articles between us 
in our order which no one may ever know except God and the Devil, and we brethren 
of the order." Questioned whether he asked what these three articles were, he said 
yes, but the brother said it was not allowed him to say or reveal them. 

(52) William, Vicar of St. Clement's, Sandwich, said fifteen years ago, or about, 
he heard from a lad, named John, his servant, that the latter was with another 
servant of a Templar, near Dinestee, where there was a chapter, and the latter said to 
his master he wondered why the chapters are held at night, to whom the Master replied, 
" Why do you ask, what is our chapter to you ?" John said that whilst the brethren held 
their chapter the lad entered the large hall, where it was held secretly, and hid himself 






Proceedings against the Templars A.D. 1307-11. 125 

under a seat, and heard, after the brethren, had entered the chapter, the president tell 
them how they might become richer, and he saw the brethren place their girdles 
in a place, and, the speech being finished, the speaker retired and took one of the 
brethren with him, whose girdle, hid in the hall, the servant found in the morning, and 
took it away and showed it to his master, who killed him with his sword, and this 
the servant of the witness saw. Asked ; if his servant were still alive, who told him 
this ? he replied no. 

The 52nd witness, Thomas Tulyet, a Carmelite, of Sandwich, said he heard from 
the Vicar of Sutton, near Sandwich, that a priest who once officiated for the Templars 
said he had been forbidden by them to use the consecrating words in the celebration of 
the Mass. 

The 54th-68th witnesses were nearly the same as above. 

1 (69) John, a Minor Friar, being sworn, told a long story which he said he had 
heard from a lady, called Cacocaca, who lived in a suburb of London, near some elms, &c. 
Exvalettus, preceptor, told the said lady that in a provincial chapter, near Dinestee, 
one of the servants of the Templar, when the Templars entered the chapter got in 
secretly, and when the door was shut and locked by the last who entered, and the key 
taken to the Preceptor, the brethren arose and went into another house contiguous, and 
took oat a black figure with shining eyes, and a cross, and the figure was pat on the 
cross, and it was taken to the Master, who indecently kissed it, and after the kiss all the 
brethren spat on the cross, except one, who said " I was a wicked man in the world and 
for the health of my soul I entered this order, and now why should I do worse, 1 will 
not," and then they said to him, " Consult yourself and do as the order does," he said he 
would not, then they put him into a dungeon (puteo) in the middle of the house, which, 
being shut, the Templars began to * * * * * Asked when the woman heard this, he 
said it was fourteen years since she told him. Asked where, he said near London, where 
she kept house for Robertus Cotacota, her lord, &c. 

(70) Agnes Lovekote, deposed the same as the others, dated London 16 Cal. 
(16th Apr.), 1311. 

(71) John Wolby, Minor Friar, said that from what he heard two years ago, 
near Sarnm, from Brother John, <fcc, who lived in the convent of the Sarum brothers, 
he believed that the things said about the Templars were not said without cause, 
that he had heard them say that the Court of Rome did not keep the direct way, 
&c, and he asserted that in a place in London, there was kept a gilded head, and there 
were two others in England, but the deponent did not remember the descriptions of the 
places, and he said this arose from a Grand Master of the Order, who had much 
increased the possessions of the Order, and that dying he had several preceptors called, 
to whom he said, if they wished to rule and be in honor, they should adore such a head, 
and similar words he said in piesence of Simon de Haslebourne. 

(72) Richard de Koofield gave evidence that a monk told the witness that a knight, 

Walter Baeheler, whom the monk had advised to be a Templar, on being asked how he % 

was, and whether the order pleased him, replied that following his advice he had lost ! 

his soul by entering the order, and that the confessor of the Count W., who heard from 
a vicar who was formerly priest to the said Walter Baeheler, said that there was one 
article in their profession which ought not to be revealed to anyone. 

(73) Gasperius, Chaplain of the parish of Ryde, had been in the service of the 
Templars for half a year, three years ago last feast of St. Martin. This witness tells a 

1 p. 362, 






126 Transactions of the Quatuor Coronati Lodge. 

long story about a reception at night. It appears he said mass, bat was then sent out 
of the Hall and the doors locked, so what they did he knew not, but the next day he saw 
the candidate in the habit of a Templar, and had a conversation how the secrets 
might be gained through a keyhole, and he was told if they were, he would have been 
delivered to death, nor could he escape except by becoming Templar. This witness 
said it was after the bad reports arose he conceived a sinister suspicion against the order, 
and he said the next morning he found some of the crosses had been shifted, and 
one cross was lying on the altar. 

No. 74 deposed as above. (75) Brother de Dongnyton, Minor Friar of the 
Convent at Sarum, said he had been with an old man who had left the Templars, and 
he told him as follows : With fear and in danger of death, in secular habit, he went to 
the Roman Court, where he told the Poenitentiary the cause of his leaving the Templars, 
and he told him the Poenitentiary that there were four idols in England, one in London 
in the Sacristry of the Temple, one near Byddesham, one near Brueram, near Lincoln, 
and the fourth beyond the Humber. Asked the name of this veteran, he said according 
to his estimation he changed his name. He, the veteran, told the witness that the 
Grand Master Moore introduced this misery into England and carried a large roll 
of gross letters, in which were written nefarious observations and adorations. This 
veteran said to the said brother that some Templars carried Idols in their coffers, and 
the witness told him that some Knight, one by the name of William, told him that he 
had talked with a Templar in the Holy Land, who had left the order and did not wish 
to return, he said, as the order did not please him, and the said knight asked him about 
the mode of reception, and he replied with great indignation "Make that request to the 
deacons, for I shall never say," &c, &c. 

1 The evidence of the witnesses, not Templars, examined in Scotland, is of the 
weakest description. They do not speak to facts, even from hearsay, but only express 
their views. Thus the first witness, Hugo Albert, of Dumfermelyn, asked about the 
articles in the. Papal Bull, &c, said he never knew for certain, but he had heard they 
committed such things, that there was a sinister suspicion against them and always had 
been on account of the clandestine reception and the nocturnal celebration of their 
Chapter. He said he believed the observances and statutes were the same everywhere, 
and he believed this because the visitor of Prance (Peraudus) was accustomed to visit 
their order in England and the English visitor to go to Scotland, and the brethren 
everywhere met in Chapter and so communicated the tenets of the order, but he said 
he had never heard of a brother being received in Scotland, because they could not 
know the secret there. 

The rest of the forty-one Scotch witnesses had this evidence of Hugo read to 
them and they agreed with it. A few added remarks of their own. (14) Robert the 
Chaplain of Liston said he had never known for certain, nor seen where, any 
Templar was buried, or that any one had died a natural death, and that, as far as they 
were able, they were always opposed to the Church, and on this the public voice and 
fame laboured. But it is not necessary to repeat their general statements, which were 
only what they believed or said they did. 

2 The evidence was taken before Willielmus providentia divind St. Andrse 
episcopus, &c. 

The evidence of the outside witnesses in Ireland was really the old argument that as 
the Preceptors had confessed, and the ohservances and statutes were the same, 

1 p. 380. 2 p. 378, 










Proceedings against the Templars A.t). 1307-11. 127 

therefore those in Ireland were guilty, and this was confirmed by their clandestine 
reception and sworn secrecy, &c. Thus the first witness, Roger de Heton, Minor Friar, 
■(gardianus), being cautioned and sworn, was asked whether he knew that the Templars 
(previously examined in Ireland) were guilty of heresy or of any of the charges in the 
Papal Ball, said he had not seen any of them commit crime. Being then asked if he 
thought the said brethren, or some of them, might be guilty (Sint flulpabiles) or have 
committed the crime imputed to them, said yes, in that the Grand Master and some of 
the Preceptors of the order had confessed the articles contained in the Bull, or the 
greater part of them, before the Pope or others deputed by him, as the Pope's Ball 
witnessed; and because the brethren themselves said that there was one mode of 
reception in the Temple throughout the world, and because their profession was 
clandestine and they swore not to reveal, &o. 

The other witnesses agreed with this first one, but added details. Ho. 2 said he 
had seen a Templar at the elevation of the Sacrament bow his face to the ground, not 
caring to receive the host. No. 9, Richard de Babylyn, said he believed the Irish Grand 
Master, Henricus de Tanet, was guilty of heresy, because he was for more than a 
year the confidential companion and guest (socius collateralis et contulernalis) of the 
Grand Master beyond the seas, De Molay, from whom he received and obtained great 
distinction in horses, clothes and other apparatus, and this witness repeated the 7 
old argument, that as there was only one reception, and the Preceptors had con- 
fessed, <fcc, and they kept the reception secret, he firmly believed them guilty, &c. 

The 26th witness said he had been at Olonfarht, when there his brother said 
mass before the Templars, and he helped his brother in the celebration, and he perceived 
at the Elevation (Corporis Ghristi), the Templars looked on the ground and did not raise 
their eyes nor attend to the reading of the gospel. He also said after the Agnus Dei he 
wished to give the brethren peace, and then one of the clergy of the Templars said that 
the Templars did not want peace (quod fratres Templar ii non curarent de pace). From 
these matters he considered the Templars to be much suspected, and he believed one 
and all to be guilty or conscious of crime and that a great scandal, &c. 

Another brother (39), Thomas de Broughton, said he had heard of the kiss on the 
reception, and a strong suspicion against them because of their holding chapters at night 
and clandestine receptions. He said he had heard many brothers were put in sacks and 
drowned in the sea, but he did not know for what reason, nor had he seen or known 
anyone so drowned. He said he had often heard it said that when they held a chapter 
one of them was killed in chapter, but this did not seem" to be true to him, for many 
persons had counted the brethren going into chapter, and, on their coming out they 
they always found their number correct. He had seen a brother imprisoned in Cyprus, 
but he did not know for what cause, and a brother, whose name he did not know, 
broke prison and came to the House of St. John, Jerusalem, wrapped in a lintheamine, 
and there stopped till he left those parts, at the expense of the said Hospital, and 
never returned to the order of the Templars ; this he knew. 

The 41st witness, sworn and examined, agreed with the first witness in every- 
thing, but added that he had heard from a Knight, called Hugo, &c, what he said was 
commonly reported in parts beyond the sea, that the Templars practised depravity. He 
said that if anyone wished to leave the order, and this was known, they put a big stone 
round his neck and drowned him, as he had heard. He said that they trampled' 
the : cross, on Friday, under their feet, as he heard. He said if any one refused to 
consent to their wickedness he was put to death, as he heard, &c, and he had' 



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heard that they did things in the same way throughout the order, and he said that 
it was said there (beyond the seas) that Aeon and many cities and camps had been 
lost on account of this defect, and it was commonly said there that the Grand Master 
could absolve from sins though unconfessed as he heard, and that whatever the Grand 
Master did and ordered, under pain of death, all had to do and observe throughout 
the world, as he heard. 



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DEFENCE— ENGLISH TEMPLARS. 

The Inquisitors having taken apparently all the evidence they could, it 
appears that the Templars in London were cited to appear before the Bishop and 
the French Inquisitors, the Abbot de Latigniaco and Siccard de Vauro, at the Church 
of Holy Trinity, on Thursday, 10 Cal. May (22nd April), 1311, to see and hear the 
publication of the evidence produced against them, and a copy of this evidence 
being asked for by those present was given by the Bishop and Inquisitors, and that 
week was fixed for the accused to put in all the defences and privileges upon 
which they wished to rely for themselves and their brethren ; and subsequently the 
officer of London, and notaries and witnesses were sent out to the Tower of London to 
enquire of the Templars whether they had anything they wished to briDg forward. They 
said they were laymen ignorant of law, and all their means of defence had been taken 
from them, and they had no others to give them proper Council. They said, however, 
they wished for themselves and their order, to put forward their faith, the religion 
which they kept, and the privileges given them by the Popes, and their depositions 
taken before the Inquisitors, so that all there might be used as wished, for the defence. 
And that day week, Thursday, the 3 Kal. Mar. (29th April), twenty-eight Templar 
witnesses, including W. Moore, the Grand Master of England, appeared with their 
written defence before the Inquisitors, at All Saints' Church, at Birkyngecherche. This 
defence was afterwards accepted by the Templars confined in Ludgate, and by Himbert 
Blancke, who appeared to have been confined by himself in Newgate. Perhaps that was 
what those in the Tower meant when they said they had been deprived of their defence. 

Blancke was no doubt the leading spirit among the English Templars. Raynouard 
says that Moore, the Grand Master, died in the Tower. It will be seen that in the 
French enquiry the Templars also, were suddenly deprived of their defenders. 

The Templars, both in England and France, never seemed to have fnlly realised 
their position, and the terrible nature of the charges brought against them. Did not 
Tacitus say that one of the children of Sejanus, being led to execution, to satisfy the 
cruelty of Tiberius, promised to be a good child in future. So the Templars, both in 
England and France, charged with the most terrible blasphemies and crimes, put 
forward simple statements of what they believed and generally did, winding up by asking 
to have the rites of the Church restored to them. They were either simple Catholics 
or the most profound hypocrites. The present defence, which is only the Apostles' 
Creed, is in the Norman French of the period, and shows how that language was 
becoming Anglicised. There were three languages in use, we are told, in those days, the 
Latin, Anglican and Gallic. 

The Defence commences by addressing our honorable father of Canterbury, and 
says that all the Templars here assembled, and each particular person are Christians, and 
our Lord" is Jesus Christ. Then follows the creed, in it we see Credimus has become 
Creoms, and filius, instead of softening into the French file, is hardening into the Norman 
fitg, &c. 






Proceedings against the templars A.D. 1307-11. 



m 



" Creoms en Dieu Pere omnipotent, qui fist ciel et terre ; e en Jesus soen 
fiz qui fust conceu du Saint Esperit, nez de la Virgine Marie, soeffrit 
peine et passoun, mourut sur la croiz pour touz peechours, deseendit e 
enferns, e la tierz jour releva de mort en vie e mounta en ciel, siet au 
destre soen Pere e vendra au jour de juife, juger les vifs et les morz que 
fu saunz commencement et serra saunz fyn ; et creoms comme Seynte 
Bglise crets (believes) et e nous enseigne." The defence then continues 
that their 'religion' is founded on obedience, chastity, to live without 
property and to assist in the holy Land Jerusalem " a force e a poer 
(power) qui Dieu nous ad preste," and we deny and contradict, all and 
each, all manners of heresies and malvaistes, which are against the faith 
of Holy Church, and we pray God and by charity to you, who are in 
place of our apostolic Father, that we may have the rights (drettures) of 
Holy Church, as those who are her sons, whom we have well guarded 
and kept her faith and law, and our religion, which is good, proper and 
just, according to the ordinances and privileges which the Court of Rome 
has granted, confirmei and Canonized by common council, which 
privileges and the rule are in the said Court registered. The 
defence concludes by saying that if they have misunderstood anything in 
their examination, by ignorance, as they are nearly all laymen, they ask 
for the pity of the Church, " as of Him who died for ns on the cross, 
and we pray you for God and for the salvation of your souls, that you 
judge us as if you would reply for yourselves and ns before God, and 
that our examination may be read and heard before us and the people, 
according to the replies and language which were said before you and 
written on paper." 
At some time or other the following report, given in the "Concilia Magnu," 1 
appears to have been drawn up. It is not dated nor addressed. It may have been sent 
to the Pope or to Edward, or it may have been only a draft never acted upon, but what- 
ever it was it shows the view taken by some one who was in a position to draw up a 
report. It will be seen from its perusal that, like most of the documents that have come 
down to us, it is very misleading and not supported by the evidence. For while it is 
evident from the report that the attempt to prove the denial and insult alleged to be 
required at the Reception of Candidates had failed, yet the old argument is continued, that 
there was only one mode of Reception throughout the order, that the Grand Master and 
the Preceptors of Normandy, etc., had confessed these charges, and that the English 
Templars admitted that they did what the Grand Master ordered, thereby leaving 
the inference to be drawn that these charges were true. In doing so the report omits 
the strenuous denial of those examined, who said that if the Grand Master, and 
Preceptors had confessed these things they lied. It was, as stated, a two-edged weapon. 
For if there was only one mode of reception, and the denial and insult did not take place in 
England, then the so-called confessions in France were evidently due to torture. The 
Report hurries over this weak spot and gets on firmer ground, when it returns as 
proved, the articles (24-29) which refer to the alleged practice of absolution being given 
by the head of a chapter, though not a Priest. The Report alleges that the Grand 
Preceptor in Chapter gave absolution, saying " I absolve thee or remit to thee (your sins) 
in the name of the Father, etc." (Hgo absolvo te vel remitto t'ito in nomine patres, etc.), 
though the use of these sacramental wordi was expressly denied. 

'p. 358. 




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The report is entitled 
ARTICLES WHICH APPEAR PROVED AND ARE SENT WITH THE 
DEPOSITIONS OP SOME OF THE WITNESSES. 

" We believe that yon will from the Apostolic letters be able to gather (colligare) 
that the under-written facts are fully proved. First, that the Grand Master and 
the brethren beyond seas and the Preceptors of Normandy and Poictiers, and many other 
brothers, have received very many (according) to the matters which are in the enquiry 
contained in the Apostolic letters. Item, there is one mode of receiving brethren into 
the Order of the Temple throughout the world where brothers are received. Item, there 
is one mode of profession after the reception into the said Order. Item, that to the 
question whether the same observances are everywhere enjoined to the received brethren ? 
The reply is that whatever the Grand Master with his Council orders or enacts, all the 
Order ought to hold and observe, and it is so observed. Item, we return to you the 
articles from 24 to 29 1 , as proved. Item, that they believe, and it was so told to 
them that the Grand Master could absolve them from their sins. Item, that the 
visitor and the Preceptors, of whom many were laymen, could do this, or some 
of them. Item, that the articles are proved, that the Grand Master confessed these 
matters before the arrest in presence of great persons, but some say they be]ie ve 
themselves to be privileged (Priviliegiators) . Item, one or two (confessed) that 
the Grand Preceptor gives absolution in chapter by saying I absolve thee, or remit 
to thee in the name of, etc. Item, that he gives general absolution from sins which they 
are not willing to confess on account of shame of the Flesh or fear of the Order in the name 
of, etc. Item, that they believed that the sins confessed in chapter for which they had 
received absolution they were not obliged to confess to a Priest. Item, that the brethren 
believed the Grand Master, Preceptor and Visitor could remit penitences imposed 
for sin. Item, it is to be considered whether it is possible to collect from the depositions 
that they are not required to confess mortal sins except in the chapter, and venal, 
ones only (untrue) to the Priest by the words of William, Chaplain of Himbertus, 
and Henry and Rudolph, of Roston, priests, and Thomas de Handford, York, etc. 
Item, that this is the mode of reception everywhere, that the said mode is clandestine, 
that is, the said reciptions are clandestine; no one present unless brothers. Item, 
that the chxpters and receptions are held .at night, that the mode of receiving is 
one of the secrets of the chapter, and they are punished if they reveal the said mode ; 
that they swear not to reveal the mode of their receptions, is proved by seven witnesses, 
that they did not dare to speak of it amongst themselves by three witnesses. Item, 
that they swear to acquire religion, etc., by right or wrong is proved by three- 
witnesses. Item, that they were forbidden to confess, except to their own priests, is. 
proved by four witnesses." ; 

The weakness of the argument, that the guilt of the English Templars is to be 
presumed from their admissions that there was only one Way of receiving new brethren 
throughout the Order, and that the Master and Preceptors had confessed because it was 
so stated in the apostolic letters, and therefore was true, has been pointed out more 
than once, also that there was another interpretation to be put upon these admissions,. 
i.e., that as there was only one mode of reception, and in England it was pure and lawful, 
though the fact of confession, being stated by the Pope, might be true, the matter con- 
fessed was untrue— or, as many witnesses said, if the Master and Preceptors had so 
confessed they lied (mentibi sunt). 

1 Dealing with the alleged absolution. 



Proceedings against the Templars A.D. 1307-11. 



131 



AFTER TORTURE. 

The result of the first examination of the Templars mast have been very 
disappointing to the two French Inquisitors, the Abbe Latyniaco and that venerable 
man (venerabilis vir), Sicoard de Vauro. They had been sent over to England to practic- 
ally establish the Inquisition in this country, which they did for the first and last time. 
They were sent as experts in the gentle art of torture and the power of extracting 
confessions from prisoners by the rack, pulling out teeth, burning feet, or the more painful 
methods which Raynouard describes. But they could do nothing, as Edward would 
not sanction the use of these methods. The following account given in WilMns 1 , of the 
proceedings before a Provincial Council summoned by Robert, Archbishop of Canterbury, 
on the 25th November, 1309, Monday, shows the steps these French Inquisitors and the 
Clergy took to make the Templars confess. At first they tried further interrogatories, 
as we have seen, but subsequently they asked Edward with success for leave to apply 
torture. 

The Council for the first week discussed ecclesiastical matters, On Monday, the 
2nd December, no meeting was held, but next day, Tuesday, the 3rd, the account says :— 
" All the Bishops and others of the Council, with whom were the two French Inquisitors, 
having been summoned by the Archbishop of Canterbury, appeared before him and the 
suffragans of that province, in his room in Lambeth Palace. The depositions and state- 
ments both of the Templars and other witnesses who had been called were produced, 
and copies were ordered to be given to each bishop to enquire about the premises, and 
the meeting was adjourned to the next day, Wednesday, when the Council resolved that 
three Bishops, with the Inquisitors, should be sent to Edward to ask him to allow the 
Bishops and Inquisitors to proceed locally against the Templars in a better way {Meliori 
modo), which might appear to them to assist the enquiry as to the truth of the imputed 
crimes, and there were elected two lawyers (clerici), learned in both laws, to examine 
and extract all the articles which touched the King, and the articles to be sent to the 
General Council, as well as those for the Provincial Councils, These lawyers had 
associated with them six others to put the articles into legal form (in formam juris 
redigendis). On the following Sunday the Petition to tha King was drawn up, and 
on the Tuesday all the Suffragans present and the French Inquisitors went to Edward 
and asked that they and other Bishops of Dioceses might proceed against the Templars 
according to the Ecclesiastical Constitutions, and that he would advise his officers of 
what was intended to be done." „, 

On Wednesday, the matter no doubt having come before Edward's Council, the 
following reply was sent in writing :— Our officers are ordered to allow the Bishops to 
do and proceed against the Templar as far as it is their duty (prout ad officum suum 
spectat) so that however they do nothing against our crown or the estate of our 
kingdom. 

Nothing was done the following Thursday or Friday, as the Clergy were sum- 
moned to Westminster on the King's business. But on the Saturday all the Templars 
in the different dioceses not under arrest, or who were Apostates from the Order, were 
cited to appear before the Inquisitors to be examined as to the Papal articles and to tell 
the truth. 

Nothing more was done that week. The Freneh Inquisitors, it appears, had not 
yet quitted London, and there were Templars in the Castles of London and York await- 
ing their attention. And they accordingly prepared to go to these places. And Edward 
wrote to his officers the letter given hereafter. 

1 Yol. 2, p. 312. This report clearly belongs to the year 131Q. 






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In the meantime the Council had adjourned to the Tuesday after the feast of St. 
Matthew. On this day the Inquisitions taken in the different dioceses were read and 
the evidence published. The depositions already given are probably those which were 
brought before this Council, if so the Templars were up to this period uniform in their 
denial of the alleged crimes. But this denial was not what was wanted, the report 
says there were great discussions (magnm disputationes) on account of the discrepancies 
found in them (mutationes inventas), and it was ordered that the Templars should be 
separated from each other and put in different places in London, and again examined on 
the crimes imputed to them and fresh interrogatories put to them ; to see if by chance by 
proper confessions it was possible to elicit any truth about the charges. This was done 
with the Templars in London. Some were sent to the Tower, some to the four Gates. 
The resolution of this Council of Canterbury and London continued, 

" If by these actions and separation the Templars were willing to confess 
nothing more than formerly that they should then be put to the question, 
which shall be carried out without mutilation or permanent injury and 
without violent effusion of blood." 

This torture was to be carried out by the Bishops of London and Winchester 
and the French Inquisitors, and when this was done the Archbishop of Canterbury 
was to be informed, so that he might re-summon the Council, which was adjourned 
de die in diem until the feast of the exaltation of the Holy Cross, 1311, upon which 
day all the Templars arrested in London confessed publicly to the full Council 
that they were so defamed by the said heretical articles that they could not legitimately 
purge themselves, and they asked for the mercy of God, and were ready to receive and 
perform any penance imposed upon them. Upon this the Council decreed 

that they were to be separated and sent to different monasteries in England 
to do certain penances inflicted on them until the Apostolic See should in 
general Council findly determine about their position. 

This report of the proceedings of the Archbishop's Council rather implies that 
the Bishops had liberty to use torture given to them in December, 1309, but it appears 
from other documents that the date must be December 1310, the writer puts the great 
deliberations as taking place after the French Inquisitors went to London and York. 
The depositions taken at these places are inconsistent with the use of torture, they being 
universally denials. It is probable, therefore, that it was after the Frenchmen returned 
to town that application was made to Edward. This view is supported by the following 
letter from the Pope to Edward II. : — 

" You have refused to allow proceedings to be taken against the persons and 
order (of the Temple) by the use of torture (per questiones) in the enquiry 
about these crimes, so that the Templars are said to refuse to speak the truth 
about these articles (i.e., three in the Pope's Bull denied Spitting, Depravity, 
Sfc.~) Dearest Sir, we ash you (qusesimus) to consider with attentive and 
prudent deliberation if this accords with your honour and welfare and in 
the dignity of your kingdom." 

The result was that the Templars were to be put to the question, so that, as stated, 
it was carried out without mutilation or permanent injury of any member or violent 
effusion of blood (abseque mutilatione et debilitatione perpetud alicujus membri et sine 
violent a sanguinis efusione). 




Proceedings against the Templars A.B. 1307-11. 



133 



The Pope, in his letter to the French Bishops already referred to, 1 said in effect 
that where there was what modern lawyers call & prima facie case the Church had authority 
to try and discover the truth by means of torture. The difficulty is to reconcile his 
actions. We know he had refused to accept the confessions which the Inquisitor of 
Paris had obtained from the 137 tortured Templars, and said he did not believe the 
Templars were guilty. Yet he ordered the French Bishops to use torture, and, as we 
see, exerted his influence with Edward to induce him to do the same. It is difficult to 
reconcile his conduct, not with religion or Christianity but with the ordinary conception 
of what is right. He must have seen that physical pain and the mental weakness 
produced by the fear of being put on the rack had resulted in confessions in which he 
did not believe, which, in 1313, when he suppressed the order, he entirely ignored. 
Yet he sent his own officials over to England to show the English Bishops how to 
torture, and upon Edward refusing to allow it he wrote the letter given above. 

There is a letter from Edward about this time ; it is dated 15th December, 1309 
(P 13 0). It seems to have been written in pursuance of the above resolution of the 
Council. It is addressed to the different gaolers : — 

" We order you that you commit to the Priests and Inquisitors deputed by 
the Apostolic letters to enquire about the Master Preceptors and brethren of 
the order in England to do, as often as they wish, that which seems to them 
should be done according to the Ecclesiastical law with the Templars and 
their bodies." 

Modern civilization has decreed that torture is no longer to be used, and the 
English law goes so far that a prisoner is not even to be questioned unless he wishes it, 
and no confession or statement made by a prisoner that has been induced by threats or 
force is to be used against him. The wisdom of the modern view, apart from 
questions of humanity, is shewn in the results produced in England by the permission 
given by Edward, there could be no better example of the failure of torture as a means 
of obtaining the truth. Up to this time, as we have seen, and as might be expected 
the English Templar, being under no fear of torture, universally denied the charges 
brought againt him and emphatically answered each charge in the articles sent over by 
the Pope either by a denial of the facts or that he knew nothing of them (Nunquam 
Audivit). As soon however, as the Bishops were able to put the witnesses to the 
question there was a complete change of front, in fact, all the witnesses except the Master 
De la Moore and Himbert Blancke, gave way and accepted a form of admission and con- 
fession which it appears the Pope had settled and arranged should be adopted. This 
shews that where there was no fear of being tortured the English Templars said they were 
innocent, but directly they (as some of them did) felt the pains of the rack, the rest 
like so many sheep, came forward and admitted that they were up to a certain point 
guilty of that which they had before denied. 

The impossibility of accepting as the truth confessions under torture was appre- 
ciated even in those days by those who were not irritated by opposition. 

In 1311, the Pope and his advisers ordered provincial councils to be held to 
determine what should be done with the Templars. We have the reports of some of 
these Councils, generally in favour of the Templars. In the one held at Ravenna the 
Bishop and his Council had the courage and boldness to take this view. Certain 
Templars were brought before them and examined upon the charges, evidently the 
same as those sent by the Pope to the English Bishops. The Archbishop then 



1 Ante, p. 64. 



134 Transactions of the Quatuor Coronati Lodge. 

consulted his council, the Dominicans who attended as Inquisitors wished to put the 
Templars to the question but the others refused. No opinion however was given on 
that day, but on the next, the account says, "When the Fathers met again the sentence 
was given," 

the innocent to he absolved, the evil doers (nocentes) to be punished by law. 
Those are to be considered innocent who confessed through fear of torture if 
they recalled their confessions, or did not dare to do so by fear of the tortures 
lest fresh ones should be inflicted whilst this continued {dum id constaret). 

So far the Council at Ravenum decided about the individuals. With regard to the 
Order which Clement and Philip wished abolished their judgment was : — 

" Of the Order and its property all agreed that those hereafter should be 
preserved for the Order if the greater part of the Order should be innocent 
and the wrong doers abjuring their heresy, those in the Order should inflict 
the needed punishment of their wickedness." 1 

It is to be noticed that this Council held those innocent who either withdrew 
confessions made under torture or who would if they had dared. It will be seen that 
the Council of Paris took an entirely opposite view, those who withdrew their confes- 
sions the Bishops of Paris and the Archbishop of Sens the Metropolitan sent to the 
stake without trial or delay as obstinate or relapsed heretics. 

But to return to the English Templars. Modern authors have generally 
assumed that the Templars in England were not tortured, but there is distinct 
reference made to the cruelties imposed upon them and there were three Templars 
examined whose depositions seem to shew they were obtained by torture, and it is not 
likely that aft'er the Pope had written to Edward to allow it, and the Council, after 
many deliberations had sanctioned torture that it was not inflicted, but there seems to 
have been a strong feeling against it, and that it was apparently confined to these 
three witnesses. The rest of the Templars either from fear or being induced by their 
friends to yield agreed to the Pope's form of confession. 

Writers call this a compromise, but it is really a very one sided affair. There is 
an anecdote in the state papers of Cardinal Wolsey, who, referring to this form of com- 
promise, spoke of a party to a suit about a windmill, who said he was perfectly willing 
to compromise provided he had the mill. In the end the English Templars had to admit 
that there had been a great scandal against them {vehementer diffimantur) about the 
articles contained in the Pope's Bull. That they were guilty of heresy in believing 
that the head of the Chapter, though not a priest, could give them absolution, that 
they could not purge themselves and that, therefore, were willing and ready to abjure 
these and all other heresies and depravities. 

When we read the documents we see how unfairly these admissions were framed. 
It may have been perfectly right when a person had been accused by public rumour of 
heresy, etc., of which he could not prove his innocence, that he should be called upon to 
make a public abjuration. In our times the late Roman Archbishop called upon a some- 
what free thinking Catholic to make his confession. But there was no such public condem- 
nation ia England except by the publication of the charges themselves. Edward's 
letters distinctly say that the charges brought over by Bernard Pelet came as a surprise, 
and were previously unknown in England. The Pope said that in Prance a great 
suspicion had arisen {magna orta suspicio), but even in France there appears to have been 

1 Qoleti Colleetio Conciliorum, vol, xiv, 







Proceedings against the Templars A.t). 1307-11. 135 

no public defamation, it was rather a secret whispered in Philip's ear by the apostate 
Templars. In England it appears to have been unknown. It was, therefore, not right 
that the Templars should have to admit the "vehement defamation." So with regard 
to the heresy of absolution. Humbert Blancke distinctly said that words were used " as 
far as I can," etc., and in any case this appears to have been a matter to be corrected, 
not for the suppression of the order and the punishment of the individuals. 

But the Pope had to be satisfied, something had to be done to show that he was 
right and the Templars wrong, and the latter having admitted that, they had to 
abjure, there were solemn spectacles held to which the citizens of London were 
invited, for they are named as the populus civitatis. The doors of old St. Paul's were 
thrown open, the Bishops standing within, the Templars on the steps outside huddled 
together, and the people around, and with bended knee and streaming eyes with folded 
hands they had to confess, and then being absolved they were admitted into the church. 1 

This must have been a humiliating end to the proud and haughty career of the 
Knight Templar to stand there as a penitent and an outcast, until by his humble 
submission and confession of faults he had not committed, and admissions of charges 
he perhaps did not understand, he was allowed entrance into the church, and had 
restored to him those religious offices of which he had been so long deprived. For in 
those days men leant upon their religion, and the Templars seem to have felt greatly 
being deprived of its consolation. There are several references to this feeling in the 
depositions. The Papal party were so far successful, but there was undoubtedly a 
strong feeling for the Templars. The form of the admission had been settled by the 
Pope, but there were those who wished to modify it and it will be seen 3 five Templars 
at Southwark were received upon a modified form, but the Bishop of London insisted 
upon the Pope's form being carried out. He appears to have been very angry ; said he 
would no longer interfere in the affairs of the Templars, if the form as settled by the 
Pope was not followed. 3 Another point in favour of the Templars was taken. The 
form alleged that they were released from the bonds of excommunication. It was 
objected that except the fugitives they had not been excommunicated, etc., and the form 
had to be altered. 



EXAMINATION IN ENGLAND AFTER TORTURE ALLOWED. 

On the 9 Cal. June (24th May) 1311, Stephen de Stapelbrugge was examined by 
the Bishop of London, assisted by that of Chichester. The report says that this 
Stephen had been one of those who escaped arrest, and though cited had not appeared, 
and was therefore excommunicated. Being afterwards arrested at Sarum, by Edward's 
officers, he was taken to London. We do not know whether he was tortured or not, but 
he is the first to admit the Denial, Spitting, etc. He said there were two modes of 
reception, one lawful and good and the other contrary to the Faith, that he was received 
according to the first, eleven years back, and that a year after he with other brethren 
met in chapter at Dinestee, before Brian le Jay, their Grand Preceptor in England, and 
others, two of them drew their swords, and the Grand Preceptor, a cross having been 
fetched, said " you see this figure of the crucifixion, you are required to deny Jesus being 
God and man, and Mary his mother, and to spit on this cross," and Stephen, with the 

1 WilkinSi vol. ii., p. 392. J Post 3 p. §90. 



I 



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Transactions of the Quaiuor Ooronati Lodge. 



fear of imminent death, unless he did this, denied Christ and the blessed Mary, not with 
his heart but mouth 1 only, as he said, arid spat with interposed hand near the cross. He 
'said, in answer to the 2-4 Interrogatories, that he believed this to be the mode of recerition 
everywhere, and that brethren in the second reception are thus received, and he said, 
in answer to the 5th, that Brian le Jay taught him that Jesus was not true God and 
true man. He said in England they did not adore a cat or idol that he knew, but he 
heard it well said that they adored a cat and idol beyond the seas. He denied the kiss, 
but generally made admissions. He was asked as to the second reception, at what hour 
it took place, he said in the dawn, between night and morning, when the chapters are 
clandestinely held. Asked why they denied God and the blessed Virgin, in whom they 
believed, he said he did not know except in an evil spirit. He said he heard it said that 
in each general chapter a brother was killed, more than this he did not know, and then 
with knees bent to the earth, eyes raised, hands folded, with tears, sighs and devout 
ejaculations, he asked for the pity and grace of Holy Church, and that they would give 
him a healthy penance, saying he did not care for the death of the body, nor any 
torment, but only for the health of his soul. 

This confession speaks of two receptions, that brethren were first received in the 
lawful one and afterwards in the second, where they had to deny, etc., and he introduces 
the name of the Virgin Mary. These are new suggestions and apparently unknown to 
the French Templars or their Inquisitors. These distinctions are of some importance 
upon the question, whether the witnesses are saying what really occurred, or are making 
up a story to satisfy their examiners. 

The next witness, Thomas de Tocci, also a fugitive it appeared, was examined 
at Lincoln, the 20th witness, upon the Papal articles, all of which he denied ; even as to 
the Heresy he'said that the defects of the rules (religion) and observancies might be 
absolved, but not sins. He then escaped, and he was cited to appear, and for contumacy 
excommunicated, but he submitted himself to the Archbishop and was examined, 7 Cal. 
July, (26th June,) 1311, in the Church of St. Martin's, Vintry, by the Bishops of London 
and Chichester, he persisted in his denials to most of the articles. He said he had 
heard from someone that the Grand Master had three heads hidden about in different 
parts of England. This witness was asked why he escaped, and his answer throws 
some light upon the proceedings of the Inquisitors the Pope was good enough to send 
over. After saying that there were young men in the order, and that in it, as in others, 
there were both good and bad, he was asked how and why he fled from the order, and 
he replied from fear of death, because the Abbot of Latigniaco, at Lincoln, when he 
examined the witness, asked him whether he wished to confess other matters, and when 
he replied he knew nothing more to say unless he spoke falsely, the Abbot placed his 
hand in his breast and swore, by the word of God, that he would make him confess 
before he escaped from his hands, as he said. Upon this, fearing, he went to the 
vice comte keeper of the castle, and gave him forty florins to let him go, and with his 
permission he left in daylight. He said he had been in the Guria Bomana, &c, there, as 
well as elsewhere in France, had heard many confess a great deal about the Papal 
articles, and he said he had leave by letter from the Master of the Order in England to 
go about in secular clothes, to find out and obtain those things which might be useful 
to himself or the Order, and abroad and in the Roman church, and on this side, he 
always wore the Chlamyden of his habit under his secular dress, and wore it so then. 

1 This was the common form used by the French Templars. They were allowed to say " they 
denied with mouth not heart (ore non mente) " and "they spat not on but near the cross (more supra 
ted junta)." 




Proceedings against the Templars A.D. 1307-11. 



137 



He said he had spoken with four brethren of the Temple, beyond seas, who had been 
received by Himbertus Blancke, who they told him. received them with the denial and 
spitting, and two others who are now dead. St. Martin's Church, June, 1311. 

This was the evidence given by this witness on the 7 Kal. July. "Within four days, 
i.e., on 3 Kal. (28th June), he was again brought before the two Bishops, this time in 
the house of the Prior of Blessed Mary of Southwark, and entirely reversed his evidence. 
Whether he had been tortured in the meantime we can only surmise, but the two 
Bishops ask for and give no explanation why, having been examined on the Saturday, 
he is brought before them on the Tuesday, nor why on the second occasion he reversed 
all he said on the first. On being sworn again, to tell the truth, &c, he said fifteen or 
sixteen years ago he was received by Guido de Poresta, then Grand Preceptor in 
England, and he says who were present. Asked about the denial, &c, he said after 
he was first received, when he professed the three substantials of the order, in a lawful 
and proper manner, he was introduced into a room of the said Master, Guido, and 
before him, Adam and Henricus having swords in their hands, compelled him to deny 
Jesus Christ, which he did with his mouth not heart 1 as he said. They tried (nitebantur) 
to compel him to deny the V.M., and to spit on her image, but he would not but kissed her 
feet as he said. He said the Grand Master taught them to believe in the great God and 
to keep the society of the good men of the order, and to do as they did. He said when 
he was with Brother Brian le Jay, he heard him say a hundred times that Jesus was not 
true God and true man, that the least hair of the beard of a Saracen was worth more 
than the body of him who was speaking, i.e., the witness, and he said that when some 
poor asked for alms for the "love of God and the Blessed Virgin Mary," Brother 
Brianas replied, "Dame go hang with your lady," and throwing impetuously a 
farthing in the dirt, (imum quadrantum in luto) ; he made these poor' persons grope 
for it, though this was in the time of cold weather. It is net necessary to follow this 
witness through his long deposition, which seenls to have been given in answer 
to suggestions of the Inquisitors, He accused the Grand Master, Moore, of acquiring 
by right and money a great deal too much wealth, but he did not know this was 
acquired for the Order. He believed that brethren were received illicitly, and when 
they were together secretly he suspected evil rather than good took place. He 
gave a long rambling account of the failures of the Templars to support troops of the 
King and the Church against the Saracens, and that for three years he never could see 
the Corpus Ghristi because he was thinking of the devil, which thought he could not 
drive out of his mind by any prayer or otherwise by anything which he knew of. Bat 
to-day he had heard Mass with great devotion and thought of nothing except Christ, 
and he said that no one in the Order could save his soul as it now is, as he believed, 
unless it was amended, for all are guilty of the unlawful absolution, or of some other 
unlawful deed. Then he said, soon after his entry, Brother John de Moore said to him 
" are you our Brother received in the Order," and he answered it is so, and he said, " if you 
sit above the campanilla of St. Paul's, London, you will not be able to see more 
misfortune than will happen to you before you die," and another Brother told them 
when they were received, " you will never have a good day in the order." 

It is to be noticed that this second confession follows that of the previous witness, 
Stephen, in some matters, but not in others. Both blame Brian le Jay, and speak 
of the denial of the Virgin Mary, &c, but the first has a double reception, the 

'This was the common form used by the French Templars. They were allowed to say "they 
denied with month not heart (pre non mente)" and " they spat not on but near the cross (non supra 
eedjwta)t' 



* 



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second says that he was first properly received and then taken into a room- and asked to 
deny, &c. But the curious part is tha-t the last witness, at the close of his evidence, 
seems to have forgotten about the denial and spitting, and says the Brethren were 
culpable because of the unlawful absolution or some other deed. It seems that if the 
denial and insult had really occurred the enormity of the sin amounting to apostasy in its 
worst form, could not have been so easily overlooked. 

A third witness,, examined by the two Bishops of London and Chichester, 
on Thursday, the 1st July, 1311, at the Church of St. Martin's, Vintry (Vineteria). 
was John de Stoke, Chaplain of the Templars. He said his first reception was near 
Belesale, in the mode which he had elsewhere deposed to (he was the 44th and 1 7th 
witness, and had described the usual lawful receptions), and he continued after his first 
reception one year and eighteen days. On the day of S. Andrew, at Garwy, in the diocese 
of Hereford, he was called in the room of Brother James de Molay (then Grand Master 
of the order), present brothers John de Lugduno and John de Sancto Georgio, 
a stranger, in the said room, and standing outside the door were two serving brethren 
with swords and key (clavis), when De Molay sat upon his couch and he sat before him 
on a settee (sedista), the Master asked if he now professed and in what way, and the 
witness explained the mode and form of his reception, i.e., that he promised obedience, 
chastity, &c. Then the Grand Master said to him we will see whether you will be 
obedient, and he had brought from a chapel a crucifix, and he asked the witness whose 
image it was, and he replied it was the image of Christ, who suffered on the cross for 
the redemption of the human race, to whom the Master said " you speak evil and thou 
errest, he was the son of a woman and because he said he was the son of God he was 
crucified, and it is necessary for you to deny him of whom this is the image," and the 
witness replied : " Let me abstain from denying my Saviour," and said the Master, "it is 
necessary for you to do this, otherwise I will have yon put in prison (acco) and taken to 
a place where you will not find a friend, nor will anything be well for you," and there were 
several collected in the room near the two brethren, and the brethren assisting the Master 
told the witness to obey the Master or evil would befall him, and the witness asked if 
it was the way in the order that this should be done by everyone, and the Grand Master 
said yes, and the witness fearing that death was imminent denied the crucifixion " with his 
mouth, not heart " (ore non mente), as he said. He said he was not to reveal the secrets of 
the chapter, and that he believed the Grand Master spoke the truth about the way of 
receiving and the denial. He was asked in what the Grand Master said he was to believe 
when he had denied Christ, he replied in the Great God omnipotent, who created heaven 
and earth, and not in the crucifixion. He replied as to the other articles he did not know 
much, and prostrate on the ground, with hands joined, he asked pardon and submitted 
himself to the authority of the Church. 

These confessions having been made, the two brothers, Stephen de Stapelbrugge 
and Thomas de Tocci, were again brought before Robert, the Archbishop of Canterbury, 
and first made to abjure their heresies and sign their confessions, and were afterwards 
reconciled to the Church. The account, as given in Wilkin's Concilia, 1 is headed; — 

To the praise and glory of the name of the Most High Father, &c, to the confusion 
of heretics and the corroboration of the faithful Christians, this public instrument is 
written upon the reconciliation of heretics penitent and returning to the orthodox faith, 
$c., &c. 

This document recites that on the 27th June, 1311, Stephen de Stapelbrugge 
came before the Archbishop and his Council, and, having had explained to him, word by 

1 p. 388; 




Proceedings against the Templars A.B, 1307-11. 



139 



word, in the language he understood, as he said, namely, the French language, the 
denial of Christ and the Virgin Mary, His Mother, the spitting on the cross and the 
heresies and errors confessed by him to the Archbishop, as more fully set out in his 
deposition, he, Stephen, affirmed in full council, and before the people of the city intro- 
duced for this purpose, all the matters stated to hare been deposed by him to be true, 
and that he would always persevere in this confession, and had persevered up to the 
present, and confessing humbly his error with .bended knee and folded hands, and with 
very many tears, &c, asked for the mercy of Holy Mother Church, offering himself 
as ready to be absolved from all the heresies confessed by him, and to abjure all others 
and all errors deviating from the Catholic faith, and as ready to fulfil faithfully any 
penance enjoined upon him, and the Book of the Gospels being placed in his, hands, he 
abjured the said heresies in this manner. 

" I brother Stephen de Stapelbrugge on being personally before the Lord Robert 
Archbishop, say that all and singular the things which before the Bishops of London and 
Chichester, I being sworn and confessed, and which word by word in a language 
intelligible to me have been read over to me (recitatce sunt) were and are true, and in 
this confession of truth I persevere. In which matters so confessed I confess myself to 
have erred, and I ask with a contrite and humble heart absolution and penance for 
them, and I abjure the aforesaid heresies and all others under whatever name, and I 
promise that I will keep pure the faith which the Roman Church holds and teaches, and 
that heretics and their followers, as far as in my power, I will pursue, and both them 
and their supporters and receptors and rash benefactors, without any fraud or delay, I 
will make known to the Church and priest ; and the penance which on account of my 
fault is inflicted, I will faithfully perform and perfectly fulfil, as far as human weakness 
permits, and I wish and concede that if from this hour it happens that I relapse in the 
above error, or other of any heresy, however known (censeatur), by erring much in 
any article an essential either of the faith or of the sacraments, or by believing 
or adhering to the faith of heretics or from the faith, I may ipso facto be held 
excommunicated, and manifested a perjurer and heretic, and I so judge myself (et 
talem me ego judicio) so that without further notice the sentence for the penalty of 
perjury, of relapse and manifest heresy may be inflicted on me." Subsequently 
the aforesaid brother, Stephen, swore on the Holy Gospels touched with his hand, to 
obey the commands of the Church and the said Council. 

a Thomas Tocci made the same abjuration, except that he- abjured those things 
which he alone confessed, and afterwards all other heresies, and, as Stephen had done, 
with the Gospels in his hands, and afterwards they both, in place of signature, made 
their mark on the document of their abjuration (schedula abjurationis) . 

Then the Archbishop, with his own authority and that of the whole Council of 
the Bishop of London, granted the aforesaid Stephen and Thomas absolution and recon- 
ciliation, in the presence of a notary, in these words, " By the authority of God, of the 
blessed Mary, of blessed Thomas the Martyr, our patron, and of all the Saints, male and 
female (sanctorum atque sanctarum) given to us, as well as by the authority of the 
present councils, we grant you as those separated from the Church by the denial of faith, 
and now converted to the faith ; to be reunited in the unity of the Church, reserving 
to ourselves and the Council the inaction of penance for these deeds. And because they 
were both penitent he wished the Bishop of Chichester to absolve them, which Bishop, 
jn full canonicals, with twelve priests in robes assisting him were stationed in the west 

- 1 p. 389, 



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door of the Cathedral, and the penitents -without the door with bended knee, prostrate 
on the steps, bowed humbly in prayer, the people of the City and the Councils standing 
around, and the psalm miserere mei dens said from the beginning to the end, and with the 
prayer and speech subscribed, absolved the said penitents and reconciled them to -the 
unity of the Church under this form. 

In the name Sfc. Because wa find brother Stephen by your confessions you 
have denied Jesus and the blessed Virgin Mary, and spat near the cross, and 
'because moved by better councils you wish as you assert to return with good 
heart and new faith to the unity of Holy Mother Church, and have abjured 
the premises and all heresies according to the form of the Church. By the 
authority of this Councilwe release you from-the fetters of excommunication, by 
which you are bound, and we reconcile you to the unity of the Church, if you 
return to it with your heart and will observe its commands, Sec. There was a 
similar absolution of Thomas. 

This was followed by psalms and prayers. 

On Saturday, 5 nones of July, John de Stoke went through similar ceremonies, 
his confession was read over to him in the language he understood, and he persevered 
in it, and with bended knee asked for pardon, and he repeated that he had denied Jesus 
Christ in his reception, but with mouth not heart, &c, &c, and was absolved and 
reconciled. 

But whatever inducements may have led these three witnesses to the confession 
that on their reception they had denied, &c, whether from torture or the fear of it, the 
Grand Master Willielmas de Moore and Humbert Blancke subsequently both refused to 
confess, not the denial of which indeed they were never accused, bat even the illegal 
absolution, 

It seems that the Archbishop and the Council were led to believe that the Grand 
Master would confess at least the alleged absolution, and after Stoke was absolved 
Moore was sent for and strongly exhorted to abjure the heresy of which he was accused 
and convicted by his own and the brethren's confessions, viz., the absolution given by 
himself in chapter, from which he could not purge himself, and to submit himself to the 
ordinances of the Church, but he replied that he had never committed such heresies, 
nor would he abjure crimes which he had never committed (nee volebat abjurare crimina 
quae ipse nunquarn commisit) a.nd he was sent back to the place from which he came, 
the Tower, where Raynouard says he died. 

1 After this on the following Tuesday (2 non. July) a number of the brethren 
were brought before the Council as being strongly accused of heresy by the articles in 
the Papal bull, and because they had greatly erred about the sacrament of penitence, 
believing that a lay brother specially after the holding of Chapter could absolve other 
brethren, etc., and they were informed that if they wished pertinaciously to defend 
their error they would be considered heretics, and by the necessity of law, as they could 
not purge themselves of these charges, it was necessary for them to abjure these heresies 
with which they were accused, and especially the said error and all heresies, and they 
replied they were ready to abjure these and all other heresies before the Archbishop 
and his Council now and whenever they were called upon, and with bended knee they 
asked pardon and submitted to the ordinance of the Church in which they had been 
received. On Tuesday 7 id July several other brethren came before the Bishops of 
Jxmdon and Chichester, and after the statement was made to them about the unlawful 

'p. 390. 




Proceedings against the Templars A.I). 1307-11. 141 

absolution and the grave accusation by the articles in the Papal Bulls they replied that 
they had only recently been received in the Order, and they were never in chapters 
held by the Grand Master nor in the secret dealings (secretis traclatibus) of the order, 
but they were ready to abjure these and all other heresies. 

As already stated there appears to have been some slackness on the part of a 
vice-council in not making the penitents use the proper words, and the Bishop of 
London threatened to retire and to abstain from interfering in the matters of the 
Templars if there was any departure from the words required by the Pope. It appears 
that this vice-council had absolved five brethren at Southwark. 

It also appears that fifteen brethren were absolved, though they confessed 
nothing except that they had been strongly accused and the impossibility of being 
purged. 

There were a considerable number of brethren who came forward. Their con- 
fessions seem to have taken this form. That they had erred about the absolution, that 
they had been strongly accused of the crimes of negation and spitting, they did not say 
they were guilty but that they could not purge themselves, which apparently meant 
could not prove their innocence, and, therefore, they abjured these and all other heresies 
and sought to be reconciled, etc., etc. This was the form of compromise under which all 
the brethren seem to have been absolved except the three first, the five at Southwark and 
the Grand Master, and, as will be seen, Himbert Blanke. 

a As stated, there was a further objection raised by some of the Council to the 
words releasing the absolved Templars from the fetters of excommunication when no 
such sentence had been given against them unless they were fautores or fugitives, as 
Stapelbrugge and De Tocci were, and the words used were modified by adding, " If you 
are held bound by any chain," etc. 

2 Subsequently fifty other brethren were absolved in the same way. The account 
properly here ends, though it appears there were farther notes, either written or 
to be written, which have not come down to us. 

For the writer adds, if any one wishes to be better informed about the 
diligence of the Bishops, their different orders, the care they took, and the 
progress of the trial, which is too long to narrate, or desires with eager mind 
to enquire more diligently about the arrest and the separation of the persons, 
the visitors of the Gaolers and the removal of them and of the houses for the 
more faithful, keeping the Templars apart, the localities of the different 
Hospices, the exhortations and warnings addressed to the secular officials by 
the Mayor and Lieutenant of the City of London, the ordinance to raise 
money for expenses, the ways to procure the brethren to discover the truth, 
invented and thought out sometimes by the bishops personally, sometimes by 
the lawyers, also how often severe and cruel lay persons inflicted torture, fyc, 
Sfc, these things in the Schedules and adjoining writings now remaining to 
us may be found more fully underwritten. 

The writer adds :— JSTo order was made against the Grand Master on account of 
the Papal reservation (The Pope was he said at this time going to take the cases of the 
chiefs of the Templars himself, as a fact he did nothing of the kind), but Himbert 
Blanke was brought before the Council several times and diligently examined, &c, but 
he persisted in his denials, saying he would not confess errors he had never committed 
(dicens se nolle errores quos ipse nunquam commisit abjurare). 






1 p. 392. 



393. 






142 



Transactions of the Quatuor Ooronati Lodge, 



The Council, however, did not order execution to be done on his body, but he 
was to be bound by double irons and shut up in the vilest prison, and there to 
be kept until otherwise ordered, and from time to time visited to see if he 
wished to confess anything further. 

Himbert Blanke was the only one beside the English Grand Master, William 
Moore, who refused the Bishops' compromise, and he was, as we see, sent to prison, but 
his case was not so bad as some of the French Templars, who appear either to have 
been bricked up in a space made in a wall (in incisionie rnuri) or to have suffered the 
prison forte et dute, when a prisoner was not left to starve, but there was a small 
opening left in which food was placed, when this was not taken away for forty-eight 
hours the opening was closed. 1 

There is some reason to think that Himbert Blanke did not remain for ever in 
his prison. Edward II. may have been a weak King, but his sympathies were with the 
Templars, and it was only from reverence for the Pope's express will that he consented 
to the torture and persecution of the English Templars, and we find iff 3 Bymer, 472, the 
following ordinance of Edward II., addressed to the Hospitalers of St. John, Jerusalem, 
whom the Pope had insisted should be the heirs of the property of the Templars. 
After reciting a previous order that each Templar was to receive 4 pence a day, and 
William Moore, the English Grand Master, two shillings a day, these two shillings, 
William Moore being then dead, the King assigned to Himbertus Blanke. On the 
requisition of Louis of Claremont the King ordered that having pious compassion to 
their miserable state, and having no wish to defraud them, " We order you to pay each 
Templar 4 4 . a day and Himbert Blanke 2 shillings out of the propsrty of the 
Templars, satisfying them and the arrears of their allowances from the time that this 
property of the Templars came into your hand," and the King said that they were to 
do this so that it was no longer his duty to provide any other remedy for the Templars. 



No one can read the account of what took place in England without recognising that 
the charges of heresy, blasphemy, depravity, &c, were given up. And the only charge 
relied on was that Laymen gave absolution. To those who believe that this power was 
given with the keys to Peter, and those who possess Apostolic succession alone inherit it, 
this usurpation of authority may be a great sin, bat even they would hardly compare 
it with the denial and spitting on the Cross alleged to have been part of the Reception, 
not to mention the crimes against humanity. Of these the Bishops it is clear exonerated 
the Templars in England. We now have to see what was proved against these unhappy 
Knights in France. 

• •<■ ^r 1 iS di ® cnlt to COQ ceive the cruelty of those days, but one learns with surprise from those who 
visited ljassa that there are Monks there who voluutarily submit to this form of incarceration For a 
tew years at first, then for a longer period, and finally, these Monks permanently enter a kind of cell or 
cave closed by a stone slab, and the author describes an interview with the Abbot in a yard surrounded 
by these Monks, as if they were rabbits in hutches, only even the latter have light and air. 




&t* gtoijn'* f at) in $tmn?*t. 



MONDAY, 24th JUNE, 1907. 




HE Lodge met at Freemasons' Hall, London, at 5 p.m. Present :— Bros. Hamon le 
Strange, W.M.; E. J. Castle, P.M., as I.P.M. ; E. Armitage, S.W.; J. P. Simpson, 
as J.W. j W. J. Songhurst, Secretary; H. Sadler, I.G.; W. Watson, Steward; R. f! 
Gould, P.M. ; G. Greiner, P.M. ; E. L. Hawkins and E. H. Dring. 

Also the following members of the Correspondence Circle :— Bros. H. H. 
Montague Smith, Count Dembski, A. D. Cox, Arthur Baines, Thomas Cohu, 
W. H. Harris, George E. Denny, Alfred S. Gedge, J. W. Eisenman, A. 
Bianchi, L. A. Engel, G. 0. Williams, Percy A. Legge, S. E. Baxter, C. Griffiths, Harry Guy, 

F. G. Mordaunt, J. Leach Barrett, P. Garrick, Arthur G. Gillott, W. Barton, John Church, W. f'. 
Lamonby, W. Leonard Smith, H. Hyde, W. F. Keddall, A. H. Pitcher, H. C. Price, A. A. A. Murray," 

G. Cruesemann, B. Pflug, H. King, W. Wonnacott, G. H. Brown, F. W. Levanter, H. S. Beaman| 
E. H. McGrath, Albert Henning, J. Walter Hobbs, E. Cruesemann, W. D. Smith, W. M. Chambers! 
Chas. J. E. Tijou, E. H. Backeridge, H. N. James, D. Bock, W. W. Mangles, H. Lovegrove, J. T. Phillips', 
James M. Small, S. E. Clarke, Thomas Leete, C. F. Silberbauer, J. I. Moar, Sidney Meymott, E. j'. 
Harrison, F. Mella, G. H. Luetchford, Harry Tipper, James J. Cooper, Eobert A. Gowan.Nevil 
Maskelyne, J. Proctor Watson, Lawrence Mayfield, G. Togeler, E. J. Hatfield, S. Walshe Owen, F. E. 
Taylor and A. Y. Mayell. 

Also the following visitors :— Bros. E. P. Hooper, Meridian Lodge No. 1469, Cape Colony; 
Charles Aubert, Mornington Lodge No. 1672; T. Vincent Smith, Guardian Lodge No. 2625; E. a! 
Williams, Chislehurst Lodge No. 1531; Roland T. Mayell, All Soul's Lodge No. 170; H. Langcross, 
Old Sinjins Lodge No. 3232; and T. S. A. Evans, Prudent Brethren Lodge No. 145. 



One Lodge and seventy Brethren were admitted to membership of the Correspondence Circle. 



Apologies for non-attendance were received from Bros. E. Macbean, Dr. W. J. Chetwode Crawley, 
T. B. Whytehead, Admiral Sir A. H. Markham, L. A. de Malczovich, W. H. Eylands, F. J. W. Crowe, 
F. H..Goldney, G. L. Shackles and J. T. Tborp. 



It was unanimously resolved: "That after the 30th November, 1907, the entrance fee for 
Members of the Correspondence Circle be twenty -one shillings, to include the first year's subscription; 
future subscriptions remaining at ten shillings and sixpence as as present. 



The Secretary called attention to the following 



144 



transactions of the Quatuor Coronati Lodge. 



EXHIBITS. 



By Bro. B. Pearce Couch, Penzance. 



Certificate, issued by the Grand Lodge of Ireland on 16th July, 1823, to Bro. William Bobinson, 
Lodge No. 788, Carncastle. 

Clearance Certificate, issued to same Brother on 25th July, 1824, by Lodge No. 788, Carncastle. 
The certificate states that the Brother " being preivously a master mason and having with Skill 
fortitude and valour withstood all the trials attending his admission he then duly and regularly in the 
body of Said Lodge passed the Chair received the degrees of Excellent Superexcellent and royallarch 
mason and that he has uniformly and regularly conducted himself with propriety and as Such we 
recomend him to all royal Arch Masons round the Globe." 



By Bro. B. Matveieff, London. 

Old leather Apron, with emblems, etc., hand-painted^ Circular flap, edged with indented silk 
ribbon. 

By Bro. P. H. Goldney, Camberley. 

Apron, hand-painted on linen, edged with two rows of silk fringe (steel-blue and red). 

Sash (or Collar) orange-coloured silk with emblems haad-painted. It seems probable that these 
are not Masonis, but were worn by a Member of the Orange Society. 

By Bro. Benno Loewy, New York. 

Eleotro-type of gold Jewel, stated to have been worn in the middle of the sixteenth century by 
Cornelius de Vriendt during the building of Antwerp Cathedral, but from the style and workmanship 
it seems probable that the original was not made until about the beginning of the nineteenth century. 
Bro. Count Goblet d'Alviella writes as follows :— " The Cathedral of Antwerp was begun in 1382 and not 
" completed until 1592. The Direction of the Works remained for several generations in the hands of 
" the De Vriendt family :— Ploris de Vriendt, 1476 ; Johannis de Vriendt, 1500 ; Cornells de .Vriendt, 
"the elder, 1488-1538. As architect of the Cathedral he was a juror and a dean of the Vier 
" Ghekroonde (see A.Q.O., vol. xiii., p. 78). His epitaph in the Church of the Eecollets at Antwerp 
" runs thus : — 

'Hier leet begrave Cornells de Vrint Alia Eloris steehouder sterf A° 1538 de 17 Septembr. ende 
'■ syn huysvrouwe Margriete Goos, sterf A° 1577 de 11 Octobr.' 

" His badge of office should be invaluable. But the authenticity ought to be well established. I agree 
" with you that this jewel cannot be older than the beginning of the nineteenth century or the end of 
"the eighteenth. It might belong to any organization of Heredom or of R .-. + .-. " Presented to 
the Lodge. 

By Bro. J. P. Davies, Secunderabad. 

Irish P.M. Jewel, stamped silver Star and silk Sash, not yet identified. Presented to the Lodge. 

By Bro. R. P. Cuthbert, Witney. 

Pocket Handkerchief, with a number of Masonic emblems. On a coffin are printed " J.D., 
5830," which are probably meant to indicate the name of the maker and date of manufacture. 




Aes Qtjatuok Coeonatoeum. 




Jewel said to have been worn by Cornelius de Vriendt 
at the building of Antwerp Cathedral (1550-1577). 

From an electrotype presented to the Qnatuor Coronati Lodge 
by Bro. Benno Loewy, of New York. 






Engraved Jewel, from the collection of the late Bro. C. Kapferschmidt- 
now in the possession of Bro. J. M. Hamm. 



m 




Ars Qqatuor Coronatorum. 



\— — vLE L_"~u._ _____ __: 






~TvZ r _ ~/Z /_r> /._->-__ _> V~ v - "/ 

r"/ _/ r_rz~z z___z~zz / _> z v_v 



~_ V i>_J>~__/ 



•~z~kzZ r I J _~z__ / z_. 









.*•( 



H. 






/> 



.AL<K< 



LA<.ET>l_f" 
-dud 




! 



Mark Certificate issued in 1856 by the Albany Lodge No. 176, Newport, Isle of Wight. 
From the original in the possession of Bro. F. W. Levander. 



4 

* s 

J 

< 



* 1 






m 



Aes Quatuor Coeonatoeum. 







f 3 AtlTarg-uit* m Uic hie of Thaner, K'ejst.is Erected l^f^\ 

C ommodious Machine s^oiBathing itTtlie^EA) 

. dc/wulcTt aJl/lofiU>/c Ca^iti^y 3s/pro/wi< tfa^e^f&^Jeuli&.fc/wmje/f 
for fn# Utnuemen. SC tAcct/ 3 'awim mmiJcA/lu ac&itaus&dyH Iry 

Tjradb Bill " used by James Mitchener, Margate, in 1768. 
From the original in the Quatuor Coronati Library. 






1 



»# %• 



Aes Quatuor Coronatorum. 



j~a 



$%< 



Cv 



'■!HO^' 



'\ 



r^ 



i£ 



r ^o 



•. I 




and for th e CiTYfc Si/soytjss, 

"Y/rufte'msti 7/rrt-y //t/i^MJj r*n %st ivsitf^/ftf-tl Lsrtielj 

Three Pigeojis,B ulcherli all Lane Newgate Street. 
Rubbifh Carted. — 



5 




" Trade Bill " used by Samuel Foulger in 1807. 
From the original in the Quatuor Coronati Library. 



# 



Transactions of the Quaiuor Coronati Lodg6. 
By Bro. J. M. Hamm, London. 

Engraved Medal, formerly belonging to the late Bro. 0. Kupferschmidi. 



145 



By Bro. H. Hyde, Leytonstone. 

Small Bbooch, " French prisoners' " work. 

Old Seal, with square and compasses in the mounting. 

By Bro. C. C. Cakler, Port Huron, Mich. 

Souvenir Badge of the Grand Chapter and Grand Council held at Port Huron on 21st May, 1907. 
Presented to the Lodge. 

By Bro. Harry Gut, London. 

Jewel of P.M. under the Grand Lodge of the " Ancients." 



By Bro. P. W. Levander, London. 

" Irish " Mark Certificate in cypher. The following is a translation : — 

"To all Mark Masons. 
" Be faithful to your Obligations. 

"This is to certify that our Brother Henry Charles Levander was duly enrolled according to the 
" ancient custom peculiar to this Order. 



"Albany Lodge, Newport, I.W. 
" M.O., W. W. .Way 

" Sec, George Wyatt, 
" 5856. 



[on cube] 176 

Ancient 

Order of 

Mark Masons. 



No. 118 



90 




Geo. Wyatt. 
f." 

Prom this it will be seen that the degree was conferred under the assumed authority of the 
Craft warrant held by the Albany Lodge No. 176, at Newport, I.W. The Mark Lodge seems to have 
maintained its independence until the year 1893, when it came under the Grand Mark Lodge of 
BBgland. Bro. H. C. Levander subsequently joined a Mark Lodge in London, and was registered as 
having been originally admitted under the Irish Constitution. It will be noticed that the cypher reads 
from right to left. 






By the Secretary. " . 

Engraved Masonic " Trade Bills " : 

(a.) James Mitchener's Bathing Establishment at Margate, 1768. 

(b.) Samuel Poulger, " Nightman to his Majesty's offices and for the City and Suburbs, 
: New Road, St. George's, Middlesex," 1807. 



A vote of thanks was passed to the Exhibitors and to those who had kindly presented objects to 
the Lodge Museum. 



Bro. ChAs. J.'Bi. Tijou read the following paper i 



m 



\M 



^transactions of the Quatuor Coronaii Lodge. 



NOTES ON THE METAL WORK OF ST. PAUL'S CATHEDRAL, 

LONDON, AND JEAN TIJOU'S DESIGNS AND 

IRONWORK THEREIN. 

BY BRO. CHAS. J. R. TIJOU, P.G.Std.B. &> P.A.G.P. Eng. 




N interesting address on the re-building of St. Paul's Cathedral was 
read in this Lodge, three years since, by our Bro. Canon Horsley, 
Past Grand Chaplain of England, and, incidentally, he referred to 
the subject of this paper, in the preparation of which I am 
indebted to the Rev. Minor Canon Besley, Librarian of St. Paul's, to 
Mr. Emerton, Sub-Librarian, for his personal attention, and to other 
friends. 
I do not propose to trace the various Churches erected on the present site since 
the first in A.d. 610, but to commence from the re-building of the present Cathedral. 
I may, however, remark that the first Christian Church dedicated to St. Paul was built 
by King Ethelbert, A.i>. 610. This was destroyed by fire, in 96 1 , and re-built. Twenty- 
six years later the new Church was also burnt down, as was its successor in 1087. 
Bishop Maurice then conceived the idea of building a large Cathedral, 690 feet long, 
130 feet wide, with a spire 520 feet high, which was ultimately carried out with some 
modifications. The Great Fire of 1666 caused its destruction and the consequent re- 
building of the last of the series, which it is hoped may exist for many generations 
to come. 

It will be remembered that Canon Horsley had examined a document described as 
" MS. a/c of the re-building the Cathedral-Church of St. Paul, London— Prom September 
1666 (when the Old Church was destroyed by the dreadful fire) to 29th September, 1700." 
This MS. is in the Library of Lambeth Palace, and is a summary of the original monthly 
accounts in the Cathedral Library, all of which are signed by Sir Christopher Wren. 

£ s. d. 
Referring to the Metal Work of the Cathedral, it appears that 

the Preparatory work for Smiths, including window bars, 

cramps, stocks and bolts, gudgeons, battering irons and 

" Plummery " cost 

For the New work, ordinary iron and labor 

Fine ironwork of gates, window Ornaments, Choristers desks 

& " pannells & Organ Skreen " 



111 19.00 
4953 11 00 



5004 10 00 



Totalling 



£10,070 00 00 



For " Plummers" & the cost of cutting & taking down old 

lead & pipes was only ... ... ... .., £24 1 1 

but for " skreening washing & sifting rubbish for 
recovery of old lead & for refining same," (the 
weight of which was over 227 tons) ... ... ... 532 lOf 

The cost of lead, "sodder" &. labor amounted to ... 6900 



i 



Notes on the Metal Work of St. Paul's Cathedral, London. 147 

The day laborers' payments for digging for melted 
lead & carrying it to Plummery, & for carrying 
iron & other mat ls to Store-vaults &c. was ... ... 3519 

During the period referred to, the amount expended on bells and incidentals 
connected therewith, was only £517. A small bell, to call the workmen together, 
cost £7, while £510 accounts for the one large bell " Great Tom of Westminster," 
which was originally known as the " Edward " Bell, and at the time of its purchase, in 
1700, was in the Clock Tower at the entrance to the New Palace, Westminster, but 
this tower being in a ruinous state, William III. gave the bell to the poor of St. 
Margaret's, Westminster, the Churchwardens of which parish forthwith sold it to the 
Cathedral authorities for £305. On this purchase " commissions," illicit or otherwise, 
do not figure largely, for the expenses in treating for the purchase amounted to 17s. 6d. 
only, while 15s. 10d. accounts for " discovery of bell-metal stolen." The bell was sold by 
the Churchwardens at lOd. per lb., and in ascertaining its weight— 84 cwt., a large iron 
beam was broken, which cost the purchasers £15 for making it good. The clapper for 
the bell cost £6. For re-casting the bell Wightman, ,the bell-founder, was paid £97, 
which included 1 J cwt. of additional metal. This bell now weighs 85cwt. 3qrs. 21bs. Its 
diameter is 6|ft. and total height 6ft. lin., including the canons. 

The two quarter bells for the Clock were cast in 1707, the greater bell weighing 
24|cwt. and the lesser 12£cwt., which were purchased at 14d. per lb. Previously St. 
Paul's had never boasted more than one bell, but that one was of exceptionally good 
tone and was praised by Chaucer in his " Canterbury Tales." 

Turning to the ironwork of the present Cathedral the first entry appears in 
November 1691, as follows : — 

" To Mons. Tijoue ffor the Ironworke of two windows ffor 
"ye Choire, viz*, ffor 34 c . 1% 20 lb . at 6 d . 96 08 00 

" ffor 45 foot runing of the Groteske bars 13 10 00 

"ffor workmanshippe of y e two Serowles in y e keys 06 00 00 

" Sep. 17, 1695. 1 (signed) "Eece d 

"Witness »J. Tijou." 

P. Widdows " 

and later on 

" ffor carridge of ye Iron work for two windows in y e Choire 

"from Hampton Court to y e Church " 00 03 00 

It does not appear where this work was wrought, but as in most instances the 
entries state from Hampton Court, presumably the Foundry was there. 

Many similar entries appear covering nearly the whole of the windows, most of 
which were Tijou's work. 

(I note that old Iron was valuable at this time for it realized 12s. cwt.) 

" To John Tijoue ffor iron worke of the Eayles of Two 

" Staire cases 40 00 00 

and " ffor two little windows in ye s d Staire 20 00 00 

also " ffor 12 paire hinges ffor Choire 14/- each" and "48 

steel handles ffor the drawing seats in the Choire 5/- each " 

A number of " Groteske Pannels " were supplied for the Choire, measuring over 
150 feet superficial, at 40s. per foot. 

1 This date refers to the time of payment, nearly four years after the work was completed, 




us 



Transactions of the Quatuor Goronati Lodge. 



In 1706 



In 1708 



In 1710 



146 





297 





111 15 





260 






" Ye Iron Screene under y e organ case in y e Choire, 221ft. super," was 

supplied by Tijou under a contract at £2 per foot. 

Hopton, a joiner, was paid "ffor gluing of boards for Mr. Tijoue to draw 

" y e Iron screene upon and also for Mr. Gibbons, a model ffor seats in Choire 

"and y e Altar, and y e Deans seat" and Roger Davis for " Preparing y e 

" Lime Tree for Mr. Gibbons to carve for y e Choire, 30 s /-" 

Tijou was paid £525 for 8 windows supplied in Jan. 1700, 

The windows themselves costing 412 08 06 

" 8 scrowles for top of windows * 40 00 00 

" and for 364 fete ornaments in y e double barrs of y e same 72 16 00 

" To John Tijoue for the ironworke of the round staire case 

" in the South West Tower. 

" For Raile & pannelling to the Staircase & Window at 

" 22 s /6 d per foot 156 18 

" For Ironworke in the Watch dore and other Ornaments 

" at 36 s per foot 

" For 135ft r n s of pannells at £2 4 

"15 Pillasters at £7 9 

" For the Altar Raile by agreement 

" For Copper Work for N.W. Tower :— 

" 4 Scrolles, 8 C . at 3/- per lb. 

" Mold Plinth & Scrolls 5 C . at 4/- lb. 

" Iron work therein 

To Plumber for Lead for Cap of Dome and work on same 

being 3303 c . at 15/- with some extraordinary work 

amounted to £2541. 

Robinson & Smith received for the Round balcony of 

Lantern 300 

Langley Bradley, Clockmaker, provided a large Quarter 

Clock, going 8 days, as per agreement 300 

and " For a canvass bedd stuffed with Oakam and Sawed 

" with strong thread line to receive the Clock weights " 2 5 

£97 was paid to Andrew Niblett, Copper Smith, for 5 brass 

plates for Dome, planished and polished, the middle one 4 ft . 

diam., f inch thick, weighing 5 C . 3'. at 3/- lb. 

Drilling and filing 2064 holes in same at 12 d each 103 4 

" To Robert Trevet, Engraver, " for drawing in perspective, 

" outside view of the Church and inside view of the Choire 

" when ye Q n L ds and Commons were there and engraving 

" same on copper plates £300 

Niblett, Copper Smith, provided " a Brass plate with grove 

" let into marble paving for sliding Fence before Organ " 

costing £51 



135 








122 








17 









Notes on the Metal Work of St. Paul's Cathedral, London. 



149 



" To John Rawley for 3 very large horizontal Dials with 

" minutes and diagonal minutes, Equation table with pierced 

" and graved cocks £200 

Iron Hinges for the Great West, North and South gates, 

weighing 18°. at \Q\ & lb. amounting to £91 

The Iron gates for the Choir and elsewhere in the interior of the Cathedral were 
designed and wrought by Jean Tijou, and Wren was able to see that work successfully 
finished. Starkie Gardiner describes these as being " exquisitely rich and transparent " 
and they are usually considered to be the finest wrought ironwork in England. 

In reference to this work the following entries appear amongst many others : — 

£ s. d. 
" To John Tijoue Smith ffor a paire of great Gates at y e 

" West side of y e South Portico with a Wicket framed of 

" strong iron with ornaments and points on y e top 160 00 00 

"ffor two desks for y e Choristers, 9 foot long, each containing 

" 26 pannills, 16 inches square, weight in both 6 C . and ffor 

" 4 brackets for y e same contain? about 24 foot supf 1 8 C . 2?. 

" by agreement 265 00 00" 



" To John Tijoue Smith ffor Two great Gates on y e North 

" and South side of ye East end of ye Choire conts 384 foot 

" in both superficiall at 40 s ^p foot 

" ffor two little round windows looking into the staire cases 

" on y e north and south sides at ye east end of the Choire at 

" £5 each 

" ffor ye great Gates on ye outside of y e Church leading to 

" ye east side of ye south portico and a wicket in y e middle 

" of it fframed with strong iron and ornaments 

" Ironwork for 6 windows in y e north & south Crosses of 

" ye Doors at 6 d lb. 

" ffor 200 f of ornaments in y e s d windows at 4 s . <ffi f l . run 

"ffor the two little gates joyning to y e screen conts in both 

" 210 ft. at 40/- f- ft 



£ s. d. 



708 00 00 



10 00 00 



160 00 00 

276 10 00 
40 00 00 

420 00 00 

£1614 10 00 
Paid Received 

Aug 29. 99. J. Tijou.* 

The high iron railings, which, as some of us may remember, entirely surrounded 
St. Paul's, were cast by Tijou at Lamberhurst, in Sussex, and believed to have been the 
last iron-work of any magnitude, cast or wrought, in that county. Opinions are very 
divided as to the suitability or otherwise of these high railings, which weighed 200 tons 
and cost £11,000. 

1 The name "Tijoue" in the books is no doubt so spelt owing to the flourish at end of the 
signature, thus : 







150 



Transactions of the Quatuor Coronati Lodge. 



According -to Miss PhillimOre, Wren, who doubtless intended to employ Tijou 
and have a lovy; graceful' railing which would throw up the height and solid grandeur 
of the Cathedral, was overruled, and it was imprisoned by a high, heavy, clumsy fence, 
the gates of which were sedulously closed. Wren desired that this railing should be 
made of hammered iron, but the. Commissioners determined that it should be high and 
made of cast iron. If Wren had had his way, doubtless some of Tijou's finest work 
would have been executed for this railing. 

Millman {Annals of St. Paul's, 1869), describes this as a clumsy, heavy, misplaced 
fence, absolutely concealing the vestibule, the noble flight of steps and the majestic 
doors, but on the other hand Malcolm (St. Paul's Cathedral, 1893), describes the 
Churchyard as " enclosed by a very rich and extremely strong railing of iron," and this 
view was held by Bro. Lovegrove (on the occasion of Bro. Horsley's address), when 
the former referred to Tijou's " fine castings of the massive railings, which are so 
superior to the meagre railings of our own time." This is specially referred to by Sir 
Wm. Dugdale, Garter, in his " History, of St. Paul's Cathedral." 

The western portion of this railing, together with the gates at that end, were sold 
in 1874, and the railing was bought by Mr. J. B. Hogarth, Iron Merchant of Bow, who 
.sold it for Toronto, but the vessel being wrecked, the iron was nearly all lost, the small 
portion salved being now preserved in Canada. 

" 40 m . Double-Leaf Gold for Bast end of ye Choire at £7 per 
" m. and 22 m . thin-leafe gold at £4 per m. were purchased 
" from Mr. Deputy John Moore, Gold-beater, and labour in 
" guilding organ pipes with 19 m . of gold at £3 10. 0." cost £66 10 00 

Many lots of gold leaf were supplied by him. 

About a century ago my grandfather, Michael Tijou, who was a Carver and 
Gilder, and Picture Dealer in 'Greek Street, Soho, gilded the ball and cross on the dome 
on more than one occasion, but time does not permit my doing more than make a 
passing reference to the later work done by members of my family. 

The well-known Grinling Gibbons appears in the abstracts, not only as lending 
money at six per cent., but as an expert Carver. 

He was paid £795 19s. lOd. "ffor Carving done in y e Choire inside, and 
" carving about y e Bishops throne back of Choire fronts & y e Great organ 
" Case, including 8 Statute Angells at £20 each." 

He was also paid £120 " ffor carving a Basrelieve on y e North Pediment 
■ ~ - " " being 18ft long and 9ft high with two angells 8 foot figgures 18 inches 
"thicke with a Lyon & Unicorne and y e Kinges Armes and Crowne" and 
for " Grotesque enrichments round Windows in Women's gallery," £197. 
" To Caius Gabriel Cibber ffor carving y e South Ffrontis- 
" piece being a great Phenix IS foot. long, and 9 foot high 100 00 00 

" Ffor a modell of a relieve with two figures and Emblems 
" for ye said front 10 00 00 

" ffor a model for y e Phenix 06 00 00 

" ffor three models of Antique Lucerns for y e pinnacles 06 00 00 

It may be interesting to recall some items, which I have noted during my 
examination of the full accounts in the Cathedral Library : — 

In 1692 "Plummers" were paid as much as 3s. per day, very much more 
than the Stone Masons and other mechanics; this no doubt .was owing to the 
great demaiid for thep after the Great Fire. 




Notes on the Metal Work of St. Paul's Cathedral, London. 



isi 



01 05 00" 



Place bricks costs 17/- per thousand and wood burnt stock 

bricks 28/- per thousand. 

Five cwt. of " Sodd'er " was required for great pipes at 9d. 

per lb., and "ffor a half-crown cock £00 02s. 6d.," nothing 

extra being added to this as was usual in many items, such as 

" Payed one guiney 

A charge appears " ffor mending a pair of Lewisses for Mr. 

" Rawlins Worke and ffor sharping 2 crows att both ends " 00 02 00 

Two " plaits " for a crabb cost 2/6 

The price of lead at this time was 15s. 6d. per cwt., but 12s. per cwt. was 
allowed by the contractor for old lead. Over 35 cwt. was used for "bottom of peers 
in y« Morning Prayer Chappell." A pair of " Dufftailes " cost 3d. and " ffor fiting and 
tagging a book 02 d .," thus showing how minutely and carefully the accounts were kept. 
The ironwork for a new sett of carriage wheels cost £15 02s. 05d. weighing nearly 
10 cwt. at 3|d. lb. A pint of ink cost 6d. and 4d. was spent "ffor Pounce." Ropes 
figured for large sums. " Oapsterne " ropes frequently cost £15 each, weighing 
6 cwt. at 5|d. lb. 

"Two new engines to water the work with and ffor lether 

" and canvesse pipes belonging to y e same £100 " 

Some expensive stone work cost £508 18s. 06d. "for work- 

"ing setting and carving 174 feet of the Mutells and 

" cornice withall enrichments in ye same at 58 s . 06 a . p foot 

"run, tunnage included." 

"ffor carving 2 larges ffestoones over ye windows in y e 

"steeple with Heads and Palmes at £32 each and 

" carving ffaces at £15 each and cherubim heads at 20 3 /-." 

" Masoning & setting y e Great Tribune over y e West end 

" of Chappell." £100 

" Grate nailes, halfe crowne and Twenty penny nailes " are. 

frequently bought at 4d. per lb. 

"ffor 61b. of Glew" at 8d. lb. 

"Iron work for a paire of Hinde Wheels for the stone 

" carridge 4° 2i ll lb at 3f represents 

" ffor 54 foot Oak in two pieces for a beame and plaite ffor 

" y e side Isle at 3/6 Cut Dy-Square (sic) cost 

" A Watering Pott for y e Choire 04 s . 



£07 10 02i 



09 09 00 



I note that in those days watchmen alone were not considered a sufficient guard, 
for, although the charge for them amounted to £707, a further item, of £63 was 
allowed for " keeping great dogs for security of stores " and for the " Ratcatcher's 
allowance." 

The cost of a "chaine ffor the dog 9ft. long" was 9/- 
and another " ffor the ffox 2 3 /-." 5/- being charged every 
month for food for dogs to assist 10 watchmen who were 
paid 8 d . per night. 



" Glasse plates of Christall for sashes of Organ Case 2ft lin : 
" X If. 9in " cost 30/- each and amounted to 
" 3 pairs of hinges for Quire Particion " 



£ s. d. 

103 
04 13 11 



1 



152 



Transactions of the Quatuor Ooronati Lodge. 



" ffor Use of old Sailcloth for 2 months to cover y e carved work 

in y e choire " .,, * ... __, >it 11 

" ffor a large fire shovell for the Plummery ... ... 00 05 00 

The Auditor's remuneration " ffor " examining and stating accounts of building, in- 
cluding three abstracts, to be transmitted into Exchequer was fd. in the £ on total 
outlay. 

The following appears in March, 1691-2 :— 

" Paid by Lawrence Spencer in attendance upon y e affaire relating to y e 
" Oitie of Londons proposal to y e Parlement ffor sixpences out of y e imposi- 
" tion upon Ooales ffor relief e of the Orphans of the s d Oitie vizt 



£ 



d. 



" Paid M r Allen, M r Jodrel and M r Stedman for soliciting ye 
" affaire 13 07 00 

" Given to servants 00 10 00 

" Spent atte Westminster and other places at severall times : 
" ffor dinners and ffor wateridges 03 04 07 

" ffor writing 2 peticons 00 07 06 

" ffor printing peticons and cases 01 16 00 

" ffor two retayning ffees to S r Charles Porter and M 1 Ward, 
" 4 gnineys 04 06 00 

" Spent at sevrall meetings with M r Serf Topham 08 00 00 

"Presented [not paid] i to Mr. Serf Topham 26 17 06 

" Given to M r Serf Tophams man 01 01 06 

" To W m . Middleton, Sollicitor, for soliciting of business 10 00 00 

An assistant to Mr. Oliver in measuring of Masons' Work was paid at rate of 
10s. per day, a very liberal rate compared with the salary paid to the Clerk of Works, 
Mr. Lawrence Spencer, who only received £8 Cs. 8d. per month 

" ffor his attendance in the worke ffor receiving of moneys and paying 
" y e same for materialls and Workmen's Wages, for keeping and making 
" up these accounts and double engrossing y e same and for attending the 
" Com e ." 

The Assistant Surveyor received 20d. per diem for copying designs, etc. 

Various gifts or " tips " appear, such as £ s. A. 
" Given to the Bp. of Londons Gent" at y e signing of an 

" Indenture for y e Dean & Chapter, | guiney 00 11 00 

" To M r . Allen, the Sollicitor, a guiney 01 10 00 

" To the Archbishop's Secretary, a gainey 01 10 00 

" To 3 of the Archbishops Gent 3 , a guiney & \ 02 05 00 

" To 2 of the Archbishops Gent 8 , a guiney 01 10 00 

It will be seen that all these items are charged more than the sums paid 
and it is curious how they passed the Auditor, 

" 1706 £ s. d 

" Paid to Mr. Att°, Gen 1 , for his advice on the state of y e 

" houses on north side of Church 5 7 6 

" To same for perusing y e Deputacofi 2 3 

'In theory, then as now, Barristers are not supposed to he paid for their services. 




Notes on the Metal Work of St. Paul's Cathedral, London. 



153 



for 



An item appears 

" Women for Washing the Choire ag st Queen's coming." 
Also 

" Curing great dog of y e mange, 5s." 

Some bad stone was noted 

"Cutting out 1647ft. Portland at 16d. 109 16 

" Masoning new 1647 ft. at 16d. 109 16 

On Portland stone there was 

" Duty to Queen and Island, 12d. tun." 

Charles Hopson, a Master Joiner, who was employed for several years, received 



£ s. d. 

" Time and stnff making doors 1061 

" For his care for 4 years 100 

" For Litany desk in Choire 29 14 2 

Hopson was originally described "Mr.," afterwards " Bsq re ," and in above 

and other entries " Sir," so presumably he received the honour of knighthood, but his 

pay throughout was 3s. per day for wages, and he usually attended only 4 days 

monthly. 

1006 ft. black iron marble over-plus was sold at 5s. 6d. per foot, and used at 
Marlborough House. 

£ s. d. 

00 06 06 

01 00 00 
00 06 06 



An old pensioner appears regularly in the monthly accounts 
" ffor Old Peter Barns his monthly allowance 
but at last comes " Given toward the charge of burying Old 
" Peter Barns " 

and followed by " Paid y e Widdow Barns her husbands 
" allowance for this month 



" Their Mj sties " appear to have occasionally given a Buck to the officers which 
cost the Building Fund as under : 



"Paid ffor Warrant ffor a buck 

" Given to the Keeper 

" To M 1 '. Olivers man expended in going for the buck and 

" carridge 

" Paid for dressing the dinner and for wine as per bill 

" Paid the Cook for making 2 Venison patties 



£ s. d. 

00 11 00 

01 00 00 



00 12 00 
07 02 06 

01 00 00 

10 05 06 









On another occasion the buck cost for wine, beer and dressing £7 02 02 

and " given to y e servants that waited " 18/ s - 
" Spent with Mr. Oliver and others at passing the books of 
" a/ct for a dinner 01 10 00 

"Ffor printing 50. copies of Their Maties Commission for 
" re-building this Cathedral " 04 04 00 

I must not touch upon the dangerous subject of Politics, but I may remark 
that the " Peers " in those days were not treated better than some people of 




154 'Transactions of the Quatuor Ooronati Lodge. 

modern times would desire, there being an entry " ffor clearing ye Peers in y e Isle of 
Portland " and again " Labourer ffor rubbing y e Peers in the Choire with gritte " 12 s . 09 d . 
Numerous entries appear of moneys borrowed from Wren and various 
Contractors at 6 per cent, interest, although a sum of £1000 was borrowed for 8 years 
at 5 per cent. 

Two reames of writing paper cost £1 4s. Od. John Hudson, a laborer, was 
paid 3s. per week for "clearing the shaving out of the carvers and joyners work in the 
" Choire and for looking after their candles." 

Marble pillars under the organ cost £52 10s. Od. each, and nearly £1000 was 
spent on marble paving stones at 3s. 9d. These pillars are now inside the south door. 

Father Bernard Smith, organ maker, received for organ £1600. 

Short weight and inferior quality of coins accounted for considerable sums, one 
entry being : — 

" Laurence Spencer for losse by 746 guineas and f at 8s. 

" being received at 30s. each and paid away again at 22s. each 298 12 00 

" Loss by 13 broad pieces at 8s. 5 04 00 

" Coll r Pierce for so much lesse than received for by order of 

" the Lords 47 16 07 



A payment was made to S r C r Wren as follows : — 

" To being allowed for his trouble and paines in a journey 

"to Portland and surveying and directing at y e Quarries 

" these 12 days 

" Mr. Strong's assistance about ye same 

" Coach hire & expenses of the whole journey 



£351 12 07 
£ s. d. 



30 00 00 
12 00 00 
50 07 05 



£92 07 05 



Totalling 

On another occasion Mr. Strong and others took a " journey to Portland to view 
Raines there " by order of Wren at a cost of £69 05s. 04d. 

Wren received £200 " for his expences in large Imperial! paper pencills letters 
" and postage for 25 yeares at £8 per yeare." 

" Paid towards damages sustained by y e slidding of y e wages at Portland 
"£80." 



£ s. d. 
04 02 04 



Still further items for refreshing the inner man appear, such as 

" Mrs. Shaw's bill for a Dinner at passing y e Books of Ace* 

" Dinner at settling y e prices of y e Masons & Joyners work 

" in ye Chappell 03 05 09 

" Dinner at casting up y 6 said bills 00 15 03 

According to Malcolm, a curious mode of preservation of the most elevated 
portion of the Cathedral was adopted by making it a receptacle for fragments 
of the bodies of Saints who were to plead in silent prayer for the safety of 
the building, 

" His Grace y e Duke of Newcastle " having given 50 trees, the carriage of same 
cost 20s. per day for 20 days, " requiring a double Teame of Cattle." 




Notes on the Metal Work- of St. Paul's Cathedral, London, 



155 



£ s. d. 
Candles cost 5s. 8d. per doz., and " a Chaldron, of Coales for 

ye watchmen " 01 05 00 

" Masoning and carving 4 Incense pots upon the Peers of the south 
ascent at £30 a piece " accounted for £120 and "4 double ffestoons with 8 
Cherubim heads " upon the pedestals cost £13 each. 

An item shows "ffor links candelles and making good Church Bucketts lent 
at ye fire and ffor wine and beer." 

The books of account are very carefully and clearly written up, and the sums 
owing and paid to each person are signed for by each, but in cases where persons cannot 
write, they appear to make marks, such as " R " for Richard Howes, and " H W," 
Hugh Webb. The letter " M " appears frequently as a mark for receipt of money. 
These accounts and receipts are made out and signed in duplicate, and are counter- 
signed almost every month, " C r Wren" and "John Oliver." 




Bro. Henry Lovegrove, P.G-.S.B., proposed a vote of thanks to Bro. Tijou for his 
interesting paper, and thought that Bro. Tijou must be proud to be descended from the 
great John Tijou, who was so successful in preparing the smiths' work for the great 
Cathedral of St. Paul, It is well to say a few words on the difficulties which pre- 
sented themselves. It must be remembered that prior to the great fire there stood on 
the site a glorious Gothic fane. How beautiful it was can be seen by those who care to 
go to one of the large libraries and study the engravings by Hollar in Dugdale's 
" Monasticon." 

When Tijou began his work, it is likely that he had a very' large share in the 
design, as very little work in either cast or wrought iron in the Italian style had been made 
in England, although there was plenty in the Gnathic style which had grown up in the 
country for several centuries. 

If, as Bro. Tijou surmises, the general smiths' work was executed at Hampton 
Court, it was probably brought up by barges to Paul's Wharf, as several authorities give 
the place of the casting of the iron railing as Lamberhurst in Sussex. 

It is possible that the large enclosing railings would have been better if they had 
been a. foot or two less in height, but nobody can deny that they are fine specimens of 
cast iron, and the whole of the ironwork is very creditable considering the disadvantages 
which I have previously mentioned. 

We must all regret that Sir Christopher Wren was overruled by the committee 
and the world lost the constant pleasure of a fine wrought iron enclosure to the 
Cathedral. 



The proposition was seconded by Bro. James M. Small, who mentioned that some 
of the old cast iron railings are in the possession of a gentleman in Scotland. Bro. E. 
L. Hawkins referred to others preserved in the Museum at Hastings. 

, Comments were also made by Bros. W. Wonnacott, E. Armitage, P.Dep.G.D.C, 
E. H. Dring and A. A. Murray. 



156 



Transactions of the Quatuor Goronati Lodge. 



TEMPLARIA ET HOSPITALLARIA. 

THOUGHTS ON THE ORDERS OF THE TEMPLE AND HOSPITAL IN THE 

BRITISH EMPIRE, IN CONNECTION WITH ESOTERIC MATTER 

OF VARIOUS KINDS. 

BY FRATER LADISLAS DE MALCZOVICH, 

Knight of the United Religious and Military Orders of the Temple, and of 
St. John of Jerusalem, Palestine, Rhodes and Malta, in England and Wales ; 
"Past Preceptor and Prjor of " Royal Sussex " Preceptory and Priory, No. 25, 
Torquay, Devon ; Past Great Chamberlain of England (Temple) ; Past Great 
Sword Bearer of England (Hospital) ; Past Provincial First Constable of 
Devonshire ; Honorary member of the Sancta Maria Preceptory No. 183 
London. 

(Continued from Vol. mix., pp. 73-89.) 




CHAPTER I. 
THE TEUTONIC ORDER IN CONNECTION WITH THE ORDERS OF THE 

TEMPLE AND HOSPITAL. 

(Conclusion.) 

F^ OW we must turn to certain matters connected with the Teutonic 
Order which are undoubtedly of an esoteric character, and therefore 
of signal importance from our present standpoint. 

If we review, even superficially, the organisation and the 
rituals of the Teutonic Order we are at once struck by the prominent 
part played by the number seven, which forms an exact equivalent of 
number eight in the Order of St. John. It is well known that the 
eight points of the Maltese cross are said to be emblematical of the eight Langues into 
which the order was divided. This, however, is only an exoteric explanation, really a 
filius ante patrem. To any student of occult or esoteric matters there can be no doubt 
that the eight points of the cross of Malta really symbolised something entirely 
different, and that the eight Langues were established in course of time in order to 
correspond with the esoteric or mystical number eight of the Order. This then is an 
instance of confusion of cause and effect, for in course of time the Order of St. John 
became possessed of a number of new countries beyond the original eight, but no ninth 
tenth, etc., Langues were ever created. On the contrary, the new acquisitions were 
simply incorporated with one or other of the eight existing Langues. Thus, kingdoms 
which had never formed part or portion of the German Empire (for example, Denmark, 
Hungary and Poland), were incorporated with the Langue of Germany just because it 
was desired not to make any alteration in the sacred number eight which had to be 
maintained at all costs. 

A somewhat similar procedure may be noted in connection with the Teutonic 
Order in reference to the number seven which appears to have contained some sacred 
mystical and esoteric meaning. It formed the basis of divisions and sub-divisions in 
the organisation of the Order, and as we shall hereafter see, also played a prominent 
part in the rituals, 




Templaria et Hospitallaria. 



157 



According to the ancient traditions, as well as to a very old matricula 
of the Teutonic Order, the vast territory possessed by the Knights daring the first 
period of its history was divided into seven districts which were symbolically known as 
" The seven pillars of the Teutonic House of St. Mary.". In process of time, some of 
these pillars were shaken and fell to the ground (especially so those which stood in the 
Holy Land), but their places were taken by others, and thus the number seven was 
always maintained, the names alone being varied. 

We find also that the chief dignitaries of the whole Order, who will be more 
particularly referred to in the course of this Chapter, were likewise seven in number 
and they also were called the " seven pillars." 1 Furthermore, each Province, Bailliwick, 
and House of the Teutonic Order had dignitaries bearing the same or similar appella- 
tions, seven in number. A fall Convent or House of Teutonic Knights' 3 consisted of at 
least twelve knights (often twenty-four, or even more), though they always commenced 
with the number seven. It is worth while to remember that the first detachment of 
Teutonic Knights sent by the Great Master Herman von Salza, under the command of 
Herman Balk for the conquest of Prussia consisted of only seven knights, and in all 
probability this was not accidental, but was arranged purposely in pursuance of some 
custom or usage of the Order. Other sources mention 20 knights, which with the 
addition of the Provincial Master made 21 = 3x7. 

In the rituals and other writings of the Order reference is made to the seven 
gifts of the Holy Ghost, the seven Christian virtues, etc., and they also may be desig- 
nated as seven pillars. 

It has already been stated that the whole Order was spoken of as the "Teutonic 
House of St. Mary at Jerusalem," long after the first Hospital or Teutonic House at the 
Holy City and also the first chivalric Teutonic House at Acre had been lost. Besides 
that, every Convent of the Order wherever situated was called "Teutonic House " (Das 
deutsche Earn). It was an old saying with the Order, " The Teutonic House rests upon 
seven pillars," and it will be seen that the saying was intended to convey a double 
sense, the one material and the other spiritual, but each being true and adequate. 

It has already been mentioned in the historical part of this Chapter that at the 
beginning of the sixteenth century after the loss of Prussia, the territory of the Order 
comprised twelve bailliwicks, and the further loss of the bailliwick of Utrecht which 
had been the twelfth, reduced the number to eleven. Prior to that period Prussia and 
Livonia had also belonged to the Teutonic Knights, and it may be useful if I here give 
some additional information in reference to Livonia, the original home of the Order of 
the Sword-bearers. 

The natives of Livonia or Liveland, and the adjoining countries, viz., Curonia 
(Curland, Courland) Esthonia (Esthland) and Semigallia were entirely pagan, even 
during the second half of the twelfth century, when for the first time Christian 
missionaries were sent there. Albrecht, the first Christian Bishop in Livonia was a 
very active and energetic man. He founded the city of Riga about a.d. 1200, and with 
a view of spreading the Gospel of Christ among the Northern nations, and of defending 
the Christian Church already established there, he founded (1201-1206) the chivalric 
Order which was at first called "Brethren of the Militia of Christ," or more briefly, 
" Brethren of Christ." Pope Innocent III. confirmed the Order and recommended the 

1 Exactly the game procedure was adopted with the Order of St. John, the chiefs or laillis 
conventuels of the eight languages residing at headquarters being called " les huit pilliers." 

2 The Knights Templar would say a Preceptory. 



1°8 • Transactions of the Quatuor Ooronati Lodge. 

members to adopt the Constitutions of the Knights Templar as a model. For the same 
reason he conferred upon them a habit, namely, a white mantle with two cross-hilted 
red swords in saltire, with a red star above. Thenceforward the Order took the name 
of the " Swordbearers " (Ordo gladiferorum afterwards ensiferorum in Livonia). 

Bishop Albrecht gave them a full third part of his poss'essions as freehold 
property and promised them a third part of all he might acquire thereafter. Livonia, 
Courland, and Esthland were conquered by the Knights about 1220, but on the death of 
Bishop Albrecht, which occurred in 1229, the Order found itself too weak to maintain 
the territories against the attacks of the natives who were unwilling to bear the yoke of 
the Order and of the Christian religion. For this reason the Swordbearers opened 
negotiations with the Teutonic Knights (who, as will be remembered, had about this 
time settled in the neighbouring Prussia), with a view to effect a Union of the two 
Orders. Strange to say, the Teutonic Knights at first refused, and it was only by the 
intervention of Pope Gregory IX. that the Union was effected in 1237. The centre of 
the Order of the Swordbearers had been at first the Castle of Wenden (also the burial- 
place of all their Masters), but later on it was moved to Riga. In consequence of the 
Union, Livonia became a province of the Teutonic Order, or rather of the combined 
Orders of Teutonic Knights and Swordbearers. The Great Masters of the Teutonic 
Order appointed a Provincial Master for Livonia, Esthland was given up to Denmark, 
and the peace of the countries thus secured. The Emperor Frederick II. endeavoured 
by all means to strengthen the power of the Teutonic Knights, and conferred Livonia 
upon them as a fief, a measure which caused much grief and bitterness among the 
Swordbearers. After the flourishing period of the fourteenth century the Teutonic 
Knights were compelled to act on the defensive and in consequence the Great Master 
Ludwig von Erlichshausen, who desired the assistance of the Livonians against his 
assailants, renounced his rights over Livonia in favour of the Livonian Master, Johann 
von Mengden, called Osthof, 1459, and thus the Livonian Master became an indepen- 
dent Prince who ruled Livonia with sovereign rights. Finally the Great Master 
Albrecht von Brandenburg, for similar reasons resigned all the rights of the Teutonic 
Order over the Livonian Order in favour of the then Master, Walter von Plettenberg, 
a.d. 1521, and in this manner the Livonian Order became again quite independent 
of the Teutonic Order, with the right of free election of their own Masters. The 
Emperor Charles V. conferred the rank of a Prince of the Holy Roman Empire 
upon Walter and his successors in office with a seat and vote in the Imperial Diet, 
and from this time forward freely its elected chiefs were styled " Prince Masters of 
Livonia." It was about this time that the "Reformation" spread into Livonia, 
Courland and Semigallia. 

The Prince Masters had, however, much to suffer from outside attacks especially 
from Russia, and in the end the last Prince Master, Gotthard Kettler, who had embraced 
the Evangelical religion, not being able to hold the country against the repeated attacks 
of Russia, determined to imitate the example set by Albrecht von Brandenburg, and in 
the year 1561 he freely resigned his dignity as Prince Master and gave up Livonia (in 
the strict sense) to the Crown of Poland receiving at the same time Courland and 
Semigallia as secular dukedoms, and as fiefs of the Polish Crown. He thus became 
founder of the ducal reigning house of those two countries. Notwithstanding this the 
lands were eventually in the eighteenth century taken by Russia and now form the so- 
called Baltic provinces of the Russian Empire. 

From a Templar point of view the habit and badge granted to the Sword-bearers 
are very noteworthy and clearly show that they were designed on the Templar pattern. 




noted. 





Temptaria et Hospitallaria. 1S& 

They bear a great resemblance to the Templar mantle and red cross, and the two crossed 
swords and the Star have also a special significance from a Templar point of view. 

Now to return to the twelve bailliwicks of the Teutonic Order. If we add to them 
Prussia and Livonia which had at one time each formed a separate Province or 
Bailliwick (these terms being almost identical in those days) we have during the four- 
teenth and fifteenth centuries 14 bailliwicks or provinces of the Order, i.e. 2 x 7. 

As all coincidences are not accidental, the following particulars may also be 

(1) The oldest heraldic device of the Order was a triangular shield, 
argent, with a plain cross, sable. The plain cross may be also described as 
a combination of a pale and /ess each of which consists of two lines. This 
gives four lines and with the three sides of the shield, = 7, 

(2) The full cross of the Order as used by the Great 
Masters and afterwards by the great and German Masters consists of 

(a) the black cross pattee showing 8 points, 

(b) the gold or silver cross of. King John of Jerusalem, 
adorned with the 4 fleurs-de-lys of King Louis of 
Prance each of which having three points 
give a total of 12. 

(c) Last but not least the centre shield with the single- 
headed Imperial eagle = 1 

Thus we have 8 + 12 + 1 = 21 . = 3 x 7. 

Besides seven as the chief number, other odd numbers were of significance. As 
we shall see hereafter when giving a description of the badges of the Order the neck 
cross of the professed Knights (not the " cross of profession " or breast-cross) is sur- 
mounted by a knight's helmet (enamelled blue) with seven gold bars, bearing a plume 
of white ostrich feathers alternately white and black (or two black between three white). 
Other-examples of the emblematical use of seven and other odd numbers will be noted 
in due course. 

In connection with the above it maybe interesting to say something about the 
Castle of Marienbarg, which was the residence of the Great Masters of the Order and 
the Teutonic House par excellence for a very considerable number of years, including the 
most flourishing period of the Order. The Castle, and particularly that part known as 
the Great Master's Palace, was (and since its complete restoration is,) one of the finest 
specimens of German Gothic architecture of the fourteenth century. It is noteworthy 
that the symbolism of the Order may be found displayed there in a very marked 
manner and for this reason I desire to speak of it at this point. When the Great 
Master Ludwig yon Erlichshausen was compelled to leave the Marienburg for ever, and 
the Castle came into the possession of Poland, a long period of decay set in for the noble 
building which once had witnessed so much splendour and glory. At this time it became 
first a Polish Royal Castle, later on it was given to the Jesuits who erected (between 
the Upper and Middle Castle) a monastery in the tasteless style which may be called . ' 
"Jesuitic style," if indeed it can be called a style at all. Daring this period, artisans, 
Jewish traders, etc., took up their abode at the " forecastle," and thus the building 
gradually became neglected and disfigured. Then, too, the Jesuit fathers wanted the 
crypts for the burial of the members of their own Order and they therefore impiously 
removed to some unknown spot the coffins and remains of the Great Masters and knighta . 
who had been interred there for eternal rest. 




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In the year 1644, the roof of the upper castle was destroyed by fire, and as more 
than 160 years passed without any attempt at repair, this portion of the castle naturally 
fell into ruins. In consequence of the first division of Poland in 1772, the Marienburg 
passed to the kingdom of Prussia, but still nothing was done for. St. Mary's castle. 
That great soldier, King Frederick the Great, had as little taste for architecture as he 
had for the German language and literature. He called the castle " a huge heap of 
stones," and caused it to be transformed into military barracks, and in order to adapt 
it to this purpose, the high Gothic vaulted halls were, by a transverse ceiling, divided 
into two stories,- containing about one hundred small cells. Many of the fine Gothic 
windows were filled up with brickwork, and then pierced with small holes. What 
vandalism! Under King -Frederick William III., portions of the castle were used as 
granaries, and daring the Napoleonic wars, one of the most beautiful halls was used 
first as a manege, then as a military lazzaretto, while another part served as a smithy ! 
These works of destruction reached their pitch about the year 1803. Then came a turn 
for the better, due to the manly appeal of a literary man, Max von Schenkendorf. In 
1804, a Eoyal Order was issued for preserving the castle, and in 1806, the repair of the 
roof was commenced. In consequence of the French wars and the great misery entailed 
thereby, the work was again stopped, and all remained as it was for another long 
period. It was not until the year 1818 that the dropped thread was again picked up, and 
it was only in our days (especially in 1872, 1881 and 1894) that serious measures were 
taken, a special fund being raised for the purpose of preserving the building, and of 
restoring it to its original form, in a manner worthy of its great historical past. . When 
at last the work was finished, the restoration was celebrated on the 5th June, 1902, 
amid much pomp and medievalism, in the presence of the Emperor and King 
William II., many other Royal personages and a most distinguished assembly including 
guests from foreign countries, among them being representatives of the Grand Priory 
of the Order of the Hospital of St. John of Jerusalem in England, and of the still 
existing Austrian and Dutch branches of the Teutonic Order. 

There are some points in the construction of the castle which are well worth 
speoial attention. I must premise that there are three distinct parts in the castle, 
namely ;— 

The fore-part or fore-castle (Vorburg). 

The upper castle (Eochschloss) , a gloomy medieval structure forming 
the older part of the building. It was the stronghold of the first 
Provincial Masters before the Great Masters took up their residence 
there. 

The middle castle (Mittelschloss) erected by the Great Masters just 

between the fore and upper castles. The west wing of the middle 

castle is the Great Master's Palace, the most beautiful part of the 
entire structure. 

The Great Master's Palace contains, amongst other apartments, the Great Hall 
(der grosse Bemter). It was not used as a banqueting hall, but as a kind of parlour or 
drawing-room for the use of distinguished guests of the Great Master. Its ceiling is sup- 
ported by three pillars, from the capitals of which spring richly ornamented ribs towering- 
heavenwards, recalling in an effective manner the branches of the palm-trees of the 
Holy Land, and form a most beautiful pointed vaulted ceiling. Both here as in other 
places which I shall presently describe, the impression is a magnificent one. It is as if 
heaven stooped to earth and both were harmoniously blended. The number of these 






1. 

a, 



3. 




Ternpiaria et Hospitallaria. 



161 



pillars may be emblematical of the Holy Trinity, as well as of the three classes of the 
Order, etc. The Hall also contains 14 (= 2 x 7) splendid Gothic windows, 8 on one 
side and 6 on the other. This hall was connected by a small staircase with the private 
apartments of the Great Master, 1 namely, his single-windowed bedroom, a bathing- 
room, a private chapel with a portable camp-altar, and two (winter and summer) 
Rentiers. 

The Great Master's Summer Bemter, a kind of small drawing-room, is likewise a 
most splendid apartment with windows opening on three sides. It is supported by one 
solitary slender shaft of granite, from the capital of which similar " palm-branches " 
spread upwards and form the vaulted ceiling. This one pillar is symbolical of the 
Great Master himself, who stands quite alone in sublime isolation supported only by 
his own strength and virtue, and upon whom rests the whole structure of the Order 
symbolised here by the ceiling and roof. I will not describe the other portions of the 
Great Master's Palace, nor the Middle Castle, as they are of less importance to us than 
the foregoing, but I will now turn to the Upper Castle, once the residence of the 
Provincial Masters, which later on contained the lodgings of the Commander of the 
House (Haus-Eomthur), the Treasurer and other Great Officers of the Order. There is 
also the Church of the Convent with the so-called Golden Gate. Close by, and separated 
from it by one wall only, is the Chapter House. As the Great Master Werner von Orselen 
was murdered at the Golden Gate, his successors in that office did not use that gate, but 
passed directly from the Chapter House, through a small doorway opened for the 
purpose in the separating wall, into their projecting stall in the Church. In the 
neighbourhood of the church were the dormitories or sleeping rooms of the Knights. A 
niche on the outside of the church is worthy of notice, for in it is placed a picture of 
the Holy Virgin, eight metres in height, dating from the fourteenth century if not 
earlier, and looking out over the open landscape like the colossal statue of Pallas Athene 
on the Acropolis of Athens. 

The most remarkable apartment of the upper castle, however, is the Convent's 
Bemter, or great banqueting hall of the knights, not to be confounded with the Great 
Bemter of the Great Master's Palace. It is adorned with seven great pillars, palm-like 
and very similar in architecture to those mentioned above, supporting the pointed vaults 
of the ceiling. Adjoining it is a parlour with again three pillars as in the Great Bemter. 
It is obvious that the number of pillars is not accidental, but arranged for a purpose. 
The seven pillars of the Convent's Bemter are emblematical of the seven symbolical 
pillars on which the Teutonic House rested, by which, as will be remembered, seven 
districts, or the seven great dignitaries, or seven virtues, etc., were understood. It is 
interesting to note that if we add the number of pillars in the two three-pillared halls 
to the solitary pillar symbolical of the Great Master, we again have another set of 
seven. 

On the whole it may be asserted without exaggeration that the Castle of 
Marienburg is a magnificent architectural expression of the spirit, high ideals and 
symbolism of the Teutonic Order. 

It may be convenient here to mention a few of the customs of the Teutonic 
knights. They are worthy of notice and some of them, at all events, furnish interesting 
analogies with Templar usages and customs. Those of my readers who are acquainted 
with the Regula Trecensis or Rule of Troyes, and other Templar statutes of later date, 
will at once see the close resemblance they bear to them. 

1 Only the Great Master was allowed more than two special apartments. 



162 Transactions of the Quatuor Goronaii todge. 

I have mentioned already that only the Great Master enjoyed the privilege of 
having more than two private apartments for his own special use. After the murder 
of Werner von Orselen, 1330, it was enacted that one knight was always, night and 
day, to be in attendance upon the Great Easter, and to accompany him everywhere. 

Besides the Great Master, only the Great Dignitaries had private apartments for 
their personal use, bat even they had only two rooms each, a larger and a smaller one. 
Adjoining the Treasurer's apartment was the so-called " Silver Chamber," wherein was 
deposited the treasure (Tressel) and the general cash of the Order. The other knights 
had no special private apartments. They dined together in one hall, but at three 
different tables. The first was called the "table of Commanders" (Gebietiger-Tafel). 
At the Marienburg Castle, the Great Master sat at this table with the Great Dignitaries 
and other Commanders. In other places it was occupied by the Chief Dignitary and 
his staff. The second table was called the table of the Convent (Gonvents-Tafel). At it 
the knights and priests took their places. The third one was the " table of youngsters " 
(Jungen-Tisch). This was for the use of the novices and of the higher servants in the 
respective Houses. As in the monasteries generally, every meal began and ended with 
solemn prayer. Daring the meal, no one was permitted to talk, all were enjoined to 
keep silence and to listen to the religious lectures which were delivered to them. Of " 
coarse the fasting precepts of the Roman Catholic Church were rigoroasly observed. 
The Knights also slept in company the same as the Templars. The bedrooms were 
lighted all night long. The members lay on hard beds, feather-beds being permitted 
only for the sick and wounded. From the time of going to bed until the first morning 
service, all private conversation was strictly forbidden under religious penalties. 
Moreover, the poor knights had but little nightly rest as they were not allowed to sleep 
longer than three hours at a stretch. At the end of that period, they were compelled to 
get up and go to church at the usual canonical hours, and only after having chanted the 
prescribed prayers, were they allowed to return to the bedchambers and rest for three 
more hours. The sick and wounded, and those coming from a long journey, could, 
however, obtain dispensation from the chief Officer of the House. The knights went to 
church clad with the black-crossed white mantles and the feet shod with shoes, i.e., not 
with boots, and, as it seems, without swords. Here the monastical side of the Order is 
prominent. The doors of the common dormitories were not to be locked or bolted. Nor 
was anyone permitted to possess any box, case or repository which could be locked up. 1 

I must now make some additional remarks on the organization of the Teutonic 
Order. It was of course subject from time to time to many changes arising out of 
varying conditions and circumstances, and thus presents a long line of evolution. 
Every student of mediasval history will know that in the middle ages practically 
nothing was fixed beforehand. Institutions rose into being and developed according to 
the conditions of surrounding life. It was only very much later, when the institutions 
had grown into complicated organisms that customs already established and regulations 
handed down orally were put down into writing. This was so with States, Municipalities, 
and different corporations, and equally so'with the Chivalric Orders. As for the 
Teutonic Order we know very little of the details of its organisation at the earliest 
period of its existence. The essentials we can learn from the Papal breve of confirmation 
of 1091, and from some old statutes of the Order confirmed by the Pope a.d. 1099, and 

1 Compare with this regulation, Rale 40 of the Regula Trecensis, " Sacculus et mala cum firmatura 
non conceduntur" Rules 8, 9, 17, 18 of the Rule of Troyes may also be compared with the above 
regulations, and I may say that very many of the regulations of the Teutonic Order clearly show the 
Templar pattern, which it will be well to bear in mind. 




Templaria et Hospitallaria. 163 

they have already been referred to in the earlier part of this chapter. It is bnt natural 
that as long as the Order was poor and insignificant, its organisation was very simple. 
In all likelihood there was no need for many rales to be drawn np in writing. At the 
head of the Order stood the Master, afterwards called the Groat Master, with his staff 
of Office-bearers at the headquarters. The different Houses or Convents, which were 
so many fortified castles, were at the same time governed by Commanders (Comthure, 
Gebietiger) with corresponding Office-bearers. The more the Order increased in 
numbers and in wealth, -the more complicated became its organisation. But through 
nearly the whole of the middle ages everything was in a continual state of fluctuation 
and evolution. The first codification of the Statutes and Rules of the Order took place 
not earlier than the fifteenth century, a.d. 1442. Others followed in 1606 and 1801. 
The oldest division of the extensive possessions of the Order seems to have been into 
seven large regions or districts called the " seven pillars " on which the Teutonic House 
of St. Mary rested, as already mentioned. 

The whole of the immense territory was in course of time divided into larger 
■and smaller parts and portions as necessitated by special circumstances. Larger 
districts were called Provinces or Bailliwicks, in older times both terms being nearly 
synonymous. All was at that time indistinct and indefinite. Afterwards when the 
Order had grown great and powerful, large districts, even whole countries, were called 
Provinces, and were ruled by Provincial Masters (Land-Meister) . These Provinces 
being oftentimes too large to be governed easily from one centre, were again sub-divided 
into smaller parts, now called Bailliwicks (Balleien) headed by Provincial Commanders 
(Land-Comthure) . After the sixteenth century the whole territory of the Order was 
divided into Bailliwicks only. Mergentheim. with the estates belonging to it formed 
" The Great and Teutonic Mastership of Mergentheim." Subordinate to the Bailliwicks 
were Commanderies (Comthureien), presided over by Commanders (Comthure, Gebietiger) 
which consisted of one or more Houses or Convents and other bodies or lands, with 
similar offices having different appellations, such as Prefectures (Amter, Vogteien). 

At the flourishing period of the Order, the fourteenth century and again in the 
fifteenth, the Order was governed by the following seven chief dignitaries or " pillars ": 

(1) The Great Master (Hochmeister) elected by the Chapter General for life 

and who could be deprived of his dignity only for quite special and 
extraordinary causes. Next in rank came 

(2) the Provincial Master of Germany, in short the German Master 

(Deutschmeister), residing not at headquarters but at different times in 
different towns in Germany, e.g., Marburg, Frankfurt-on-the-Main. 
As the most powerful Provincial Master he represented to some 
extent the whole chivalry of the Order face to face with the Grand 
Master and the Central Government. He may be considered the 
highest constitutional factor in the aristocratic republic of the Order. 
When the Great Masters were eager to increase and extend their 
power at the expense of the knights' rights and privileges, in other 
words, when they endeavoured to establish a monarchical and military 
absolutism, they met with the most determined opposition on the part 
of the Deutschmeister who acted on behalf of the knights and withstood 
the onset of weakening tendencies coming from the Great Master, 
JSText in power, rank, and authority was 




164 Transactions of the Quatuor Goronati Lodge. 

(3) The Grand Commander, or Grand Preceptor (Grosscomthur) . He was 

the vice-gerent of the Great Master when the latter was absent from 
headquarters or when prevented by serious illness from exercising his 
powers. In case of death of the Great Master the whole government 
of the Order devolved upon the Grand Commander as Eegent until a 
new Great Master was elected. He had also the highest superin- 
tendence over all the "property and the provisions of the Order and 
was chief comptroller of the Treasurer. Next came 

(4) The Marshal (Marschall) who was the Chief Commander of the Army 

and had charge of all military matters. 

(5) The Hospitaller (Spittler) having superintendence of the - hospitals and 

v charities. 

(6) The Draper (Trappierer) who had charge of the clothing department. 

He had to distribute garments amongst the members, provide them 
with arms, equipments and all necessary munitions of war. He had 
also the supervision of the kitchen and cellar. 

(7) The Treasurer (Tressler) who had the charge of receipts and expenditure, 

managed the treasure (Tressel) of the Order, being controlled by the 
Grand Commander. 

Besides the " seven pillars " there were other dignitaries at headquarters. 
Amongst them were prominent the Commanders of Council (Bathsgebietiger) . They 
were generally six in number forming the special Council of the Great Master with 
whom they formed another heptad or a body of seven. All these dignitaries formed the 
staff and Chapter of the Great Master. 

Then came the Provincial Masters and Provincial Commanders. Each had a staff 
of similar office-bearers, as well as Commanders of Councils-, at his side, and these 
formed his Chapter and Council. 

So also every Commander of a Commandery was, according to the size of his 
Commandery, assisted by a number of office-bearers, the Draper never being omitted. 
If the Commandery happened to be large, there was a special Commander of the House 
(Haus-Oomthur) in addition to the Commander himself. 

The highest legislative assembly and representation of the whole Order was the 
Chapter General, consisting of all the dignitaries (greater" and lesser) of the Order, and 
of all Provincial Masters and Provincial Commanders. They alone had the power of 
electing the Great Master. Originally all power was vested in the Chapter General, the 
Great Master and his Chapter exercising only the executive power. After the fourteenth 
century the power of the Great Master was, by degrees, increased, and that of the 
Chapter General lessened, yet still the Great Master never exercised absolute power, but 
was always controlled and restricted by the Chapter General. In like manner the Pro- 
vincial Masters and Provincial Commanders convoked Provincial Chapters, and the 
simple Commanders Chapters of their Commanderies, Convents or Houses. Every 
dignitary or office-bearer was strictly responsible for his actions to his superior and to 
his particular assembly. Those who had charge of money were bound to give account 
of their management to their respective superior authorities. In case of neglect of their 
official duties, deposition and punishment awaited them. 

These were the main features of the organisation of the Order of Teutonic 
Knights until the first decades of the sixteenth century, when those great changes already 









Templaria et Hospitallaria. 



165 



described, which had taken place in the heart of the Order, entailed a considerable 
alteration in the organisation also. It will be evident from the above relation that a 
close resemblance existed between the organisation and customs of the Teutonic Order 
and those of its model, the Knights of the Temple, and we shall notice the same re- 
semblance in connection with the rituals. 

In consequence of the loss of Prussia and most of the Italian estates, the offices of 
Great Master and of German and Italian Provincial Masters were united in one person, 
and Mergentheim in Franconia became the centre of the Order. The " ffoch-und 
Deutschmeister" was an ecclesiastical prince of the Holy Eoman Empire, with rank 
immediately after the Archbishops, but preceding the Bishops. The estates of 
Mergentheim were formed into a special principality (the Hoch-und Deutschmeisterthum 
of Mergentheim), in which the Great and German Master exercised sovereign rights, as 
he did also in nearly all Commanderies of the Bailliwicks of Franconia. He bore also the 
title of " Lord (Herr) of Freudenthal and Eulenburg." The central Government was, at 
this period, exercised by the Council of State and Conference of the Order, consisting of 
five members. Under it were ranged the princely offices or dicasteria, which comprised 
the Governor, the House Commander, the Draper, the Chancellor, twenty secular 
and five ecclesiastic Councillors of Government, and ten Councillors of the Excheouer 
and other offices. 

The Provincial Commanders of the Bailliwick of Alsace-Burgundy, and that of 
Coblenz, were also immediate States of the Holy Roman Empire, and had seats and 
votes in the Imperial Diet. The other Provincial Commanders, however, were subject 
to the Princes in whose territories their Bailliwicks were situated. Though the Order 
was still powerful and rich in real estate at the period under consideration, it was no 
longer a great political power, and its original object having been lost, without a new 
one being sabstituted, it slowly came to the level of a mere charitable institution or 
asylum for the comfortable maintenance of younger sons of princes and noble families. 
As there was no necessity for them to engage in warfare, the manly and knightly virtues 
which had been the distinguishing characteristics of their predecessors gradually 
vanished from among them. The knights reaped the benefit of very rich revenues, and 
as they led a lazy life of luxury, it was but a logical result that the strict morality and 
the monastic and ascetic manner of life of by-gone days were replaced by immoral and 
frivolous conduct. The Teutonic Knight, who, according to the old statutes of his 
Order, was not allowed to kiss even his mother or sister (thus copying Rule 72 of the 
Templar Begula Trecensis), became a notorious "smell-smock," and his scandalous con- 
duct was proverbial. It became a by -word, " Married men and fathers of daughters, 
bolt your doors against the white mantles." And another proverb was, " Wanton like a 
Teutonic gentleman." 

The process of decay continued through several centuries. It was a slow death, 
and when the time of crisis was at hand, the Order, which had, in fact, outlived itself, 
was no longer able to withstand the onset, and completely broke down. Some few 
sparks of light were, however, still discernible even during this dark period. Religious 
tolerance was not generally met with at the time, but to some extent it may be observed 
in the Teutonic Order. On the whole the Order remained Roman Catholic, and thus it 
is interesting to find that (quite apart from the twelfth bailliwick which had totally severed 
from the Order, and after 1619 held no intercourse whatever with the centre, but con- 
tinued to exist as an independent Order of secular Protestant Knights) the Roman Catholic 
Order did not object to receive Protestant nobles into the Order in such .Bailliwicks and 
subordinate Commanderies as were situated in Protestant countries. Thes,e Protestant 



166 



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Knights of the Teutonic Order were permitted to marry, -whilst the Roman Catholic 
Knights were to remain bachelors. Thus it came to pass that, as time went on, the three 
Bailliwicks of Thuringia, Hessia and Saxony became more and more Protestant, and in 
the end consisted almost exclusively of Protestant Knights, who nevertheless recog- 
nised the authority of, and were fully recognised by, the Roman Catholic centre, and 
sent representatives to the General Chapters of the Order. 

One of the most important parts of the Statutes was that referring to the qualifi- 
cations required in candid ite3 for Knighthood in the Order. Ac3ording to the first 
Statutes of the Order confirmed by the Pops in 1099, all members of the Teutonic Order 
(knights, priests and half-brethren) were to be freeborn and of German blood. The 
candidate for Knighthood was, with a view to his military vocation, to be in possession 
of a number of physical qualities; for example, he was to be of sound constitution, 
without disease, fit for thotoil and hardship of his knightly career. On the other hand, 
he was required to have certain moral qualifications, that is to say, he was to be free 
from any other obligation, not to be married or betrothed, not to have great debts nor 
powerful enemies, and not to belong to any other Order. All these closely, almost 
literally, resemble the corresponding Statutes of the Templars. Besides these personal 
qualities the candidate was to be qualified for secular Knighthood. This entailed proofs 
of ancestry. In Germany the honour of secular Knighthood was originally reserved to 
men of noble birth, descended from noble-born grand-parents, paternal and maternal, 
i.e., the so-called four ancestors. This was called, being " of knightly birth," (titter- 
biirtig, militaris). The terms, " milites aut militates"— " knights or of knightly birth" 
very often occur in coeval Latin documents. In later times, however, Emperors and 
Kings claimed and exercised the right of conferring secular Knighthood upon other men 
of merit, not so qualified by birth. First free birth only was required, which made a 
great difference, as burghers and other freeborn people could obtain the honour of 
Knighthood. Still later, sovereigns claimed the right of nobilitating and knighting 
whomsoever they pleased without regard to descent or other conditions of life. It is 
noteworthy that while this evolution was going on in a liberal and enlightened sense, a 
current in just the opposite direction can be traced in the ecclesiastical chivalric Orders, 
and similar institutions and corporations, especially in the high chapters of noble Canons 
and Canonesses. These most aristocratic and exclusive institutions made the requirements 
of noble descent for their candidates more and more severe. The easier it became to 
obtain simple and secular Knighthood, the more difficult was made the admission to a 
noble and knightly Order, institution or body. Lastly, even the right of taking part in a 
tournament was limited to those of legitimate descent from sixteen noble-born ancestors. 
This meant that the aspirant was bound to prove that the grandparents of his own 
grandparents, paternal and maternal, that is to say, his own sixteen great grand- 
parents were nobly-born. This was called "nobility admissible to tournament" 
(TurnierfaMger Adel), or " entitled to admission to a noble chapter " (Stiftsmassiger Adel), 
and these stringent rules were adopted by nearly all chivalric Orders and other noble 
bodies. One reason for their doing so was to restrict competition, and to render the 
chances of admission as difficult as possible. Originally knightly birth (Bitter- 
bilrtigheit) and the right of tournament (Turnier-fdUgkeit) meant the same thing, that 
is descent from four noble ancestors. Later on the former meant four and the latter 
sixteen ancestors. Indeed, nowhere more than in Germany was such great importance 
laid upon proofs of ancestry, and no dispensation could be granted in this respect. This 
was undoubtedly another reason why eventually all life died out from these aristocratic 
corporations, and they became mere petrifactions, 











■ 



Temptaria et LTospitaltarici. 167 

The Teutonic Order, indeed, went one step further in this direction, as the 
knights found in course of time that even the proof of sixteen ancestors was too easy, 
and they added one generation more, and required thirty-two ancestors. Later on, 
however, this was again reduced to sixteen ancestors, and thus it remained with 
the Austrian branch of the Teutonic Knights, as well as with the Roman Catholic 
Order of St. John or Knights of Malta, and other chivalric Orders and Insti- 
tutions. The Dutch branch of the Teutonic Knights contented itself with four 
noble ancestors, that is, the paternal and maternal grand-parents. The most severe 
measure, however, with regard to ancestry, was taken by the Bavarian Order of the 
Knights of St. George, as they required thirty-four ancestors, that is to say, thirty-two 
ancestors and the proof of descent of the paternal and maternal chief ancestors from 
noble parents. This is the most rigorous and difficult proof of ancestry ever required, 
yet even this was given by a great number of gentlemen, and even by some who 
belonged io the lesser nobility. 1 It is also characteristic of the chivalric Orders in 
Germany and of German aristocratic notions, how very rigorous they were with respect 
to legitimate birth, quite apart from the proofs of ancestry. In this respect the Latin 
nations were far more liberal minded, and there we find that gentlemen of illegitimate 
birth but otherwise able to prove their ancestry were admitted to the Chivalric Orders. 
Thus, for instance, in France the Due de Vendome who was a natural son oi'jKing 
Henry IV., not only joined the Order of Malta, but became one of its great dignitaries. 
In the eighteenth century, the Chevalier d'Orleans, a natural son of a Duke of Orleans, 
was Great Prior of France in the Order of Malta. In the sixteenth century, we find in 
Spain that Don Fernando de Toledo, who was a natural son of the ill-famed Duke of 
Alba, joined the Order of St. John (or Malta) and became a Prior. And it is equally 
well-known that, in the seventeenth century, Henry Fitz- James, a natural son of James II. 
of Great Britain, was appointed Grand Prior by the Grand Master of Malta. Many other 
similar cases might be cited. An especially interesting one is the following. Augustus 
the Strong, Prince Elector of Saxony and King of Poland, had a son by a Polish 
countess of most ancient family. This son desired to join the Order of Malta, but in 
spite of his most illustrious ancestry and the mighty protection of his royal father, it 
was quite impossible for him to be created a Knight of Malta in the Langue of 
Germany ; but they did not object to the young man being created a Knight in another- 
Langue of the Maltese Order. Thus he repaired to Castile, where they received him 
with open arms, and gladly dubbed him a Knight of the Order of Malta. On his 
return he was fully recognised as a brother Knight by the Knights of the German 
Langue. He was known by the name of Chevalier de Saxe. He mostly lived at Dresden, 
where he died in 1774. But the poor Chevalier was not allowed to rest even after 
his death. His nephew, Prince Charles of Saxony and Duke of Courland, a grandson' 
of Augustus the Strong, (by the way he was a Mason and a member of the Strict 
Observance Rite), desired to have some conversation with this uncle on an important 
matter, and the well-known Masonic impostor, John George Schrepfer, undertook the 
difficult task of causing the spirit of the Chevalier to appear in the presence of Prince 
Charles and the most distinguished society of Dresden, an event which created much 
sensation and excitement in the aristocratic and Masonic world of Saxony and Germany 
in general. "With this I close my relation about the organization of the old Teutonic 
Order. I have dwelt upon it at some length, but it seemed useful to show the close 
resemblance between it and the Order of the Temple, a very important point to which 
I shall revert in due time. 

1 Since 1871, however, this rigorous proof of auoeatry has been reduced to eight ancestors, 



I 



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I shall now turn to the organization of the reconstructed Austrian branch of the 
Teutonic Order based upon the Imperial patent of 1840, with some alterations of later 
date. Though this branch pretends to be the lineal and legitimate offspring and con- 
tinuation of the old Teutonic Order the claim is open to discussion. Still it may be 
admitted that it is in some way connected with the old Order, though perhaps by very 
slight threads. Being anxious to frame its statutes on the ancient statutes of the Order, 
and having secured the archives of the old Order, it undoubtedly possesses the merit of 
having on the whole maintained the old usages and customs, and especially the ancient 
rituals of the Order. The headquarters of this branch is at the Teutonic House at 
Vienna (Singerstrasse), very near to St. Stephen's Cathedral. The head of the Order is 
always a member of the ruling house, an Imperial Prince, Archduke of Austria and 
Royal Prince of Hungary, who now bears the time-honoured title of " Hoch-und Deutsch- 
meister." Strictly speaking, this is a misnomer and to some extent a contradictio in 
adjecto, as the estates of this branch, comprising only two Bailliwicks, are situated in 
Austria (the Order does not exist in Hungary), hence " Provincial, or Grand Master of 
Austria " would be a sufficient title, because the title " Hooh-und Deutschmeister " suggests 
possessions in different countries, and especially in Germany, whilst the Order has 
really no possessions at all in Germany or anywhere outside Austria. 

It is very noteworthy and characteristic that whilst, since 1840, the chiefs of the 
Order, namely, the Archdukes Maximilian and William, have been in Imperial patents 
styled Hoch-und Deutschmeister, on the other hand the same Princes and the Archduke 
Anthony also, in other equally official and semi-official records (as for instance in the 
annual editions of the " K.K. Hof-und Staatshandbuch and of the Almanac of Gotha) are 
described as " Grand Masters (Grossmeister) of the Teutonic Order in Austria," that is 
to say, the title conferred by the Emperor Francis on his brother, the Archduke 
Anthony, is attributed to this Prince as well as to his two successors in office. 

Though Vienna is the centre and headquarters of the Order, the Great and 
German Master is not bound to reside there. This is even now the case, as H.I.H. the 
present Hoch-und Deutschmeister resides at Innsbruck in the Tyrol. 

When the Hoch-und Deutschmeister becomes advanced in age another younger 
Archduke and Royal Prince joins the Order, who is elected " Coadjutor," and on the 
death of the Hoch-und Deutschmeister is formally elected his successor, the election having 
to be confirmed by the Sovereign. - The possessions of the Order form two bailliwicks : 
(1) that of Austria (in the strict sense of the term), and (2), that " on the river Thees 
(Etsch) and in the mountains." The bailliwicks are presided over by Provincial Com- 
manders (Landcomthure) or Governors (Statthalter) . 

The members of the Order are composed of (1) Knights, (2) Ecclesiastics, 
including (a) priests and (6) nuns. Originally, apart from the ecclesiastics, there were 
only professed knights, i.e., full members of the Order who had taken the vows. It was 
not until modern times that the dignity of honorary. knights was created. To return to 
the professed knights, they again include the following classes : — 

(1) First in rank are the Grand Capitularies (Gross-capitulare), four to six 

in number, who correspond in rank to the Knights Grand Cross of 
other Orders. Next to them comes 

(2) One Grand Commander or Preceptor (Grosscomthur) , which dignity was 

re-established in the year 1872. He is the Adlatus of the Grand 
Master. 

(8) The two Provincial Commanders or Governors of the two Bailliwicks. 







Templaria et ffospitallaria. Jgg 

(4) The Commander of Council (Rathsgeb-ietiger) of the Great and German 

Mastership. 

(5) The Commanders of Council of the two Bailliwicks. 

(6) The Hospitaller {Spittler). 

(7) About 16 commanders, and 

(8) The simple professed knights. 

It should be mentioned that several of the above dignities may be held by one and the 
same person, thus a Grand Capitulary or the Commander of Council may also hold 
some special Commanderies, and enjoy the revenue thereof. 

Aspirants desirous of joining the Order as professed knights are subject to a 
noviciate of one year, at the end of which they may take the vows and be dubbed 
professed knights. No one is admitted to the noviciate of the Order until he has 
produced full proofs of ancestry in sixteen quarteriugs. These are most rigorously 
examined, and only approved if found strictly in order. Besides descent, certain personal 
qualities are required in the candidate, which I will not now enumerate, as they will be 
referred to again in connection with the rituals. In former times all the sixteen 
ancestors and their families were to be of German blood. Now this is only necessary 
with the male chief lineage of the paternal family. Hence it follows that noblemen 
not belonging to the German nobility are absolutely excluded from full membership. 
Candidates must also be members of the Roman Catholic Church, and after expiration 
of the year of noviciate they obtain the four lesser ecclesiastical consecrations, prior to 
their being admitted to the vows, namely, the three Monastic vows of chastity (celibacy) 
poverty and obedience, and the knightly vows. Accordingly the professed knights 
must remain life-long bachelors. In former times the professed knights took the so- 
called solemn vows from which as a rule no dispensation was granted, though there were 
some few exceptions when professed knights, even Great Masters, were dispensed from 
their vows, and were permitted to return to the world and to marry. It was due to the 
efforts of the Hoch-und Deutschmeister, Archduke William (1863-1894) that a papal 
brieve was issued in 1886, by virtue of which the knights of the Order thenceforth are 
only to take the simple vows from which they can easily be dispensed by the Pope on 
application, the solemn vows no longer being required. For all that the knights are 
still styled " professed knights," and they are allowed to retain such titles of nobility as 
they held before joining the Order. 

For the sake of comparison I may state this is not so with the Roman Catholic 
Order of St. John or Knights of Malta. There the candidates when admitted to the 
Order first take the simple vows, and are called Knights of Justice, retaining their 
secular titles of nobility. Tor instance, " Guido, Count of Thun and Hohenstein, Knight 
of Justice of the Order of Malta." These simple vows are renewed by the Knight of 
Justice for ten years on the anniversaries of his first taking them. During these ten 
years he may apply for dispensation, and on obtaining it may return to the world and 
marry. If on the contrary, after the expiration of the ten years he decides to remain a 
member of the Order, he at the tenth anniversary takes the solemn vows, binding him- 
self to the Order until death. It is only then that he is called " professed knight." 
He then drops his inherited secular title of nobility, obtaining in its stead the 
honourable prefix, "frater" (/to. /to.). Thus the above-named knight would, as a 
professed knight, be styled " Fra. Guido von Thun und Hohenstein," followed by any 
rank held in the Order. One sees the difference in this respect between the Teutonic 
and the Roman Catholic Maltese Knights, 







170 Transactions of the Quatuor Ooronati Lodge. 

It is worthy of remark that it is even now a rule that the details of the statutes 
and all matters referring to the internal affairs of the Order are strictly to be kept 
secret by the members. This was so formerly also with the rituals of Reception and 
other ceremonies, usages and customs of the Order. The Receptions were held in the 
presence of the professed knights and priests of the Order, all other persons being 
excluded. It was likewise due to the Archduke William that an alteration took place 
in this respect. Since the second half of the nineteenth century the Reception of 
candidates, as well as the Enthronement of a Great Master, are no longer performed in 
secret, but may be witnessed by outsiders, such as the relatives and friends of the 
candidates and other invited distinguished guests. This is important for every friend 
and student of chivalric and Templar matters, whose gratitude is certainly due to the 
late Prince for his action, because it is my conviction that the Teutonic ritual of Recep- 
tion, which was thus made known to the outside world only about forty years ago, 
forms a full justification for our Templar ritual, as I hope to prove later on. 

The Archduke William was in many respects a great reformer of the Order, and 
in consequence of his efforts the Austrian Order greatly increased in public esteem and 
importance. I omit full explanation of the very useful reforms initiated by his Imperial 
and Royal Highness with regard to the Sanitary service of the Order and other notable 
charities, as they are not connected with the present subject, but I feel compelled to 
refer to them briefly. Another innovation was effected by the Archduke in 1865, when 
the hitherto unknown grade of Honorary Knight of the Teutonic Order was created. 
The candidates are subject to the same proofs of ancestry as the professed knights, 
and the paternal family must belong to the German nobility. They must also' be 
and remain Roman Catholics, otherwise they forfeit their membership as honorary 
knights. They are, however, secular persons, and may marry, but they have no votes 
nor any effective rights in the government of the Order. They pay a very high fee of 
honour and also annual fees towards the hospital fund. They obtain also a diploma, 
signed by the Hoch-und Deutschmeister, and have the right of wearing a special cross 
and a special uniform, but not the cross of profession, nor the full medieval robes of the 
Order, which include the white mantle with the black cross. 

Still another innovation took place in 1871. The Archduke wished to gather 
together persons belonging to the Austrian and Hungarian nobility, both male and 
female, in order to make them take part in the voluntary sanitary service of the Order 
in case of war, and with a view to this end, a special institution was called into being 
styled " Marians " (Marianer). In ancient times this appellation was synonymous with 
that of a professed knight of the Teutonic Order, but of course this does not now hold 
good. These members have only to prove nobility (Austrian or Hungarian) and in 
exceptional cases noble person of foreign states are likewise eligible. No proofs of 
ancestry are required, thus, persons who have been nobilitated are able to get the 
Cross. Originally they were to be Roman Catholics but in 1880 it was enacted that 
nobles (ladies and gentlemen) belonging to any Christian confession could be admitted. 
They have to pay a moderate annual fee towards the hospital fund, and foreigners are 
called upon to pay a fee of honour at their admission. They wear a special cross which 
will be described later. It must be particularly noted that these •' Marians " are not 
knights nor members of the Teutonic Order. They are simple " possessors of the Cross 
of St. Mary of the Teutonic Order," in other words they possess a decoration which the 
Great Master of the Teutonic Order is entitled to bestow. They form a special institu- 
tion or body which is connected with the Teutonic Order only through the person of the 
Great Master, who is chief of both bodies. 










Templaria et Hospitallaria. 



171 



So much for the organization of the reconstructed Austrian branch of the 
Teutonic Order, as at present existing. I have already spoken of the Protestant branch 
or Bailliwick of Utrecht, which is in existence in the Netherlands. 

A cursory review of the facts just pointed out makes it obvious how widely the 
organisation of the Austrian branch differs from that of the ancient Order of Teutonic 
knights. It is desirable to state this fact because it seems to meet one argument which 
is often brought forward by opponents of the British Orders of the Temple and Hospital 
with regard to the vexed question of their continuity. Some say, if the present British 
Orders were the lineal decendants of the old Orders of the Temple and Hospital of St. 
John, they must needs have retained their organization and even their terminology, in 
every point. As this is not the case or is only partly so, the inference may be drawn 
that they are not descended from the old Orders and that there. is not any connection 
between the old Orders and the new. Now by the Austrian branch of the Teutonic 
Order, an instance is given of an Order which at all events is linked in some degree 
with the old Teutonic Order, which indeed claims to be an actual continuation thereof, 
and is desirous of maintaining as far as possible all points and particulars which may 
connect it with the old Order. It has notwithstanding been obliged to alter very many 
points of the old organisation, this being the natural result of altered circumstances, 
because every institution which is not absolutely petrified and dead, but is still a living 
organism, is subject to constant development and evolution. The same may be noticed 
in the Roman Catholic Order of Malta, the present organisation of which also differs in 
many points from that of the old Order. And this rule may likewise be applied to the 
British Orders of the Temple and Hospital when comparing or connecting them with 
the two great mediaeval Orders of the same names, quite apart from other very important 
matters. 

I will now give a short description of the different crosses and of the clothing as 
now used by the Austrian branch of the Teutonic Knights. The fundamental type 
of the distinctive cross of the Teutonic Order was always a black cross 
pattee, the lower limb being generally somewhat longer than the other 
three. In ancient times this point however was not always strictly 
observed, but with the present Austrian branch the use of this form 
is strictly enforced, and all crosses are so shaped. The chief rules are 
the following. All professed members of the Order (knights and priests) 
)£ whatever additional rank, are to wear two crosses, viz. ; 

(1) The cross of profession or breast-cross. It is worn on the left breast 

without any ring or ribbon, being attached by a pin at the back. It 
is the distinctive badge of a professed member of the Order. The 
cross of profession is of an ancient pattern. It is a very broad cross 
enamelled black, with a broad silver bordure with a simple engraved 
ornamentation, beaded edges on the inner and outer sides. 

(2) The neck-cross, worn round the neck on a black watered silk ribbon. 

It is likewise a cross pattee with the lower limb prolonged, but it is 
somewhat smaller and of much more slender, modern, and elegant 
shape than the old-fashioned breast-cross. The neck-cross is also 
enamelled black, but has a narrow white enamelled bordure, the same 
being edged with gold on the inner and outer sides. On the upper 
branch or arm of the cross is placed (in the case of the knight) a 
knight's helmet, enamelled blue, garnished with gold, lined red, with 




m 



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a vizor of seven golden bars, and adorned with a golden chain going 
round the neck, with a golden cross suspended therefrom. The top 
of the helmet is surmounted by a plume of five ostrich feathers, two 
black between three white (all edged and quilled or). The middle 
feather has a small golden ring attached to it, through which passes 
another bigger flat ring in the form of a snake by means of which the 
cross is suspended to the black ribbon which is drawn together in 
front by a moveable, coulant (gold) shewing a panoply or trophy, in 
embossed work. 
The neck-crosses of the Grand Capitularies (grand crosses) differ only in size 
from those of the commanders and knights. The honorary knights are entitled to wear 
the same neck-cross as the professed knights, but without the golden coulant, and they 
are not permitted to wear the cross of profession, nor the full costume of the professed 
knights, which includes the white mantle with a black cross. The neck-cross of the 
priests is the same as that of the knights, except that an urn takes the place of the 
helmet. The urn is striped obliquely or bendways by crooked lines in seven stripes, 
black and white, edged gold. To the urn are attached the two rings by which the 
cross is suspended from three black silk cords or strings (instead of the ribbon as worn 
by the knights) which are fastened around the neck. The nuns of the Order have a 
similar but smaller cross, without the urn, suspended round the neck by one black silk 
cord only. The priests wear the breast-cross also, but the nuns only wear the neck- 
cross. The cross of St. Mary, which is worn by the humble Marians, is a very much 
smaller silver Teutonic cross of the same form, enamelled black, with a narrow border 
enamelled white, edged silver. The centre of the cross is occupied by a circular disc, 
in white enamel, shewing an equilateral cross patent in red enamel. The disc is 
surrounded by a black silver-edged border, with the words in silver " OKDO TEUT. 
HUMANTTATI." On the reverse is a similar black-bordered white disc, with the date 
of foundation in black, 1871. On the upper arm of the cross are two silver rings by 
which it is attached to a silk ribbon, edged white and black, the centre of the ribbon 
being ribbed white and black perpendicularly to the edges. The ribbon is ••folded " en 
sautoir," or rather in a triangular shape, and the cross is worn on the left breast. 
A special distinction is the neck-cross of St. Mary, which is attached to a ribbon of 
similar pattern. This neck-cross is somewhat larger, and the ribbon rather wider. It 
will be noted that in the case of the cross of St. Mary, which is a separate institution, 
the possessor not being a member of the chivalric Teutonic Order, a ribbon of special 
pattern is used, and not the usual black of the Teutonic Order. 

The Hoch-und Deutschmeister and his Coadjutor also wear two crosses, i.e., breast- 
cross and neck-cross, but they are both of a special design and also larger than those of 
the other knights. The breast-cross has a silver border like that of the knights, but 
in this case it is richly ornamented with sprigs of laurel. The four limbs of the cross, 
which are black enamelled and very broad, are charged with a rich gold cross, adorned 
at the points with gold fleur-de-lis. The centre of the cross is occupied by 
an escutcheon, in the shape of the so-called French shield, pointed at the 
bottom, or, with the single-headed old German Imperial eagle displayed, 
and crowned, sable (claws empty). As in the case of the breast-cross of 
the knights, this has neither ring nor ribbon, but is attached to the left 
breast by a pin at back. The neck-cross of the Great and German Master is 
somewhat smaller than the breast-cross, but larger than the neck-crosses of the other 
knights. It is slender and elegant in shape, black-enamelled with a white-enamelled 









Templaria et Hospitallaria. 



173 




ahN 



border, on both sides edged gold. The four arms are charged with a simple gold cross 
flory, and in the centre is a small escutcheon shaped like the so-called 
Spanish shield, with semi-circular bottom, and the eagle un-crowned. It is 
noteworthy that the whole style of neck-cross and its parts entirely differs 
from that of the breast-cross. The Great Master's neck-cross, moreover, 
has neither a helmet nor an urn, but only a round black knob with gold 
arabesques, surmounted by a black ring, to which is attached an oblong flat 
ring through which goes the black watered silk ribbon, without the coulant which is 
worn by the professed knights. 

As for the costume, which underwent slight alterations in nearly every decade, it 
consisted, and still consists, chiefly of the following pieces :— A short tunic, formerly 
white, with a large black cross pattee in front reaching to the girdle. White 
tights. High top-boots with gold or silver spurs. Round the waist the 
tunic is girdled by the black sword-belt. The sword, with silver mount- 
ings, is of the form called " Teutonic sword, i.e., a cross-hilted straight 
blade with the. guards bent downwards in nearly semi-circular shape, the 
points of the silver guards ending in fleur-de-lys. The black hilt is 
adorned with a small silver Teutonic cross pattee having the long lower 
limb. The sheath is black, with upper band and foot of silver. More 
recently, however, the stately white tunic and tights have been replaced 
by a tunic and knee-breeches of black velvet. The most essential part 
of the costume of the professed knights is, of course, the long white mantle, 
with the large black Teutonic cross pattee on the left side. The knights 
wear black gloves with cuffs and black broad-brimmed hats trimmed with 
silver, and adorned with a black and a white ostrich feather. This is the 
full costume of the Order worn by the professed knights on festival 
occasions of the Order. Besides that they have a uniform of modern fashion, for, say, 
court occasions, and the like. It consists chiefly of white pantaloons, and a white 
tunic with black velvet facings, trimmed with silver. A plumed chapeau and a modern 
(straight) sword. 

A similar uniform is permitted for the honorary knights also, but they are not 
entitled to wear the full costume of the Order, and they are especially debarred from 
wearing the white mantle with the black cross, this being the especial privilege of the 
professed members. The priests of the Teutonic Order wear the usual black cassock of 
the Roman Catholic secular priests (they not being monks), but on festival occasions 
they wear the black-crossed white mantle over it. 

The costume of the Hoch-und Beutschmeister is much the same as that of the 
professed knights. His tunic, however, is made of white silk, with a large black cross 
pattee reaching from neck to girdle in the whole length and breadth of breast. Both 
this cross and that of the mantle are richly embroided in gold, with the cross flory and 
the escutcheon, or, with the eagle, sable. In these simple but stately costumes the 
knights, as they appear on solemn occasions, headed by the august Hoch-und 
Deutschmeister, present a very good and digniEed appearance, well worthy of the great 
historic past of the Order.' 

. As the above regulations of the Teutonic Order bear much resemblance to the 
Roman Catholic Order of St. John (Knights of Malta), I will give a short account of 
these also. This is the more advisable as I am now writing not only on the Order of 
the Temple but also on that of the Hospital of St. John of Jerusalem, and I therefore 
desire to avail myself of every opportunity which may present itself for adding 




174 Transactions of the Quatuor Coronati Lodge. 

information on the Order of St. John. Those of my readers who are interested in the 
present organization of the Roman Catholic Order of Malta, will doubtless remember a 
short article of mine in A.Q.O., vol. xiv., pp. 168-171, and I am anxious to supplement 
this with the following particulars. 

• I must premise that within the Roman Catholic Order of St. John of Jerusalem 
(otherwise called Knights of Malta) there are the following gradations of rank :— The 
Grand Master, now residing at Rome ; the Grand Priors, chiefs of the four Grand 
Priories, still in existence, viz., three in Italy (Rome, Naples and Venice), and one the 
Great Priory of Bohemia and Austria with head quarters at Prague. Besides the 
Grand Priories there are associations of Knights in different parts of the continent 
headed by simple presidents. Next come the " Venerable Baillis " or " Grand Crosses." 
The Grand Master and Grand Priors must first have been appointed Baillis, and they 
retain the title of Bailli even after having been elected to the post of Grand Master or 
Grand Prior. Then come the " Honorary Baillis and Grand Crosses," and the " Ladies 
of Honorary Grand Cross " (Baillis et grands croix d'honneur et devotion, et dames grands 
croix, etc.) who, however, are not full members of the Order. Then follow Commanders, 
the Professed Knights, the Knights of Justice, the Honorary Knights (chevaliers 
d'honneur et de devotion), Ladies of Devotion, the Knights of Grace, the Donates of the 
Order who are again (1) Donates of Justice or of first class, and (2) Donates of Honour 
or of second class. A special class comprises Priests of the Order. 

The fundamental type of the different crosses used in the Order is of course the 
eight-pointed cross of Malta. And, as in the Teutonic Order, here also the chief rule is 
that professed members of the Order (knights and priests) are to wear the cross of 
profession on the left breast. This cross is an eight-pointed white cross of Malta, two 
inches in diameter without any other addition. It is uncrowned and the angles are 
empty. Originally the cross of profession was (and in some Grand Priories is even 
now) made of fine white linen, and is sewn on the coat of the member, whether on the 
habit of the Order (tunic of knight or cassock of priest), or on whatever kind of uniform, 
military or civilian, the person may be entitled to wear. Civilians even wear it on 
evening dress. Of late it has become customary, especially in some Great Priories to 
have the cross of profession (like the other crosses which we shall refer to at once) 
made of gold, white-enamelled, edged gold. But in this case it is a simple Maltese 
cross without any other ornamentation, and is worn without ring or ribbon, being 
attached to the breast by means of a pin at back. The priests of the Order always 
wear the linen cross on the left breast of their black cassocks. 

Besides this cross, the Professed Knights wear a neck-cross which is also an 
eight-pointed Maltese cross two inches in diameter, but is always of gold, enamelled in 
white, and edged with gold. Moreover, it is surmounted by a crown of highly 
ornamented form, but too large, and out of all proportion to the cross. The four angles 
are always adorned with a heraldic device, which in the case of the three Italian Grand 
Priories consists of the French fleur-de-lis, and in the case of the Grand Priory of 
Bohemia and Austria of the double-headed Austrian Imperial eagle, displayed, gold. 
This, however, differs from the usual Imperial eagle by having the claws empty and 
the two heads crowned, with one closed crown. In the case of the Professed Knights, 
the crown of the neck-cross is surmounted by a coulant in the form of a panoply con- 
sisting of a breastplate (with a tiny Maltese cross on the left breast), a barred and 
crowned helmet adorned with a plume of three feathers, a sword, spears, halberds, 
banners, quivers of arrows, etc., all in gold. By means of this coulant the neck-cross is 
attached to the black watered silk ribbon, by which it is worn round the neck. The 







Templaria et Hospitaltaria, 175 

Knights of Justice and also the Honorary Knights wear the same cross, but of course 
not the white cross of profession. To the panoply may be added " the distinction of 
Jerusalem," i.e., a small escutcheon of red enamel, with a plain cross in white enamel, 
these being the original arms of the Order of St. John when in the Holy Land. This 
small shield means a tax of 500 florins to be paid by the wearer towards the Hospital 
fund of the Order. In the case of the Knights of Grace, possessors of the ecclesiastical 
cross (which is granted to some of the priests), Donates of Justice, and Ladies of 
Honour and Devotion, the panoply is omitted and its place is taken by a bow of gold 
ribbon with the pointed ends falling downwards. The distinction of Jerusalem, how- 
ever, may be added if the wearer is willing to pay the tax or fee of honour. The 
neck-crosses of the Commanders, Professed Knights, Knights of Justice, Honour and 
Grace, the ecclesiastical cross, and that of Donates of Justice, are of the same dimensions 
and have the same ornamentation. The cross of the Ladies of Honour and Devotion 
is somewhat smaller (one inch and a half), and is worn attached to a bow of black 
silk ribbon above the left breast, and that of the Donates of second class or Honorary 
Donates is of about the same dimensions. It has the crown and the four eagles in the. 
corners, but is carried by a small ring from a black ribbon, en sautoir on left breast. 

On the other hand, the neck-cross of the Baillis (Grand Crosses) is larger in size 
than those of the professed Knights and other members, measuring two inches and a, 
half in diameter, apart from the big crown and panoply which measure about three 
inches, as also in the case of the Knights. 

A few other points must also be noted. The Baillis (Grand Crosses) cover the 
ribbon of their neck-cross with another ribbon of black silk or cloth embroidered in 
gold with two sprigs of thorns entwined, in memory of the crown of thorns of Our, 
Lord. Besides the neck-cross and the breast-cross or cross of profession, the Baillis 
wear a sash or Grand Cordon of black silk from right shoulder to left hip, adorned at 
the bottom with another Maltese cross in linen. This is the third cross of the Baillis, 
The Ladies of the Grand Cross of Honour and Devotion, however, who do not wear the 
neckcross, wear the white enamelled Grand Cross pendant from the Grand Cordon. 
The priests who are in possession of the ecclesiastical cross wear it round the neck on a 
crimson watered silk ribbon. The Honorary Baillis and Grand Crosses who are not, 
Professed Knights wear the neck-cross of the Baillis and the Grand Cordon, but not 
the cross of profession. .This is quite logical, but now comes a very deplorable 
contradiction. Sovereigns and Princes of the Blood Royal, if decorated with the Grand 
Cross of Honour, are permitted to add to the neck-cross of Baillis and the Grand Cordon, 
the cross of profession also. This is illogical, as the cross of profession is the distinctive 
mark of a Professed Knight, not even the Knights of Justice being entitled to it until 
they attain the rank of Professed Knight, i.e., after ten years standing, and yet there 
are cases in which it is worn by Emperors, Kings and Princes who are not professed 
members of the Order. It must be remarked also that all the crosses of 
Donates (first and second classes) have only the side branches and the lower 
branch of white enamel, the upper branch being of polished gold. The 
•Donates of Justice or first class wear a neck-cross of this kind, and they 
are also permitted to wear a breast-cross (with a pin) of three limbs only, 
•the upper one being absent altogether. This kind of breast-cross may 
be worn also by such Knights of Grace who have been Donates of Justice 
and have been promoted to the rank of Knights of Grace. The Donates 
of the second class wear only the small cross described above on the ribbon 
en sautoir, They do not wear either a neck-cross, 'or strictly speaking, 





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1?6 



Transactions of the Quatuor Coronali Lodge. 




IL 



evea a breasfc-oross. With reference to the very strange mutilated breast 
cross of the Donates of Justice, consisting of three limbs only, which may 
be described as a Maltese Tan Cross, and is not allowed to be worn 
in the shape of the figure which in French Heraldry is called a "pairle," 
I beg to mention that just the reverse took place with the half-brethren 
of the Teutonic Order of older times, who were permitted to wear a half 
black cross on the white tunic, but here the lower limb was missing so that 
1 the cross had exactly tbe shape of what we Masonically call a level. 
The Roman Catholic Knights of Malta wear a uniform of modern pattern, 
consisting of white pantaloons, a red tunic with facings of black velvet and trimmed 
with gold, and with gold epaulettes and gold buttons (with Maltese crosses), a short 
straight sword and a chapeau with plumes. The full costume of the Order as worn by 
the Professed Knights consists of white tights and high boots with gold spurs, an old- 
fashioned red tunic (sopraveste) which formerly, (even as late as the seventies), was 
adorned with a plain white cross extending from collar to girdle. According to a later 
regulation it is adorned with the eight-pointed white cross of Malta. Above it is worn 
the long black velvet mantle with a large eight-pointed Maltese cross in white satin on 
the left shoulder. Cross-hilted swords with gilt mountings (with a small white 
enamelled Maltese cross on the hilt), black broad-brimmed hat, trimmed gold, with 
black and white ostrich feathers, white gloves. 

A few words on the Heraldry of the Order. In earlier times the Professed 
Knights quartered their arms with the arms of the Order, that is to say, the first and 
fourth field of the quartered arms contained the arms of the Order, gules, a plain cross 
argent, the second and third field containing the family arms of the knight. Later on 
the eight-pointed Cross of Malta was charged with the arms of the family, and the 
whole was some-times surrounded by a rosary with a small Maltese cross pendant ; the 
motto of the Order was, and still is, " Pro fide." 1 This achievement, viz., the Cross of 
Malta charged with the arms of a family, is now used by the Knights of 
Justice and Honorary Knights. Again, later on, it became customary for the Professed 
Knights to assume in the shield of their family arms : — a chief, gules, with a plain cross, 
argent. This is even at the present time the distinctive mark of a Professed Knight of 
Malta. The large cross of Malta charged with the family arms borne by them as 
Knights of Ju*tice is retained, only the shield is now differenced by the chief-. The 
whole may be surrounded by the ribbon and cross of the Order. 

In a similar manner the Teutonic Knights quartered their arms, the first and 
forth field being argent, with a plain cross, sable ; the second and third the family arms. 
The Hoch-und Deutschmeister quartered his arms with the full adorned cross (with cross 
fiory and escutcheon with eagle), then again in the first and fourth field, argent, appeared 
the simple plain cross, sable ; in the second and third the family arms. Sometimes a 
large Hoch-und Deutschmeister' s cross was charged with the arms of the family. All this 
however is no longer in use. The Hoch-und Deutschmeister now simply charges his 
family shield with the cross of the Hoch-und Deutschmeister. The shield is surmounted 
by a helmet and the whole is placed beneath a cloak purple, doubled ermine and sur- 
mounted by a princely crown. 

After this digression I return to our chief subject, and will give an account of 
the Rituals of the Teutonic Order, as now practiced by the Austrian branch. They are 
unquestionably of ancient origin, It may be conceded that they were not originally, 

1 Compare the heraldry of the French Ordre du Temple. 







Temptaria et Sospitaltaria. 177 

and not always, what they are at present, being undoubtedly the result of a long course 
of evolution. It would be extremely difficult if not altogether impossible to state at 
what time they took the present definite form. Most probably the original was a some- 
what simple ceremony which developed more and more as time went on. It may be 
conceded also that in long course of time not only additions, but alterations, and later on 
omissions were made. It is highly probable they contained in former periods a great 
deal of esoteric matter, but when the true meaning thereof was no longer intelligible to 
the then living generations, they were either omitted or modified according to the ideas 
and notions of the reformers of those later days. 

But even as they appear to-day they are a most precious and valuable relic of 
ancient times, a highly interesting specimen of a true mediaeval esoteric ritual. Portions 
are no doubt of very great antiquity, and the whole is therefore of great interest to 
every student of the history of the civilisation of the middle ages. The fact must not 
be lost sight of that for centuries the rituals were strictly kept secret from all outsiders 
and in this manner have been handed down from a very early period to the present day. 
It was only in the second half of the nineteenth century that the secret was unveiled to 
the eyes of the public. And here arises the question, whether previous to their beino- 
made public, portions of doubtful or uncertain esoteric meaning were not again omitted 
and abolished. Even in their present shape they still contain a great deal of esoteric 
matter intelligible to and valuable for the initiated as well as for the student, especially 
for him who seeks to know about mediasval ritual and symbolism. Therefore they are 
of paramount importance for every knight of the Temple and student of Templar 
matters. It is possible that the esoteric portions still preserved were not abolished, 
either out of piety or because their esoteric nature and original meaning was not 
suspected. • 

Analogies may be cited from many other sides. It is well known to every expert 
in such matters that we owe the preservation of esoteric rituals in general just to such 
facts. If the true explanation of certain ceremonies was lost, another one was invented, 
but the ceremonies as a whole were maintained, faithfully handed down, and thus 
preserved from oblivion. As for the Teutonic Order it will be remembered that the 
veil which covered the rituals was removed, but this was only an exception to the general 
rule prevailing in the Order even now, that all matters referring to the Order are to be 
most strictly kept secret from every one not belonging to the Order. Thus the statutes 
and usages, and the archives of the Order may still contain treasures of an esoteric 
nature. 

In the following I shall give first a description of the ritual of Initiation or 
Reception into the Order, also a short account of the ceremony of Enthronement of the 
Great and German Master, and afterwards make some remarks on certain portions of 
the ritual. Finally, I shall draw inferences therefrom with regard to Templarism in 
genera], and to some open questions in the field of the investigation of Templar matters 
in particular. 

THE RITUALS OF THE TEUTONIC ORDER. 

The applicant for the dignity of knighthood of the Teutonic Order who must be 
of full age (i.e., 24 years according to Continental ideas) has to produce proofs of 
ancestry (16 quarterings), which are most rigorously examined, and if found correct in 
all points are approved of and confirmed. Two noblemen of high standing, the sponsors 
of the applicant, must declare their willingness to take an oath oh (or swear to) the 
correctness of the proofs of ancestry in the presence of the Great and German Master 






178 Transactions of the Quaiuor Goronati Lodge. 

and Chapter, They are, therefore, called the " swearers " (die Aufschworer) . A strict 
inquiry is instituted into the character and personal qualities of the applicant, which 
having proved satisfactory, he is admitted to the noviciate. After the expiration of the 
regular term of one year of the noviciate the day is fixed for his solemn reception into 
the Order as a Professed Knight. Prior to that, the Novice receives the four lesser 
ecclesiastical Orders (Ordines minores) . 

The Initiation takes place at a solemn Chapter of Reception (BeceptionscapiteT), 
generally held at the Teutonic House at Vienna. It consists of two distinct parts, the 
first of which the " profession " takes place in the Chapter House ; the second in the 
Chapel of the Order, the latter again comprising two portions, the "accolade, or 
dubbing," and the " consecration." 

A sufficient time before the hour appointed the candidate appears in the anteroom 
of the Chapter House, wearing a black costume of old pattern, ' doublet and knee- 
breeches (black velvet) stockings (black silk), shoes with silver buckles, a short mantle 
or cape round the shoulders, a suitable cap. or buret on his head, but without sword or 
cross. He is accompanied by his two sponsors or swearers, and by two esquires. Then 
the Priests and Professed Knights, all in full costumes of the Order, the Honorary 
Knights in their uniforms, and a number of carefully selected and specially invited 
distinguished visitors, among them the next relations of the Candidate. Lastly, the 
officials of the Order and the domestics of the Great and German Master. Finally 
arrives the Great and German Master himself, wearing the full costume of his exalted 
position, and he is accompanied to the Chapter House by the professed members. 
Here he assumes the throne, the others their stalls. Then at the command of the Master 
the other assembled personages are admitted and take their respective places. This 
being done all rise, and the Master opens the Chapter of Reception. First of all seven 
Paternosters and seven Ave Marias are repeated for receiving the seven gifts of the Holy 
Ghost. Next, the Master calls on the officiating priest, saying, " Since according to 
laudable usage, an exhortation is to be given at the beginning of the Chapter, therefore 
you, Priest of the Order, will perform it." 1 The exhortation being finished, the two 
Sponsors or Swearers lay the confirmed proof of ancestry upon the table of the Chapter 
and then conduct the candidate to the foot of the throne and say, " Most Reverend and 
Most Serene Lord Great and German Master, and Reverend Chapter. We, the 
Swearers of the Candidate for Knighthood here present do hereby hand over the proof 
of ancestry, graciously approved, and declare ourselves to be willing and ready to 
confirm the correctness thereof with oath and knightly word (or to swear to the correct- 
ness thereof) according to the usage of the Order." Then they pray " The Lord Great 
and German Master and the Reverend Chapter they may most graciously and graciously 
be pleased to receive into the knightly Teutonic Order the Candidate here present, his 
time of probation being just completed, and to give him the accolade according to ancient 
laudable usage, for which highest favour the same shall not fail to prove all dutiful 
fidelity and obedience to the Lord Great and German Master and the High Order, all 
his life long." 

The Great Master replies that he will consider the request and communicate the 
result, whereon the Candidate and his swearers leave the Chapter House. Then the 
Master demands of the knights whether it is their desire that the Candidate be received. 
The knights having given their assent, the Candidate and his swearers are readmitted, 

'I must mention that the Rituals are couched in quaint old German language, which 
it is difficult to translate adequately. I shall try to do so as well as I can. 




Templaria et Hospitallaria. 



179 



and the former is placed in front of the Great Master, who addresses him in these terms : 
" Well beloved friend, since the Sir Capitularies and brethren of the Order here 
assembled have with me considered your ancient noble descent, entitled to tournament, 
and your .good qualities; Now therefore your reception into our laudable chivalric 
Teutonic Order of the Hospital of our dear Lady at Jerusalem has been resolved upon 
m Chapter. {Capitular iter). But you must first answer several questions I shall put 
to you." Then he proceeds, "He who is desirous to be admitted into the Teutonic 
Order is to be lawfully born of ancient noble chivalric stock, and is to prove this descent 
with eight ancestors from the father and eight from the mother, all being of German 
blood, and thus, he is to be a true Knight Companion. He must be of sound limbs and 
free from disease, nor is he to be in military or state service of any foreign country. 
He must have reached his twenty-fourth year, but not have passed his fiftieth. He is 
not to be involved in debts, nor bound to render any heavy account. He must bring 
with him into the Order a fully equipped charger and a complete set of armour. 
His previous life must be without stain. He must not have dangerous enemies. He 
must remain within the Order until the end of his life. He shall defend the property and 
rights of the Order. He shall observe the strictest and most unconditional secrecy in 
all matters relating to the Order. He shall help the sick and distressed, and shelter 
widows, orphans and maidens." The Master demands of the Candidate whether he is 
able and willing to fulfil and to conform to these requisites. On the satisfactory reply 
of the Candidate, the Master rejoins that his reception is about to be effected, but 
previously the Candidate must once more in the presence of the Knights in Chapter 
assembled pray for his admission. Whereupon the Candidate kneels on both knees at 
the .table of the Chapter, and says, "Most Reverend and Most Serene Lord Great and 
German Master, Right Honourable and Honourable gracious sirs, for the sake of God 
and Mary His Holy Mother, and for the sake of the Salvation of my own Soul, I pray 
and beseech you to receive me into the laudable Teutonic Chivalric Order." The 
Great Master replies, " Tour request is granted but the Order promises you nothing 
but bread and water and poor clothing. Should you obtain anything better you will 
thank for it God, St. Mary, and the laudable Order." 

Then the two Sponsors advance to the Throne, and one after the other joins hands 
with the Great Master, saying, " I, .... do swear that it is not otherwise known 
to me than that the Candidate for knighthood who is now about to be received into the 
Teutonic Order is really the same as the world knows him to be, and that he is of 
ancient noble chivalric descent, entitled to tournament, and that hence he is a worthy 
Knight Companion and of German blood. So help me God and all his saints (So may 
God be gracious to me)." Both having thns taken the oath, they lay down upon the 
table the Reversalia, the receipts for the statutory fees (statutaria) , and two black velvet 
moneybags containing gold coins as the equivalent of the price of the charger and 
armour. Then they step back. 

Now the Candidate kneels down and takes his profession, repeating the words 
after the Great Master. " I, . . . . promise and tow chastity of my body and 
celibacy, also to be without property, also obedience to God, St. Mary, and you Master 
of the Order of the Teutonic House, and your successors, according to the rules and 
customs of the Teutonic House and Hospital at Jerusalem, and that I shall be so 
obedient until my death. That I shall help the sick and distressed, that I shall shelter 
widows, orphans and maidens. Amen." This closes the Chapter House part of the 
Ceremony, but not the Chapter of Reception itself, which is continued in the Chapel 
and finally closed in the Chapter House. The Candidate having finished his profession, 



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180 Transactions of the Quatuor Coronati Lodge. 

a blast of trumpets sounds, and the procession is formed and proceeds along the corridors 
and staircases to the Chapel of the Order, which for the solemn occasion is 
splendidly illuminated and decorated with flowers, etc. The walls are draped with red 
velvet, on which are displayed in rows one beneath the other, brightly standing out 
against the red background, the shields of profession (Aufschwbrschilder) of tbe Professed 
Knights. Each shield shows on a gold ground the full coat of arms of its owner, 
blazoned in proper heraldic tinctures, and the name of the respective knight and the date 
of his profession and dubbing. The stalls of the knights are likewise covered with red 
velvet. In the sanctuary, on the Gospel side, the throne of the Great and German 
Master is erected on steps and overshadowed by a red velvet canopy. The throne faces 
the south wall, not the west. In front of the altar is a large black cloth or funeral pall 
stretched on the floor. 

The procession coming from the Chapter House is led by the servants of the 
Great Master clad in gala livery. They are followed by the Priests of the Order 
wearing black soutanes, and the white mantle of the Order with black cross. After 
them come the officials of the Teutonic House. Next come the Honorary and then the 
Professed Knights. Then follow the two Sponsors or Swearers. Behind them, and 
immediately before the Candidate, the two esquires, one of them bearing the shield of 
the Candidate covered with white and black veil, the other the sword and spurs of 
knighthood and the mantle and cross of the Order. Then comes the Candidate -walking 
alone, and finally the Great and German Master with his escort. The procession enters 
the Chapel to sounds of 'the organ and blasts of trumpets. All take their places, and 
the Great Master assumes his seat upon the throne. The cushions with the shield and 
other insignia are placed on the altar. The Candidate is conducted to the Sacristy, 
where he lays down his black shoulder mantle and changes his shoes for knightly boots, 
without spurs. Next he is clad from head to foot in his armour. The vizor of his 
helmet from which wave white and black ostrich feathers, is left half open. He wears 
no sword, but a rosary (paternoster) is put into his hand, and thus he is reconducted 
into the Chapel, where he takes up his position on the black pall in front of the altar. 
I should mention that the poor candidate has had no food during the day, because he 
has confessed and received absolution, and is about to take the Holy Communion. "All 
being thus arranged, the chanting of the Mass of the Holy Ghost commences. When 
the " Gloria " is repeated, the Candidate, who has meanwhile stood in front of the altar, 
occupied with his rosary, advances to the altar and offers a gold coin, then again 
resumes his place. When the Gospel is chanted the Great Master descends one step of 
the throne, covers his head and draws his sword. The knights leave their stalls, hats 
in hand, and form a semi-circle round the Candidate in front of the altar. Then they 
put on their hats and draw swords, which they hold with points upwards. The lecture 
of the Gospel being finished, the Master and Knights return swords, take off their hat s 
and resume their places. The same ceremony takes place at the Credo, when the 
Candidate offers a silver coin. 

At the Offertorium the officiating priest blesses the sword, spurs and other 
insignia which had been placed upon the altar, whereupon the senior sponsor receives 
the sword from the priest and buckles it upon the Candidate, and closes the vizor of the 
helmet. After that the hymn, " Veni Creator Spirit us," is intoned, and the knights 
again leave their stalls, gather round the Candidate in a semi-circle, cover their heads, 
draw swords, holding them with points upwards. Now the Great Master descends from 
his throne (wrch his, sword sheathed), approaches the Candidate, draws the Candidate's 
sword out of its scabbard, then with the naked sword in hand he bows before the altar, 




Templaria et Hospitallaria. 181 

and then gives the accolade (with the Candidate's sword), that is to say, two strokes 
upon his shoulders and the third upon his head, accompanying the action with these 
words, " To the Honour of God, St. Mary, and St. George." " Endure this one (stroke) 
but no more." " Better a Knight than an esquire." Then he gives the sword back to 
the Candidate, who sheaths it. Whereupon the junior sponsor receives the spurs, and 
buckles them on the newly-dubbed knight, and then re-opens the vizor. It will be noted 
that the Candidate stands erect before the Master while the accolade is given, though 
in former times it was customary for him to kneel. The Great Master and the Knights 
resume their places, the latter having sheathed their swords and bared their heads. 
This closes the ceremony of dubbing. The newly-created knight is reconducted to the 
Sacristy, where the armour is removed, and he is again dressed with the same black 
shoulder mantle, but retains his sword and spurs, and thus he returns to the Chapel, 
where he resumes his former post on the black cloth or funeral pall, with the rosary in 
his hands. What now follows is the ceremony of Consecration. Whilst the Mass is 
proceeded with, another invocation to the Holy Ghost is intoned, viz., the " Veni Sancti 
Spiritus." This finished, there follow some Responsoria. When the versicle " Emitte 
Spiritum tuum et creabuntur " and the response " Et renovabis faciem terrae " have been 
chanted, there follows the prayer to the Holy Ghost, beginning with the words " Beus qui 
corda fidelium sancti spiritus illustratione docuisti." At the beginning of the " Veni Sancte 
Spiritus" the newly-created knight kneels on both knees, and at the " Emitte " and the 
"Deus qui corda" he prostrates himself at full length upon the pall with both arms out- 
stretched, thus forming with his body the sign of the cross, and continuing in this 
significant position during the whole recitation of the subsequent Litany. This ended, 
he rises and advances to the altar, where he kneels on the lowest step. The small black 
mantle is taken from his shoulders, and the priest clothes him with the crossed white 
mantle of the Order, putting it round his neck and clasping it firmly. Then he adorns 
him with the crosses of the Order, and delivers an oration suitable to the occasion. 
Trumpets sound, and the mass is proceeded with. After the " Agnus dei," or rather at 
the subsequent Holy Communion, the new knight receives the Sacrament. Then he 
advances to the throne, kneels and does homage to the Great Master, kissing his hand. 
The Master raises him and kisses the new knight upon both cheeks. Then all the 
knights greet the new companion, each of them embracing him and kissing him, and 
being embraced and kissed in return. The mass being brought to a close, the procession 
is again formed, and leaves the chapel amidst the sound of trumpets. The procession 
returns to the Chapter House, where all resume their places. Then one Paternoster is 
repeated, and the Great Master closes the Chapter of Reception. At the subsequent 
banquet all appear in full costume, and the newly-created knight sits on the right of the 
Great Master. 

i So much for the ceremony of Reception. Less important but still interesting 
nevertheless are the ceremonies connected with the enthronement of the Great and 
German Master. I will, therefore, give a short account of them also, and add a few 
remarks on some other points of ritual. After the death of a Great Master he is 
solemnly buried. At the funeral service and burial the Professed Knights appear in full 
armour, their helmets being mounted by waving black and white plumes. During the 
service they surround the coffin with swords (reversed ?) The coffin is covered with a 
red velvet pall trimmed with silver. So far as I am aware this usage is observed with all 
Imperial Princes and Archdukes of Austria and Royal Princes of Hungary, though not in 
the case of the Sovereign. As, however, the Great Masters are always Princes of the 
Austrian house, this accounts for the above-mentioned custom, The coffin is adorned 



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182 Transactions 'of the Quatuor Coronati Lodge. 

with the arms of the deceased Great Master, as well as the insignia of his office. The 
service being ended the coffin is carried by Commanders of the Order to the funeral 
carriage, drawn by eight horses having plumes of black and white feathers on their 
heads. 

After the burial the Coadjutor summons the Chapter of Election in which the 
Grand Capitularies, the Provincial Masters and all Professed Knights and Priests are 
entitled to take part. The election, however, is merely formal, since by the compact 
between the Crown and the Order, now in force, the Great Master is always elected from 
the members of the ruling House. Generally, besides the Great Master himself, there 
is only one other Imperial and Royal Prince amongst the Professed Knights, who 
during the lifetime of the Great Master had been professed and then elected Coadjutor 
of the Great Master, and is looked upon as his successor. Thus generally the Chapter 
of Election has no choice, but necessarily elects the Coadjutor to be Great and German 
Master. It is, however, not impossible that at some future period more than one 
Imperial and Royal Prince might enter the Order, in which case a division might take 
place at the election. The result of election has to be submitted to the Sovereign for 
approval. When this is obtained the Great and German Master elect may be solemnly 
and duly enthroned, and thus have power to exercise the duties of his high office. It 
will be seen that the election is hardly more than an appointment by the Crown, and 
differs widely from the free election of the old Great and German Masters. If, however, 
the approval of the Sovereign should not be given for six subsequent months, the Order 
has the right to proceed to a new election, and, if my interpretation of the rule is 
correct, the newly elected Great Master could be enthroned forthwith. 

The solemn enthronement takes place according to old Ritual, the chief symbols 
of the dignity of Great Mastership which form a prominent part in the ceremony being 
the golden ring and the golden key of enthronement and the " Sigillum ad causas." The 
ceremony is as follows. All those who are entitled to be present at the Chapter of 
•enthronement, which includes the Honorary Knights and other persons who have no 
voice in the election, being assembled at the Teutonic House at Vienna, the Chapter is 
duly opened in the Chapter House, and after a statement has been made as to the object 
of the meeting, a procession is formed very similar to that described at the Reception 
Ceremony. The servants of the Great Master lead the way, then come the officials of the 
Order, the Honorary Knights, then follow the Professed Knights according to their 
rank, all in full costume of the Order. The youngest Professed Knight carries the 
golden ring of enthronement upon a black velvet cushion. The Commander of the 
Council of Great Mastership, who is generally at the same time a Grand Capitulary, 
bears upon a silver salver or dish, the golden key of enthronement, and the sigillum ad 
causae. Immediately in front of the Great Master elect walk the two Provincial 
Commanders and the Grand Commander or Preceptor. The procession passes along the 
corridors and staircases to the chapel, which is festively illumined and adorned as at the 
Reception of a Knight. In front of the altar there is a footstool. At the Gospel side 
the throne is erected, with a red velvet canopy. The walls of the Chapel and stalls of 
the Knights are likewise covered with red velvet. At the entrance to the Chapel the 
clergy of the Order await the arrival of the Great Master elect, and the officiating Prelate 
presents to him the Crucifix for kissing (Pax tecum), and the vessel with holy water for 
sprinkling. Trumpets and kettle-drums sound while the procession enters the chapel, 
and all take their places. The cushion with the ring is deposited at the altar. The Great 
Master elect kneels at the footstool in front of the altar, at his right being the Grand 
Commander, and at his left the Commander of Council with the key and seal. The 







Templaria et Hospitallaria. 183 

celebration of High Mass commences. After the Gospel the officiating Prelate delivers 
a Latin oration to the Great Master elect, blesses the ring which lie hands to the Grand 
Commander, who puts it on the finger of the Great Master elect amidst fanfares of 
trumpets. 

Then the Commander of the Council presents to the Great Master the golden key 
and the seal. The former he retains but the seal he only touches and gives back to the 
Commander of the Council. Then the Great Master, amidst blasts of trumpets is 
solemnly conducted to the throne and placed thereon. High Mass is continued. 
At the Gloria the Professed Knights and Priests according to their rank, all advance 
to the throne and do homage to the newly enthroned Great Master, kneeling 
and kissing his hand, and being embraced by him. At the Offertoriurn the Patene is 
presented to the Great Master who devoutly kisses it. After the High Mass the 
Te Deum is chanted, and then the procession amidst sounds of trumpets and kettle-drums 
again repairs to the Chapter House, where the Great Master who now wears the 
distinctive high hat of his new dignity assumes the throne and with head covered 
delivers a short speech, confirms the Grand Capitularies, the Commander of the Council 
and the officials of the Order in their respective offices, and receives again the homage of 
the Knights, whereupon the Chapter is. closed in the usual way. 

So much for the ritual. I admit my account is meagre, but it must be borne in 
mind that the Teutonic Order is to some extent even now an esoteric society, and it 
would be difficult and probably impossible to obtain full and minute details on all such 
matters of the Order, especially if one were to officially ask for them at headquarters. 
But I think the above description will suffice for the present, as it gives a good picture 
of the whole, but others may perhaps endeavour to obtain fuller particulars if they 
are anxious to have them. 

Before proceeding to offer my remarks on these rituals, I may perhaps be allowed 
to say that it is but natural for me to have given the above account of the Teutonic Order 
in my present essay, having Templarism in view. Especially so, particulars of the ritual. 
The remarks I am about to make will be from (1) a general esoteric point of view 
(comparing the Teutonic rituals with divers other esoteric rituals) as well as (2) from a 
strict Templar standpoint, comparing them with Templar rituals. Here again I will 
endeavour to distinguish between such points as are acknowledged to be mediaeval 
Templar Ritual, and the rituals of our United Orders of the Temple and Hospital in the 
United Kingdom and Canada. As for the former, i.e., the mediaeval Templar Ritual, I 
beg to refer my readers to the paper of Bro.E. J. Castle, K.C., in A.Q.O., vol. xv., p. 163, 
where the alleged old forms of reception into the Order of the Temple and of constituting 
a. Chapter were communicated. Nearly the same are contained in the account on 
Templars published in the anonymous work, " Secret Societies of the Middle Ages," 
1846. It is pretended by some scholars that these rituals are based upon information 
contained in old records and depositions of witnesses in the Templar proces, and that, 
therefore, they are the only authentic ceremonies of the old Knights Templar we 
possess. This may be so, and the portions communicated may be authentic, but even 
then- it does not follow that no other Templar ceremonies existed. I shall revert to 
this question on another occasion, and shall make some further remarks thereon. Here 
I only wish to say that in the following notes I shall, for the sake of brevity, refer to 
these rituals as the " alleged Old Templar rituals." As they have been printed several 
times, and are not matters of secrecy, references to them may be made in plain words, at 
full length, and without reserve. Of course I am not permitted to do the same with 
regard to our present Templar and Malta Rituals, which I believe to have come down- 




184 Transactions of the Quatuor Coronati Lodge. 

to us from very ancient times, as this would involve a violation of solemn obligations 
made in both the Orders of the Temple and Hospital. Therefore T shall say nothing 
about them, but I trust every Knight and Installed Preceptor of the Order of the 
Temple, and every Knight and Installed Prior of the Order of St. John of Jerusalem, 
Palestine, Rhodes and Malta will easily discern the analogies or identity of details 
occurring both in the Teutonic Rituals and in ours. I do not desire to over-value all 
the above particulars concerning the Teutonic Order, nor do I wish to draw exaggerated 
inferences therefrom, but I have been compelled to make these remarks in order to avoid 
the possible objections or exceptions of outsiders, that is those who are not Templars, 
who might be inclined to under-value my communications and perhaps say that I have 
not proved anything by them. I most willingly submit for discussion mj views and 
conclusions to any competent authority/but at the same time I wish to guard myself 
against possible incompetent and depreciative judgment. 

After this preamble I may begin by taking the reception ceremony. Particularly 
noteworthy is the black clothing of the candidate, afterwards exchanged for the white 
mantle of the Order. This is a common feature of a great many esoteric bodies, past 
and present. The candidate first appears in black or sombre raiment, which is 
emblematical of the spiritual darkness in which he has existed to that period, being 
afterwards awakened to spiritual light and illumination, and spiritual and moral re- 
birth, denoted by the white garment with which he is clothed when his initiation is 
ended. We meet with similar customs amongst the first Christians, those about to be 
baptized being clothed in white. The remembrance of this usage is maintained in the 
Roman Catholic Church by the so-called white Sunday (Dominica in Albis). Compare 
■"those clothed in white raiment" mentioned in several places in the Apocalypse of 
St. John. As is well-known the Candidate for secular Knighthood was clad in white. 
The custom of clothing the Candidate in black and the initiate in white was observed 
also by a number of Q-nostic and so-called heretical sects, amongst others by the Albigeois. 
In the Roman Catholic Order of Knights of Malta, the candidate is clothed with a long 
black vestment, called in the Italian language manto di punta (mantle of penitence), and 
holds a lighted taper in his left hand and a naked sword in his right. 

The next point to which I would draw attention is that the whole ceremony of 
Reception into the Teutonic Order is characterised by the repeated invocations of the 
Holy Ghost for spiritual enlightenment and elevation of the soul. This is expressed at 
the opening of the Chapter by the seven Paternosters and the seven Ave Marias said for 
obtaining the seven gifts of the Holy Ghost. 1 The Chapter House ceremony somewhat 
resembles the ancient mediaeval mode of holding a Chapter in the Order of the Temple 
mentioned above, and some portions bear a very remarkable resemblance. To return to 
the prayers for the enlightenment of the mind and support of the soul, they run like a 
red thread through the whole Teutonic Ritual, and maybe compared with some portions 
of the present Templar Ritual also. The prayers and hymns to the Holy Ghost are all 
very beautiful, but space prevents me from giving them at full length. I may. however, 
mention that both the hymns " Veni Greater Spiritus," and " Veni Sancte Spiritus" 
contain references to the number seven and the seven gifts of the Holy Ghost, and the 
prayer " Deus qui corda" contains the passage of "having instructed the hearts of 
-believers by the illustration of the Holy Ghost." The Responsoria, " Send forth Thy 
Holy Spirit, and they will be created," " And Thou wilt renew the surface of the Earth," 

1 Compare this with the statement made by Bro. E. J. Castle, in his instructive paper in vol. xr., 
pp. 169 and 170, that the Knights Templar were bound to say seven, fourteen and twentv-eight 
Paternosters at different times. 6 







Tewiptaria et Bospitaltaria. 18,5 

are full of eminently esoteric meaning. They may be compared with certain prayers 
said at the Installation Ceremony of a Knight and that of a Preceptor, as used by the 
present Order of the Temple. One may also find a connection between the seven gifts 
of the Holy Ghost prayed for, the seven pillars of the Order mentioned elsewhere, also 
the seven chivalric virtues, the seven petitions of the Lord's Prayer, the seven words of 
Christ when hanging on His cross, the seven canonical hours, the seven sacraments and 
the seven consecrations, (both of the old Church), the seven joys and seven pains of the 
Virgin Mary, the seven Archangels, the seven heavens, the seven ancient churches, the 
seven seals, the seven trumpets, the seven angels, and many other appearances of the 
number seven in the Revelation of St. John, all of mystic Christian significance. 

Some further portions of the Teutonic rituals, especially where the qualifications 
required in the candidate are enumerated, oftentimes run almost word for word on the 
lines of the old Templar Ritual and Statutes, and are undoubtedly and avowedly of 
Templar pattern. That the Teutonic Order, even in its present form, is more or less 
esoteric, may be concluded from the passage where strict secrecy is enjoined upon the 
candidate. 

The passage stating " the Order promises but bread and water and poor clothing 
of the Order " is likewise of Templar pattern, as it occurs in the old Templar Reception 
Ceremony alluded to above, and elsewhere also. In the Roman Catholic Order of Malta 
the newly-dubbed knight was, and probably is still, conducted to the sacristy, and 
offered bread with salt and a cup of water, of which he partakes. 

The buckling of the knightly armour upon the candidate is of importance for the 
reason that a similar usage is not to be found in the alleged old Templar Ritual of 
Reception. This seems to prove that the old Templar Ceremonial as put together from 
different old sources and communicated to us is not complete, because if some portions 
of the Teutonic Rituals are of Templar pattern as they are undoubtedly, it is highly 
probable that other portions, as, for instance, the use of armour, etc., are also of the same 
pattern, though not mentioned in the ' Old Templar Ritual ' as handed down to our 
time. It is possible the Templar depositions did not mention the armour simply 
because it was a thing generally known, and a special mention of it would therefore be 
superfluous. 

The offerings of gold and silver by the candidate suggest, to some extent, the 
divesting of metals. Similar offerings take place in the Roman Catholic Order of Malta, 
at the Coronation of the King of Hungary, at the Eastern Mass of the Knight3 of the 
Golden Fleece (Austria) and elsewhere. 

The custom of drawing swords at certain portions of Divine Service, especially 
when the Gospels are read or chanted, is a very ancient mediaeval custom, which was 
practiced by other Chivalric Orders, particularly by the Knights of St. John, The 
Roman-German Emperors, when hearing mass on solemn occasions in the full robes of 
their Imperial dignity, also observed this custom, which they claimed had been in use 
since the days of Charlemagne as a sign of the Roman Emperor being the first protector 
of Christendom. 1 

A somewhat similar observance . forms part of the very ancient Coronation 
Ceremony of the Kings of Hungary, and has been in uninterrupted practice for many 
centuries, even to our days. At the beginning of the Coronation Ceremony the King is 
placed in front of the high altar, where he kneels and swears upon the Gospels " to do 
and serve law, justice and peace to the Church of God and his subjects," etc., etc., 

1 At other medieval ceremonies we find that a naked sword was laid upon the legs of the 
Sovereign or Dignitary, which is worth mentioning and interesting from a Ritualistic point of view. 






186 



Transactions of the Quatuor Goronati Lodge. 



whereupon follows his anointment. Then the King is clothed with the mantle and shoes 
of St. Stephen the Protorex of Hungary. After that the celebration of the Coronation 
Mass is commenced by the Prince Primate of Hungary or some other Archbishop of the 
Eealm. After the Epistle is read the Primate or other officiating prelate takes the 
naked sword of St. Stephen from the altar, where all the insignia of royaltv hare been 
deposited, and presents it to the King with a proper address, admonishing him to draw 
it in defence of the Holy Church of God. The King grasps the sword then gives it back 
to the Primate, whereupon the sword is sheathed, and then girt upon the King.i Then 
the King turns and faces the assembled people and, drawing the sword, makes three 
passes representing crosses, one straight forward, one to the right and one to the left, 
and then returns the sword to its scabbard. Then the Ceremony of Coronation is pro- 
ceeded with. I hasten to add, in order to avoid misunderstanding, that the above oath 
is the so-called ecclesiastical oath, and is not to be confounded with the oath which the 
King has to take upon the constitution. The latter is performed in the open air after 
the Coronation. Nor are the above passes to be confounded with the unique and 
most ancient observance of the " sword-stroke," properly so-called. 

The Coronation Ceremony having been ended in the Coronation Church, the pro- 
cession repairs to another Church or Chapel where the newly-crowned King dubs a 
number of Knights with St. Stephen's sword. Then it passes to the platform erected in 
the open air, where the King, attired in the Coronation robes and with the crown upon 
his head, takes the oath upon the constitution of the Hungarian State. This done all 
proceed to the " Coronation Hill," which is formed of soil brought from all parts of the 
Hungarian Realm and its dependencies. To this place the King gallops quite alone, 
being mounted upon a white charger, spendidly caparisoned according to ancient 
Hungarian fashion, with silver shoes on its hoofs, and its mane intwined with gold' 
threads, etc. On his arrival at the top of the hill " in splendid isolation," and being 
visible in his regal robes to the assembled concourse he draws St. Stephen's sword, and 
turning the charger successively, he strikes four strokes to the four quarters, east, west, 
north and south, again describing crosses as in the former case, as a sign that he will 
protect the country against attacks from whatever quarter. This seems, however, to be 
a rather modern and exoteric explanation of an ancient esoteric and pagan observance, 
the true meaning of which is lost. Space forbids me to enter into details of this interest- 
ing question here. 

In the Roman Catholic Order of Malta the candidate, as in the Teutonic Order, is 
dubbed with his own sword, and then the newly-dubbed Knight receives the sword from 
the hand of the receptor, and strikes three strokes in the form of a cross. In both cases 
it may seem astonishing at first sight that the accolade is given with the candidate's sword, 
and not with that of the Great Master or receptor. This, however, must be taken to- 
gether with the accolade itself and the accompanying words as one act, and then the 
meaning becomes clear at once. The explanation is briefly this— it is a shame for a man 
and Knight to be deprived of his own sword, and struck with it by another man. 
Therefore the words, " Endure this one (stroke) but no more," that is to say, this is to 
be the last affront which, as a sign of humility, he must endure. As a Knight he is not 
permitted again to be thus humbled. 

The closing of the vizor before, and its opening after, the accolade is very 
interesting and significant.. The explanation may be the following :— The candidate is 

' I cannot resist the temptation to quote the words of the Latin Ritnal which accompany this 
action. Accmgeregladw tuo femur tuum potentissime et attende quod sancti rion gladio sedver fidem 
ViCerunt regno,." Older Knights will understand the reason of my doing bo. 



Templaria et Hospitallaria. 1'87 

in a state of spiritual darkness, as also indicated by his black dotting ; therefore the 
yizor of his helmet is first half open, and is, immediately prior to his receiving the 
accolade, entirely closed. The candidate is now, so to speak, in a state of darkness, but on 
receiving the accolade he is restored to light, Previously he had to hide his face, but 
on being made a Knight he should freely show his face to the world. Nearly the same 
idea is expressed in English and French heraldry by the open helmets of Knights, having 
the vizor raised. 

The black funeral pall and the standing, kneeling and subsequent prostration 
thereon with extended arms is, in my belief, most important, and is certainly remark- 
able. Some pretend that it is a remnant or a dim reminiscence of the antiqua usage 
known as incubation. I do not share this opinion, and I believe anyone who has passed 
through esoteric initiation and knows something about esoteric ceremonies will easily 
find out the origin and proper meaning of the ceremony. For Templars, moreover, I 
believe it is the most extraordinary and, perhaps, the most important of all the parts 
and portions of the Teutonic ritual, as it seems to settle a long disputed question. I 
can only hint at it here, but hope on some future occasion to speak freely by means of a 
lecture to be delivered in a properly constituted Preceptory of Knights Templar or a 
Priory of Knights of Malta. It may suffice now to recall to the minds of my readers 
the fact that some branches of the Benedictine Monks and Nuns, and other Orders also, 
even now place their candidates in a coffin or on a bier, and cover them with a black 
pall. As is well-known, the Cistercians, the Order of St. Bernard, Abbot of Clairvaux, 
was a branch of the Benedictines, and closely associated with the Order of the Temple, 
which in its turn became the pattern or model upon which the Teutonic Order was 
framed. No doubt the Benedictines had it from a still earlier (pagan) source. As for 
the other Teutonic ceremonies, I beg to suggest that the usage of appearing in full armour 
at the funeral of the Great Master may be symbolical of the Order having become orphan, 
and unprotected by the chief, wherefore the Knights are to . put on their warlike 
equipment, and, so to speak, act on the defensive. The Ceremony of Enthronement is 
interesting chiefly for the investiture with the golden ring, an emblem of the symbolical 
betrothal of the Great Master with the Order, which, of course, has many parallels. 
Amongst others, I may mention the symbolical rings of the Prelates of the Western and 
Eastern Churches, Bishops, Archbishops, Cardinals, and also the Pope. In the case of 
the last, the " fisher ring " (annulus piscatorius) . There is also the well-known ceremony 
with a wedding ring as once performed by the Doges of Venice on board the Buoentoro, 
while many ecclesiastical and secular Orders and Societies still use symbolical rings. 

The presenting of the golden key is likewise very ancient, at least medieval, as 
in many ceremonies of the middle ages not only a key but also a lock played a prominent 
part, the symbolism of which is. obvious. Amongst others I may mention the free 
tribunals of "Westphalia, at the ceremonies of which a lock or a key or both appeared. 1 
Another interesting instance we find in the history of the eleventh century of Spain. 
When the King, Don Sancho II., was murdered during the civil war he had to wage with 
his rebellious brother, Don Alphonso, the latter was suspected of having contrived the 
murder. The Barons of the realm decided on recognising Don Alphonso as their King, 
he being the next heir to the throne, but made it a condition that he should take a 
solemn oath of purgation (juramentum purgationis) to the effect that he had no share 
whatever in the murder of his Boyal brother. T.his was accordingly done. The 
formidable oath was administered to Don Alphonso by the famous hero, DonRodrigo, 

1 £ro. John Tarl?er also referred to this point in his paper, in A. ty.O., vol. xiz^p. 34. 



I 







188 Transactions of the Quatuor Coronati Lodge. 

de Vivar (the "Cid"). The oath was taken on the gospels, a lime-twig, and an irorr 
lock, the two latter articles being most probably emblematical of enticement and deceit. 
The oath contained, amongst others, the passage, " My heart may be torn out of my left 
breast and I to swallow it." The first business of the new King was to banish Don 
Rodrigo. 

The key was a symbol of shutting and opening, hence also of possession' and 
authority. I may mention at random, the key of David or of the House of David 
referred to in the Book of the Prophet Isaiah, chapter xxii., verse 22, and in the 
Revelation of St. John, chapter iii., v. 7, also the keys of the kingdom of heaven, referred 
to in the Gospel of St. Matthew, chapter xvi., verse 19, afterwards adopted as a symbol 
of Papacy. There are also the ivory keys used in different Masonic systems and degrees 
on the Continent. 

I cannot close this account of the Teutonic Knights without making a few remarks 
On, or at least hint at, one other important point, which is the great veneration the 
Teutonic Knights had for the Virgin Mary, the Patroness of the Order. This veneration 
was so characteristic of them that they often called themselves and were called simply 
"Knights of St. Mary," or "Marian Knights," as already mentioned at the beginning 
of this Chapter. The Marienbnrg, for a long period the proud centre and headquarters 
of the Order, took its name from the Holy Virgin, and nearly all Churches, Cha,pels, 
Hospitals, and Schools of the Order were dedicated to her. I cannot enter into a 
detailed enumeration of all the numerous particulars referring to the connection with 
the Mother of the Lord with the Teutonic Order, but I desire to state that even this 
their most characteristic feature is' in perfect harmony with the Order of the Temple. 
The great veneration of the Holy Virgin as found with the Teutonics was also either 
based upon a Templar pattern or common to both and due to similar causes. It is a 
well-known fact that veneration of the female sex was an essential feature of mediseval 
knighthood in general. Every Knight had his lady for whose glory he fought. The 
ecclesiastical Knights considered themselves Knights in the special service of the Holy 
Virgin. So did the Templars and after them the Teutonics. The founders of the Order 
of the Temple elected the Holy Virgin as their Patroness, and they took their vows in 
the name of "the sweet Mother of God" (la doce mere de Bieu) at the hands of 
Guaremund, patriarch of Jerusalem. To the Holy Virgin they dedicated their first 
Church and many others in the course of time. To the Holy Virgin was dedicated also 
the Temple Church of London. It was an old Templar saying, occurring often in the 
Statutes and other writings of the Order, " Our dear Lady was the beginning of our 
Order, and in-Her and to Her honour shall, with the help of God, be also the end of our 
lives and of our Order, God willing." 

I do not enter into the symbolic and mystical side of the matter, seductive as it 
may be, for I have only desired here to point to this additional feature which couples 
the two powerful Chivalric Orders. 

On the other hand St. John the Baptist was the Patron Saint of the Knights 
Hospitallers of St. John (afterwards Knight of Rhodes and Malta), and he was likewise 
greatly venerated by the Knights of the Temple, and this forms another connecting link 
between the Orders of the Temple and Hospital of St. John, whilst I do not know 
anything about a special veneration given to St. John by the Teutonic Order. 

Now I come to my final reflections. I will first sum up and then add a few 
further historical facts as arguments in support of my contention, which is to .show the 
close connection — in essence— between the Templar and the Teutonic Rituals, After 






Templaria et Hospitallaria. 



189 



that I shall endeavour to draw therefrom, without exaggeration, correct inferences with 
respect to our Order of the Temple. 

From the very foundation of the Teutonic Order it was freely declared by the 
secular as well as ecclesiastical authorities that it was the Order of the Temple which 
was considered the prototype upon which to model the projected new Order of Chivalry. 
The earliest Statutes of the Teutonic Order as confirmed by the Pope were essentially 
those of the Templars and oftentimes ran literally like them. I have already given 
some instances of this when speaking of the Statutes and usages of the Teutonic Order 
to show how great the resemblance actually was. The same thing may be seen with the 
organisation of both Orders. Even the nomenclature of the High Dignitaries is nearly 
the same; especially striking, also is the symbolism of the number seven with both 
Orders, which is not to be found in other Chivalric Orders, as for instance the Order of 
St. John, where the number eight played a prominent part. 

Now if the Statutes and organisation of the Teutonic Order were so closely 
modelled upon those of the Templars it is but fair to infer that the same was the case 
with the rituals, which likewise were borrowed from the Templar Knights. Indeed 
whence else should they have taken them but from the Order of the Temple, which was 
their prototype in other respects ? To this point I shall return immediately, but I must 
here state the following historical facts which throw additional light upon the question. 
It is true that the foundation of the Teutonic Order, modelled after that of the Temple, 
first aroused the jealousy of the proud Templars, and there arose bitter hatred between 
the two Orders. Particularly the white mantle, as adopted by the Teutonics, was an 
eyesore to the Templars. Fortunately, however, this state of bitterness did not last 
very long. The wrath of the Knights of the Temple was appeased when they saw that 
the Teutonics were not dangerous rivals. They remained during the Crusades a 
comparatively insignificant and weak body, not in any way comparable with the 
powerful and haughty Templars, whilst there was a continuous rivalry and friction 
between the Knights of the Temple and the similarly powerful Knights of St. John, 
which eventually caused open hostility and even led to bloodshed, much to the detriment 
and shame of the cause of the Cross. Such was not the case between the Templars and 
the Teutonic Knights. On the contrary the Teutonics, well knowing their own 
weakness in number and wealth, coveted the friendship and goodwill of the mighty and 
wealthy Templars, and gladly associated themselves with them whenever an opportunity 
presented itself, whilst the Templars were glad to have them for the reason of their 
honesty and valour. Thus goodfellowship was established between the Temple and the 
Hospital of St. Mary. At many fierce battles, the Teutonics fought side by side with the 
Templars, but at some distance from the Knights of St. John, as we know the Knights of 
the Temple and those of the Hospital occupied opposite wings of the crusading army. If 
another instance of this friendship be needed, I may refer to the fact that when the Knights 
Templar were about to build their famous Gastrum Peregrinorum (Chateau Pelerins) near 
Acre, they were effectually assisted in their work by the Teutonic Knights. As this may 
not be generally known, in support of my assertion I quote the following particulars in the 
original Latin from different old and reliable sources. " Templarii cum Domino Qaltero 
de Avenis et aliispaucis auxiliatoribus Peregrinis et Hospitali de domo Theutonicorum castrum 
Peregrinorum, quodolimDistructum appelldbant fir mare coeperunt inter Gayphas et Gwsaream." 
" Templarii auxiliantibus Peregrinis et Hospitali de domo Theutonicorum oastrum quodprius 
dicebatur filii Dei readifioaverunt, et castrum Peregrinorum vacant." 

It is a well-known fact that after the official abolition and despoliation of the 
Order of the Temple many quondam Templars joined the Order of St. John, although 




190 Transactions of the Quatuor Goronati Lodge. 

their feelings may have been anything but friendly towards the rival order, especially 
as it had also succeeded to their rich estates. This was chiefly the case in those 
countries where, besides the Order of St. John, no other ecclesiastical and cbivalric 
Order of a similar organisation was in existence. It was, however, otherwise, say in the 
different kingdoms of the Iberian peninsula, where other chivalric Orders became the 
refuge or substitute of the Templars, as I have shown elsewhere. Something similar 
happened in Germany, where on the one hand the Templar estates were for the most 
part inherited by the Knights of St. John, and many Templars joined this Order, but, 
on the other hand, it is maintained by some reliable writers that some of the German 
Templars joined, not the Order of St. John, but the Teutonic Order, in consequence of 
the amicable relations existing between the two bodies. This certainly seems highly 
probable.. Thus the valiant Templar Preceptor, the Wildgrave Hugo von Salm, who 
resided at Grumbach, near Meisenheim (often confounded with his-brother or kinsman, 
the Wildegrave Frederick von Salm, who was' Grand Preceptor of Upper Germany, 
including the territory on the Rhine, and was well-known by his manly behaviour before 
the Council of Mayence), joined the Teutonic Order after the abolition of the Templars. 
So at least some writers say. Others claim that this same Hugo was (not that he became) 
a Canon at Mayence. Now it is a fact that Hugo had be.en a Templar, and he could 
only have become a Canon after the abolition of the Templar Order, which is not very 
probable, because he was a Knight and a layman, and not a priest. On the whole the 
assertion seems to be erroneous. Perhaps some people thought the Templars were 
Canons. 

Speaking of Hugo von Salm, I must parenthetically mention and correct a 
curious mistake which occurred in the writings of some English authors. They said 
that Hugo was surnamed "the savage." This is an error, due to the misinterpretation 
of the title, " Wildgrave," which it seems they took for the equivalent of wild or savage 
Count. It it, however, a title. Hugo was Wildgrave and Rhinegrave {Gomes Sylvester 
et Bheni), Wildgrave (also Waldgrave, Baugrave) denoting a Count whose territory 
consisted mainly of woods and forests, instead of cultivated soil. 

The learned Anthony Oneal Haye tells us in his " The persecution of the Knights 
Templars," Edinburgh, 1865, that after the dissolution of the Templar Order Hugo and 
his companions were again summoned to the Council at Mayence and informed that 
they were to be incorporated with another Order. Then he adds " They chose that of 
the Teutonic Knights." This is very important. Unfortunately Haye does not mention 
his authority nor say whence he had it, which would be of great importance. But he 
is reliable nevertheless. 

Thus we may see that even in this way, i.e., by quondam Templars joining the 
Teutonic Order after its abolition, Templar observances or even Ritualistic details may 
have found their way into the Teutonic Order. 

In the same manner it must be borne in mind that the Order of the Sword 
Bearers of Livonia was also modelled after the Order of the Temple, consequently their 
original Rituals must have been of Templar pattern. Their union with the Teutonic 
Order may have been another channel for Templar observances, customs or Rituals, 
being merged into the Teutonic Order. 

It may be accepted as a historical fact that the original Teutonic Rituals were at 
all events an imitation of the Templar Rituals. I have already given a description of 
the Teutonic Rituals as preserved and practised up to this day. Now if we compare the 
so-called ancient Templar Ritual referred to above (based upon statutes, depositions and 




Templaria et HospitallariA. 



191 



other written evidence) with our present Templar Ritual, we shall on the whole find no 
great general resemblance, but only a few interesting portions. Those who lay too 
much stress on the importance and value of these " ancient " Rituals draw the inference 
therefrom that they being the authentic old Templar Rituals, the present Templar 
Rituals, as they have existed in England, Scotland and Ireland, and, say, Canada, for 
a long period, cannot claim great antiquity. In other words they are a fabrication or 
a manufacture of recent date, most likely of Masonic pattern and origin. 

This deduction seems at first sight to be quite correct and even indisputable, but, 
m my opinion, it is not so, because there are some points which have not been taken 
into consideration. I believe the Teutonic Rituals shed quite a different light upon the 
whole question, for when comparing the Teutonic Ritual which is undoubtedly of ancient 
and Templar origin, is an esoteric initiation secretly handed down and preserved to our 
days, and made known only since about forty years ago, I say when comparing these 
Rituals with the alleged " ancient " Templar Rituals, we find as little resemblance as 
was the case when comparing them with our present Templar Rituals. The resemblance 
is confined to a very few portions, passages and sentences, whilst the points of difference 
are very numerous, and even a casual glance will show that the ancient Templar Ritual 
is very short and simple, whilst the Teutonic Ritual, in its present form, is rather 
complicated. 

But on the other hand, if we compare the Teutonic ritual with our present Templar 
ritual the resemblance, especially in some important points, is striking- and astonishing 
m spite of all the differences. In other words there exists a close resemblance between 
our Templar ritual and the Teutonic, but no great resemblance between either of them 
and the alleged ancient Templar ritual. There are many analogous points in both the 
Teutonic and our Templar ritual, which are not to be found in the •' ancient." This is 
extremely important, for what does it mean ? Nothing else than that our Templar 
rituals must have been handed down from ancient times, and be of Templar origin 
(alterations, amplifications, additions or omissions always admitted) otherwise one could 
not account for the close resemblance in its essentials with the Teutonic ritual which is 
also of ancient origin, modelled on the Templar pattern and later on exposed to Templar 
influence. In a word, it is at all events partly Templar in its origin, and has been 
transmitted secretly. If our present Templar ritual, which for obvious reasons cannot 
be an imitation of the Teutonic of a recent date, yet contains an analogy or resemblance 
on many important points, these portions which are common to both must be of ancient 
Templar origin. 

In view of these facts I believe it is no longer possible to assert that the so-called 
" ancient" Templar ritual, as we have it, is the sole authentic ancient Templar ritual. 
On the contrary I think that the belief in their exclusive authenticity will to some 
extent be shaken by all that has been said, and by what I am going to add. 

As for the " ancient " Templar rituals, I admit their antiquity and their authen» 
ticity, as far as they go. But on the other hand I do not believe they are complete. 
They may be authentic portions put together from various sources at the disposal of the 
compilers, but they are not the whole nor are they the only authentic Templar ritual in 
use at the period of the downfall of the Order. It must not be forgotten that we have 
these Templar rituals not from one whole and homogeneous source such as a complete 
Ritual Oodex, but they have been more or less put together like a Mosaic picture out of 
portions from different sources, especially from the old Statutes of the Order and the 
various depositions of witnesses in the Templar proces. 




192 Transactions of the Quatuoi- Ooronati Lodge. 

Let us stop a while and consider this a little further. As for the old Statutes of 
the Order of the Temple -which have come down to us- and contain the often-quoted 
ceremonies of opening and closing a Chapter and the ceremony of Reception, there arises 
the question, from what period do these old Statutes date ? It is very curious that this 
question has not been raised hitherto, when treating of the matter. We see at once how 
important this point is and how the answer will at once make things appear in a different 
light. The answer is, from internal evidence it is clear that the Old Statutes as we 
possess them are not older than the end of the twelfth nor are they of later date than 
the beginning of the thirteenth century. 1 Even the original wording of the Begula 
Trecensis or Rule of Troyes of 1128, was lost at the fall of Acre, in 1291. What we know 
as the Rule of Troyes is a much later compilation, with many subsequent additio"ns. As. 
for the Old Statutes which contain the rituals, their date is prior to the nourishing 
period of the Order, say after about 1218-19, when the Pilgrims' Castle was the head- 
quarters of the Knights, which period was that of the greatest evolution of the Order. 
It follows that these Old Statutes do not and cannot contain the additional rules laid 
down in the thirteenth century and the beginning of the fourteenth century when the 
Order collapsed, still less the additions or alterations which most probably took place in 
the Rituals. This is a very decisive point. In other words, in spite of the Old Statutes 
which we possess, we are ignorant of the full details of internal life and especially of 
the Rituals which were practised during the greater part of the thirteenth century, and 
down to the end of the Order at the beginning of the fourteenth century. Nor are the 
oft-quoted ancient Rituals the full and authentic Rituals of the thirteenth and fourteenth 
centuries. This statement is of immense importance in judging the ancient Ritual itself 
and the general question of Ritual. 

I will leave it an open question whether' the Order had or had not any secret 
Statutes and secret Initiations, as these points are foreign to my present investigation. 
But, if it were so, such Statutes must have been created and such initiations established 
during the course of the thirteenth century. 

So much for the Old Statutes, As for the depositions, they are an even more 
shifting base upon which to build. Parts were extorted by means of the rack, and 
therefore deserve very little credence, and they are unquestionably anything but trust- 
worthy. We have many depositions and confessions referring to the worship of idols 
and of heads of different shapes, and others referring to the adoration of a black cat, etc. 
Are we to take these as evidence ? It is also a noteworthy and characteristic fact that 
Templars examined at the one place made almost the same confessions, which widely 
differed from the confessions of members examined at other places. That is to say, at 
one place all confessed the adoration of a gold head, at another place all had adored a 
black idol, at a third place all had adored a black cat, simply because they had been 
tortured and answered leading questions. Moreover, if one studies the trials of witches, 
one will be astonished to see how many of the charges " evidenced" by the tortured 
victims are well-nigh the same as in the case of the Templars. The evidenced mode of 
reception of a witch, including the adoration of the Devil appearing in the shape of a 
black cat, closely resembles the alleged secret and heretical idolatrous initiations with 
which the Templars were charged, in which we meet again (in addition to various full- 
sized idols, and heads) our old friend the black cat. How much credence can be attached 
to all this nonsense ? And how much can we believe of other confessions obtained in 
the same manner, if even they be less stupid ? Some of the confessions may be true, 

1 Space forbids me giving full details here, because there is material for a special essay, but I am 
jeady to write a separate paper on the subject if my readers think it desirable. 




Temptaria et Hospitallarta. lj)3 

but how is one to distinguish between them ? As for the depositions referring to the 
ordinary initiation, it is not even probable that they contain full details. The poor 
half-starved victims who had suffered years of imprisonment and- torture were 
scarcely in a mood to enter into full details. They made their statements as short 
as possible. Most likely they omitted many points, especially such as were or 
which they supposed to be, generally known, or of little importance, while others 
would act so for fear of saying something that might turn to be of serious con- 
sequence, or was esoteric and strictly forbidden. For instance, all possible secret 
modes of recognition would fall under this head. The Templars may have kept 
silence on all these points. And so on. The Templar Rituals of the fourteenth 
century may have included many portions not mentioned in the " ancient " Templar 
Rituals which, as I have said above, date back for a hundred years from that time viz. 
to the beginning of the thirteenth century. The " ancient " Rituals are too simple and 
exoteric. One can see no reason why they should have kept secret this kind of 
initiation where no secrets whatever were communicated. My impression is that the 
" ancient " Ritual is either the original exoteric mode of reception much altered and 
amplified in course of the thirteenth century, or that it is a kind of skeleton Ritual 
which in course of time was gradually expanded by something which is not mentioned 
either in the Old Statutes or in the depositions, or elsewhere. Similar things often- 
times occurred. It was undoubtedly so with the Teutonic Order, the Rituals of which 
are the result of a long process of evolution. This will account for the lack of 
resemblance between the alleged " ancient " Templar Ritual and that of the Teutonic 
Order, which unquestionably was of Templar origin and subjected to later Templar 
influences. This will account also for the resemblance between the Teutonic and our 
present Ritual, which cannot be a later-day imitation of the Teutonic. The common 
Templar foundation is the explanation for the similar points, and the later additions 
here and there account for the differences of both. 

Moreover it is possible that the Old Templar Rituals were different on some 
points, not only at different periods, but even at the same time in different places, say 
in the Holy Land and Trance, England, Germany, and Spain. And so it is possible, 
nay even probable, that there existed more than one form of reception. Say one 
exoteric, and one or more esoteric ones, which latter probably included the communi- 
cation of the secret modes of recognition. Part of these seem to have invaded the 
Teutonic Ritual (as may be realised by experts), perhaps by quondam Templars 
joining the Teutonic Order, or due to other causes. Even from some confessions made 
in the Templar proces it seems to follow that there was more than one form of initiation 
practised, because some of the Knights confessed to have been initiated according 
to the Statutory manner and then, some years later on, to have gone through another 
secret esoteric initiation. 

If one admits the existence of a secret, heretical, or, at least, a heterodox doctrine 
among the Templars, even though it was not gross idolatry, as the accusations brought 
against them maintained, it seems evident, on the other hand, that this secret doctrine 
could not have been in vogue everywhere. On the contrary several branches of the 
Order seem to have been free from heterodoxy and even from heresy, and remained 
orthodox. 

In the Holy Land or in Trance, additional initiations may have taken place 
(possibly even of an heretical nature) which were unknown in other countries, in which 
however, esoteric initiations of another kind may yet have been practised. There are 



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so many contradictions in the depositions of the tortured Templars, and in the result of" 
the proceedings against the Order in different countries which can hardly be explained 
in any other manner. In France the Templars were formally convicted and found guilty 
of idolatry and other abominations, though the accusations may have been gross 
exaggerations and distortions of the facts. In other countries again nothing of the kind 
could be proved against them, and thus they seem to have been quite innocent there, and 
were so held in the public opinion of these countries. This was the case in England, 
Scotland, some countries of Germany, and the Iberian Peninsula. In addition to those 
countries there was also Hungary, which formed a special Province of the Order, ruled 
by special Masters or Grand Preceptors. Hungary was never under the Masters of 
Germany, as is erroneously asserted by some authors, for we know from documents 
the names of nearly all the Hungarian Masters . There is nothing to show the Hungarian 
Templars were tortured or convicted of heresy or idolatry. The Order was simply 
officially disestablished and disendowed, as in other countries. What is more, there is 
even documentary evidence which tends to prove that the Order remained in existence 
in some form or another until the second half of the fifteenth century, as I mentioned 
in the introduction of the present treatise. 

Bat let us return to our chief subject. My opinion and my main conclusion is 
briefly this. The Teutonic Rituals, which are as good evidence as documents, afford a 
fair justification for a belief that our present Rituals of the British branches of the 
Order of the Temple have been similarly handed down, and consequently are of Templar 
descent. Both seem to be the remnants of the real Old Templar Ritual, or both are 
derived from a still older common source. The often quoted " ancient Templar Rituals," 
which are the starting point or the original Templar pattern, dated from about 
the end of the twelfth century, but they are by no means the only and complete 
authentic ancient Templar Ritual, as they are earlier in date than the full development 
of the Order. 

At all events the Teutonic Ritual greatly supports the supposition of the antiquity 
and Templar origin of our Templar Rituals in their essential points. It is but 
natural that the Teutonic Ritual has, like our Templar Ritual, undergone changes and 
alterations in course of time. There may have been other esoteric portions, no longer 
explicable nor understood by later generations, which for this very reason were 
eventually omitted. Other portions, the true meaning of which was likewise lost, were 
still retained either from motives of piety or conservative feeling, because their occult 
meaning was not even guessed at. They were left in their old form with perhaps a new 
but exoteric explanation. It is well-known that this was done with portions of many 
other old Rituals. 

In the same manner, innovations, alterations and inaccuracies have been intro- 
duced into our Templar Rituals, particularly in consequence of the connection of the 
Order with Craft and Royal Arch Masonry, but we know that a radical purification has 
taken place iu this respect in our days. Quite apart from the differences which exist 
and may easily be accounted for, our Templar Rituals and the Teutonic have undoubtedly 
many important features in common, and this cannot fail to prove material for serious 
consideration. 

This leads me to dwell upon another much debated and debatable question, which 
is not out of place here, as the initiated Templar readers will see at once. I mean the 
question whether or not the Templars and other mediajval chivalric bodies had secret 
modes of recognition. 



I 



Templaria et Hospitallaria. 195 

There are students who answer this question in the negative. They start from 
Craft Masonry (operative and speculative), and they wish to confine the original use of 
secret modes of recognition, signs, tokens, words, salutes and symbolical numbers and 
letters, etc., to Craft Masonry only. They assert that other esoteric bodies (Chivalric 
or Hermetic) which in process of time were brought into connection with Craft 
Masonry (operative or speculative) established for their own use secret means of 
recognition, merely in imitation of the Masonic Order. 1 

I confess I do not agree with this assertion and in my opinion even the starting 
point is wrong. These students start with Masonry and only afterwards do they treat 
of the chivalric and other bodies which came into connection therewith, whilst these 
latter bodies had an independent origin, and were in a process of independent evolution 
down to the period when some of them were brought into some sort of connection with 
those Masonic bodies from which speculative Masonry was developed. For the benefit 
of younger readers I may be allowed to say that besides purely religious or purely 
political bodies there are three chief divisions (each with numerous ramifications) of 
esoteric bodies which are of special interest for us, each having its own separate origin 
and periods of evolution. They are : — 

I. Building Fraternities. (a) Ecclesiastical Orders. Such were for instance 

the Benedictines, a branch of which were the 
Cistercians ; and the Culdees of Scotland. 
(6) Lay bodies, Masonic Guilds, Stonecutters, etc. 

II. Chivalric Orders which were connected at an early date with the building 
fraternities mentioned under No. I. Such for instance was the Order of 
Cistercians, which from the time of St. Bernard of Clair vaux stood at the 
cradle of the Chivalric Order of the Temple and was always considered by 
the Templar Knights as a Sister Order. 

III. Hermetic, Cabalistic, Theosophical, Philosophical, Rosicrucian, and other 
■occult bodies. Even purely religious bodies with an esoteric doctrine may 

be placed under this head. 

Now some of the branches of these three main trees, or divisions, became entwined 
with, crossed and re-crossed each other at a very early date, say, in the fifteenth century, 
if not earlier, and certainly during the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries, all 
reciprocally influencing each other. I do not enter into further details here, but simply 
mention as instances that the Masonic Craft Rituals show Rosicrucian elements; the 
Templar show Masonic, Rosicrucian and even Magic ; the Rosicrucians show Templar 
elements, and so on. 

It must be conceded that secret and esoteric societies existed at all times, having 
different aims and objects. The ancient world, as well as the middle ages, teemed with 
them. It was but natural and, in fact, necessary for all these bodies to be provided 
with means whereby the members might recognize one aoother, means of testing and 
proving, as well for keeping off intruders and spies. The building societies which were 
the parents of Craft Masonry were but one branch of these esoteric bodies. Why then 
seek to confine secret means of recognition to them only ? Why should other esoteric 

' As is well known students hold very different opinions in regard to the « secrets" known to 
Masons m early days. Some even aver that there were no secrets at all, others are undecided as to 
pf tte SocieT r W6re ' " again h ° ld that th6 SeWetS W6re n0t the Same in diff ereut branches 






196 Transactions of the Quatuor Coronati Lodge. 

bodies not have had their own tests and secrets ? The same causes must have had the 
same effects in each instance. Just as on a meadow flowers of different kinds, shape 
and colour spring into existence, blue, crimson, purple and white, independent of each 
other yet due to the same natural causes, so it is with these societies and their respective 
secrets. 

Applying this to the Chivalrie Orders which numbered thousands of members in 
Europe and Asia, with whom it was utterly impossible to keep in touch, the secret 
initiation and the secret modes of recognition communicated thereat were the only 
possible ways to test and prove members. Therefore the reception was kept secret 
even with such Orders as, strictly speaking, were not secret societies, enjoying, as . they 
did, State and Church recognition, as was the case with the great Chivalrie Orders of 
the Crusades. 

In support of my assertion, I shall mention a few instances at random. The 
religious mysteries of various countries of the ancient: world, especially the Egyptian 
and Greek mysteries ; the Pythagorians formed esoteric societies, and from Egyptian 
pictures and reliefs we know some of the secret signs which were in use with them. 
The same may be said of representations of Greek coins referring to mysteries. We 
know also a secret sign used by the Essenes, which is most astonishing. All these 
coincidences are surely not accidental. The Christians of the first centuries of perse- 
cution were likewise a secret society with another esoteric body attached to it, which 
communicated a secret doctrine, the arcana disciplina, to its members. The Ostiarius, 
even now one of the lesser Orders, was what we call the Tyler or Janitor. Secret 
formulas of greeting, most likely consisting of. two distinct parts or versicles, the one of 
which may be described as an " invitatory," the other as a " responsory," and secret 
signs (such as the sign of the Cross) enabled one to enter the place of meeting. The 
usage of crossing oneself was originally without any doubt a secret sign of the Initiate. 
There is evidence also that the first Christians had another great secret sign, which from 
our own point of view is,of the highest importance. The fish was a well-known sacred 
and secret symbol of the Christians, and I may say, by the way, that a curious error 
prevails in regard to the explanation of the fish symbol. Generally it was claimed that 
the fish was a symbol of Christianity because the initials of the Greek words signifying 
'' Jesus Christ, the Son of God, Saviour " make the word IxOvs, the meaning of which is a 
fish. This, however, is not the reason, which is, in fact, just the reverse. This would be a 
filius ante pair em. The symbol of the fish, as emblematical of the just man, the follower 
of Christ, is quite obvious. The just man can live within the flood of the sinful world 
without perishing, just as the fish lives in the water of the sea. The element of the 
fish is the water, and the Christian is made by the water of baptism, and so on. In the 
same manner, the ark of Noah is a symbol of the Church, floating on the flood of sins. 
In other words, -first the fish was there as a symbol, and then its Greek name was 
explained in the above-mentioned manner by the Cabalistic method which is called 
Notarigon. 

As with the fish, so the whole symbology of the New Testament, especially of the 
Apocalypse (the cornerstone, the lamb, the dove, etc.), when explained to the initiate, 
formed a whole system of secrets to test him by. It is but natural that at different 
times and places, new modes of recognition were established according to circumstances. 
Thus in Spain, at the period of the wars with the Moors, the fashion of wearing 
pointed beards, with which the nose and the moustache formed a cross, was for the 
Christians a secret mode of recognition, and a means for detection of Moorish spies. 






I 



Templaria et Uospitallaria. 



197 




Speaking of Spain, I may 
mention in passing, that the Crosses 
of the Spanish Chivalric Orders had a 
secret symbolism known only to the 
initiated ' knights, as a means for 
testing them. Especially may be 
noted the sword-like red cross of San 
Iago, the type of which is said to have 
been a sword with three blades, 
emblematical of the Holy Trinity or 
Trinity in Unity. So also was the 
sword of the Westphalian Vehme, on 
which the Freischoppenweve obligated. 
This was explained to the initiate 
only. These among many other points 
tend to prove that the Spanish 
Chivalric Orders must have had secret initiation also. 

It is a proved fact that the members of the Free Tribunals (Vehmgerichte) of 
Westphalia, just mentioned, had secret signs, salutes, words and grips, and a secret 
Ritual for opening and closing the session, consisting of questions and answers. The 
esoteric science of the FreiscMppen which was called "die heimliclie Acht" possibly 
included esoteric truths of remote antiquity. 

Nearly all Orders, fraternities, sodalities, and guilds, of the Middle Ages, seem to 
have had their own secret signs, salutes, and symbols, some of which have come down 
to our days. Of many of them, however, the true sense is as yet unknown. 

It is an interesting fact that in different countries old inscriptions may be found 
in Churches, houses, tombstones, etc., the literal sense of which is apparently quite 
simple and often even childish, but which evidently must have some secret meaning. 
Mediaeval literature, particularly epic poems such as those referring to the Holy Grail, 
are full of hidden allusions, this being the symbolical language of the initiates of some 
esoteric society. There can be no doubt as to Hermetic societies using such symbolic 
language down to the eighteenth century. The literal sense is one thing and the hidden 
one is another. So also with the Catechisms of the Druses, where the literal sense is 
easily understood, the true sense, however, being impossible of detection except by the 
initiate. There can be no doubt that Hermetic Societies had also their own secret signs 
and tests. The same was the case even with political parties, e.g. the Scottish Jacobites 
had many secret means of recognition. And last but not least, the Jesuits are also said 
to have such secrets varied to their different degrees. 

We must now return to our original track. If various bodies with different aims 
and ends used secret means of recognition, chiefly with a view of testing and proving 
their members, one can see no reason why the military Orders engaged in continual 
warfare in the Holy Land and continually surrounded by enemies should have been 
without them. I know this is maintained by some writers, but by others it is doubted 
and denied. Anyhow it seems to me highly probable a priori that they must have been 
in possession of some of them. 

Another question would be, what kind of means of recognition existed in the 
Chivalric Orders ? Here again I believe that same causes lead to same effect. That is 
to say, the modes of recognition must have been of various kinds so as to enable the 
members to know each other under different circumstances, by day and by night, when 







198 



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near or at a distance. Recognition would therefore be required for the eye, the ear, and 
the hand. In the case of the Chivalries of the Crusades, war cries, rallying cries, watch- 
words, passwords, etc., must be admitted at once. There can be no doubt about their 
existence d priori and some of them, at least, we actually know. Whether they had 
other secret means of knowing each other such as signs, tokens, grips, or secret salutes, 
is another" question, well worthy of consideration. At any rate, there are many points 
which seem to be in favour of the supposition of their existence and at all events throw 
considerable light upon the matter. Thus it is a historical fact proved by some Monastic 
Constitutions (for instance, the Constitutions of Clugny, and those of the Abbot William 
of Hirschau) and some reliable works on Monastic Discipline and allied matter, that 
Monastic bodies used a great many secret signs whereby they expressed their thoughts 
without uttering a word, either when outsiders were present, or when they feared to be 
observed, or because useless speaking was forbidden within the walls of the monastery. 
The sources just mentioned contain a whole collection of such secret signs which are 
referred to as " signa loquendi, signa quibus tacens quodam modo loquatur (monachus), etc. 
Even chapter viu. of the Begula Trecensis seems to refer to this usage. Speaking of taking 
meat together in a common refectory, it is enacted " ubi quando aliquid necessarium 
fuerit pro signorum ignorantid leniter ac privatim quaerere oportet." This is by some 
(who most probably were ignorant of the usage of secret signs) translated as " Where, 
if your wants cannot be made known by signs, ye are softly and privately to ask for 
what you want," whilst others who in my opinion are more correct, translate it as, 
" Where one who does not know the signs, is softly and privately to ask for what he wants." 
In a word the usage of secret signs with monks must be accepted as a fact established 
by evidence (quite apart from the passage of the Rule of Troyes just quoted) and there 
is but one step from the Monks to the Templars. If let us say the Sister Order of the 
Cistercians used secret signs, there can scarcely be any doubt that the Templars either 
must have known these signs or had their own or perhaps both. 

Even secular and Royal Orders of Chivalry in the Middle Ages, had, if not secret 
means of recognition (which is highly probable), at least a special symbolism kept secret 
from outsiders, though in this case the evidence of membership could much more easily 
be effected than in the case of such widely spread Chivalries as those of the Temple and 
St. John. Indeed it may be asserted that much mysticism surrounds nearly all the 
Royal Orders of Chivalry, which had their origin in the Middle Ages. In process of 
time many of the secrets of such Orders were either lost or official explanations were 
substituted for the original ones. Especially would this be the case when the particular 
Order became dormant for a long period, or practically ceased to exist, and was subse- 
quently resuscitated. 

Thus, for instance, there is much mysticism about the Order of the Garter. As 
a matter of fact we do not even know exactly the date of its origin, nor what were the 
circumstances that gave rise to its foundation, nor what is the true symbolic meaning 
of " the Garter." I know full well the legend referring to the blue garter of the 
Countess of Salisbury, also the other one of the garter of the Black Prince, at Crecy, 
but the very fact that more than one tradition exists to account for the rise of this Most 
Noble Order, clearly shows that the real origin is shrouded in mystery. I think the 
above tales are merely exoteric inventions of a later date, for there can be no doubt that 
the Garter and its motto had a secret symbolic meaning known only to the initiates. 
Possibly this has been retained within the bosom of the Order to the present time, 
possibly it has been lost or another explanation substituted for. the original. Of course 
King Edward III. may have uttered the words, " Honi soit qui mal y pense" which are 




Templaria ei Hospitallaria. 199 

attributed to him, when picking up the garter of the beautiful countess, but it may have 
been, and most likely was, only a " bon mot," used in the same manner as we now often 
quote a Shakesperian phrase in every-day talk. 

It cannot be doubted that the Garter, as such, had a symbolic meaning in the 
Middle Ages, most likely it was symbolical of binding' or holding closely together in great 
friendship and brotherhood. Indeed the Garter is a very fit symbol, and its motto a 
very appropriate one, for an esoteric Order. A similar symbol of wide use was that of the 
Knotted Cords, called also Knots of Love, of Doubt, or of Discipline ; without mentioning 
other Orders I may point out that it is the chief symbol of the most ancient and most 
distinguished Order of the House of Savoy, now the Eoyal House and the Kingdom 
of Italy, viz., the Order of the Annunziata. It seems to me that it is not a matter of 
coincidence that the chain of the Order of the Garter consists alternately of garters and 
knotted cords both symbols having the same, or a very similar, significance. 1 

Here I should like to say a few words on the heraldic side of the question. As 
heraldry presents itself to-day, it is entirely an exoteric science, comprising a vast 
number of rules referring to the different parts of the arms and their composition, the 
different classes of Honourable Ordinaries, Subordinates, and other devices, the quaint 
terminology and the knowledge of correctly blazoning arms. 

But the true signification of all these ordinaries, devices, figures and charges, is 
still wrapped in mystery. Of course I do not mean the exoteric symbolism, as, for 
instance, the lion, denoting strength, valour, etc., but their esoteric sense and their true 
origin. There can be no doubt as to the most ancient coats of arms of a nation 
representing a. codex of its oldest symbols expressive of the original religious, 
philosophical or mystical notions and ideas, or of the oldest historical traditions and 
reminiscences of its people thus preserved in hieroglyphic language. The true clue, 
however, has generally been lost. What has been put in writing about the explanation 
of armorial bearings and their parts is also more or less exoteric. The science of the 
true signification of all symbols was esoteric and, perhaps, known only to the highest 
class of the Heralds and Kings of Arms. They only were in possession of the " great 
light," the others, such as the simple Heralds and Pursuivants, being only in possession 
of the " lesser light." The " great light," the mystical explanation of all symbols, being 
the secret of the Kings of Arms, was only orally transmitted. Perhaps we are not 
mistaken if we suppose the mystical explanation referred to religious or philosophical 
truths rooted in the old Pagan religion of the particular nation and that therefore it was 
strictly kept secret for fear of persecution by the Church. Thus it happens that while 
we know a great number of arms of countries, towns, families, etc., students of 
occultism are only now at the very beginning of a true and full understanding of 
Heraldry. And at the best they can merely guess the real meaning of the most 
important parts and portions of armorial bearings, which at one time taught so much to 
the initiate. Of many symbols we do not even know the origin, far less the real 
meaning. Thus may I ask any expert in Heraldry, what is the true meaning and 
origin of the "vair"? Or what is the reason for the curious shape of the spots of 
Heraldic ermine, ermines, erminois and pean ? What does this double trinity of dots or 
heads and of three roots mean ? What is the true meaning of all the Ordinaries and of 
such figures as the fleur-de-lys ? What is the significance of the three lions or leopards 
of England ? Is there any possible connection between them and the motto " Dieu et 
mon Droit " .? Again, what is the explanation of that strange figure appearing in the 

1 With this may be compared the cords used in Brahminioal or Parsee initiation. 



I 



200 Transactions of the Quatuor Coronati Lodge. 

arms of the Isle of Man, commonly called the " three-legged Manxman," viz., " three 
legs in armour conjoined in the fess point," forming a kind of three-branched Svastika ? 
My impression is that in all these, and similar cases the true explanation was the 
secret of the Kings of Arms. This esoteric science being transmitted orally became for 
the most part lost, and exoteric and official explanations were substituted for the original 
ones. Moreover legends were invented in order to explain what really was inexplicable, 
and this rendered the confusion complete. We have observed the same thing before 
when speaking of the Order of the Garter, and similar things may be observed in very 
many other instances. 

In my introduction I hinted at the arms of an ancient Hungarian town, showing 
very ancient symbols, having undoubted esoteric meaning, and in my next chapter I 
shall quote some interesting instances of very ancient Hungarian family arms, 
containing that very ancient symbol of pagan origin and mystic significance, viz., the 
bloody head. 

After these further digressions, the necessity for which and their true connection 
with the matter in hand will be clear to the experienced reader, I must comeback to the 
matter originally in hand, and to the final conclusions with which I bring this chapter 
to a close. 

If all that I have said be carefully reviewed and fairly digested, I believe that 
any student versed in occult science, and particularly every Templar investigator, will 
agree with me on the following points, viz., that the Teutonic Eituals are a gem of great 
value from a general point of the view of the history of civilisation, as well as from a 
Templar standpoint, and that the Teutonic Rituals are to a great extent capable of 
throwing light upon many of the open questions concerning our Templar Rituals, and 
consequently our Templar origin, 

(1) It is my opinion that the Teutonic Rituals offer a justification for our present 
British Templar Rituals, and tend to prove they are essentially of ancient and Templar 
origin. It is a fact that the date when our Templar Rituals first came into existence 
cannot be precisely fixed. It is also a fact that they have been transmitted first orally 
and then also in writing from old times, and have thus come to us mutatis mutandis. If 
we were to suppose, as some assert, that they were invented, framed or compiled in 
recent times (though those who make the statements are not able to prove where, when, 
by whom, and in what manner this was done) it would be difficult to account for the 
fact that the Templar Rituals practised in the eighteenth century in different parts of 
the three kingdoms by bodies partly connected with Masonic bodies (Lodges and Royal 
Arch Chapters) and partly not so connected, were essentially the same everywhere, 
although no common Templar centre existed for either of these kingdoms, still less for 
the three combined. Perhaps we ought to make exception in the case of Ireland, as we 
do not exactly know the date of the foundation of the Early Grand Encampment. 
Further, it would be difficult to account for the inclusion of certain portions of these 
Templar Rituals, which must be of great antiquity, as their true meaning was not 
known in the eighteenth century and is not absolutely clear even now. This shows 
that these portions could not have been invented or compiled by fabricators, because no 
satisfactory and adequate explanation is given for them. It is but natural that no one 
will invent or even compile Rituals containing matter which he himself cannot under- 
stand. It follows then that such portions could not have been invented but must have 
come down to us from ancient times, in the form of tradition. Some of these portions 
bear a distinct likeness to certain portions of the Teutonic Rituals, and we know that 
these were formed on a Templar pattern, that they were kept secret and handed down 







Templaria et Sospitallaria. 201 

from one generation to another, from the Middle Ages to our own days, and only publicly 
revealed about forty years ago. It is quite impossible that the supposed compilers of 
our Templar Rituals could have imitated the Teutonic Rituals, because it is quite 
impossible they could have known them. No one knew them at the period with which 
we are dealing, except the professed Knights of the Teutonic Order, who were bound 
to secrecy by solemn oath. The supposed possible inventors or compilers of our Templar 
Rituals could not have been professed Knights of the Teutonic Order, who were to be 
Germans. They could have only been English, or, as a remote possibility, French. 
The result is the same in either case. 

The inference drawn from these facts can only be that similar portions of the 
Teutonic and of our Templar rituals must come from one common source, and this is 
the Old Templar Ritual, which, however, in its fully developed form (say of the 
thirteenth and fourteenth centuries) has not come down to us, but has been preserved 
partly in the Teutonic Rituals and partly in ours. Both underwent alterations, but some 
portions may have been preserved with us which were omitted in the Teutonic Rituals, 
and vice versa. 

Now, if the Teutonic and Templar Rituals were each the subject of a secret 
evolution, and yet exhibit a likeness on some points, it follows that our Templar Rituals 
cannot be an invention or compilation of recent date, but some portions must be of an 
ancient and Templar origin. 

I may say that there are other portions of our Rituals, the true origin and 
significance of which we do not find in any form in the Teutonic Rituals. The reason 
may be that such portions either never found their way into the Teutonic Rituals, 
possibly because of their esoteric nature, or, if they did, were again omitted later on, for 
which many reasons may be found. These other portions of our Templar Rituals 
furnish additional arguments in favour of my assertions which I will deal with in 
another chapter. 

(2) As the question of the antiquity of the present Templar Order and its descent 
from the ancient Order of the Temple chiefly hinges upon the question of the antiquity 
and the Templar origin of our Templar Rituals (that is to say upon the fact that we 
possess an old Templar Ritual which has come down to us in the way of transmission), 
it necessarily follows that the Teutonic Rituals are a justification for the antiquity of 
our Order and its Templar origin, its descent from and connection with the old mediseval 
Order of the Temple. 

If the old Order survived in some way or another, as I firmly believe it did, it 
must have preserved at least some portions of its old Rituals, observances and usages, 
as far as this was possible in those troublous times amid the fearful persecution of its 
members. The date of the foundation of our present Templar Order and of the origin 
of its Rituals (if we suppose it was not a continuation of the old Order) is, to say the 
least, wrapped in mystery, nor can it be absolutely fixed even by those who doubt our 
conclusions. Our Rituals show traces of mediae val Templarism, which could not have 
been inserted by compilers of a recent date, for the reason that they could not explain 
them. If then our Rituals cannot have been invented or compiled in modern times 
where cm they have had their origin, if not from the old Orders of the Knights 
Templar and of the Hospitallers of St. John ? 

If our Ritual is essentially an old and Templar Ritual, which supposition is 
supported partly by the Teutonic Rituals, and partly by other arguments which will be 
hereafter adduced, the inference is that we must have obtained it from the old Order of 






I 




202 



Transactions of the Quatuor Goronati Lodge. 



the Knights Templar, and consequently that we are in one way or another the offspring' 
or descendants of the old Order of the Temple, or of the combined Orders of the Temple 
and Hospital. 

(3) For the especial benefit of Templar students, I may add that the Teutonic 

Rituals tend, to some extent, to prove that the Chivalric Orders of the. Crusades had 

certain secret means of recognition which were essentially common to both. If this 

were so, this fact would be, per inversionem, another point in favour of the theory of the 

. antiquity of our Rituals and our Templar descent. 

I think that the great Templar and Templar scholar, Waller Rodwell "Wright 
must have held similar views, concerning some secret means of recognition amongst the 
Chivalries of the Crusades. Of course he could not bring evidence in support of his 
views, but must have held them by intuition, and certainly the above particulars seem 
to corroborate his views to some extent. 

To sum up the whole, the Teutonic Rituals, which undoubtedly have the force of 
such proof as can be derived from authentic medieeval documents, offer a justification 
for (1) The old and Templar origin of our Templar Rituals, and, consequently (2) for 
the antiquity and Templar descent of our Order. (;■{) Possibly they contain also 
particulars in favour of the contention that means of recognition were in use with the 
Chivalric Orders of the Crusades. 

Our Rituals contain many other portions of great antiquity and priceless value 
which offer additional arguments in the above direction. These I will reserve for the 
subsequent Chapters, and may add that in the very next chapter, if God grant me health 
and strength, I will deal with some most ancient symbols, viz., the different kinds of 
heads and the Holy Grail, and give my views on their significance, and their connection 
with the Order of the Temple. 

(End of Chapter I.) 








Transactions of the Quatuor Coronati Lodge. 



203 



OBITUARY. 




T is with regret we have to announce the deaths of Brothers : — 

James Smith, of Commercial Bank House, Markinch, Fife, 
N.B., on the 28th May. He held high office under the Grand Lodge 
of Scotland, being a member of Grand Committee, Past Provincial 
Grand Treasurer, Grand Recorder, and member of the Supreme 
Committee. He was also for a number of years editor of the Masonic 
Calendar for the Province of Dumfriesshire, but to English Masons is probably best 
known as the writer of many Lodge histories, including " St. Michael's, Kilwinning"; 
" Operative Lodge No. 1 10 " ; " Annan St. Andrew No. 79 " ; " St. Peter, Mouswald " ; 
" Dumfries Kilwinning " ; " St. Andrew No. 179 " ; " Sanquhar Kilwinning "- ■ as well 
as notes on Royal Arch Masonry in Dumfriesshire and on the Provincial Grand Masters 
of the Province. He joined the Correspondence Circle in October, 1891. 

Brigade Surgeon James Balfour Cockburn, M.D., Prov.Grand Master, 
Guernsey and Alderney, of Elm House, Guernsey, on the 9th June. He joined the 
Correspondence Circle in October, 1890. 

W. H. DaviS, of The Beehive Hotel, Bull Street, Birmingham, on the 12th 
June. He joined the Correspondence Circle in May, 1901. 

John Pyrah, P.Pr.G.St.B., W. Yorks., of Woodside, Huddersfield, on the 5th 
June. Our Brother was a P.M. of the Lodge of Truth No. 521, and at the time of his 
death occupied the first Chair in the Royal Arch Chapter attached thereto. He was 
appointed to the office of Provincial Grand Standard Bearer of West Yorkshire, in 1905, 
and was a steady supporter of the Masonic charitable Institutions. He joined the 
Correspondence Circle in January, 1906, and was Local Secretary for Huddersfield. 

Karl Andreas Gerstenkorn, P.G.St.B., New Zealand, of Esk Street, 

Invercargill, Southland, New Zealand, on 24th November, 1906. He joined the 

Correspondence Circle in May, 1901, and was Local Secretary for Southland, 
New Zealand. 

George Washington Lininger, Past Grand Master, Past Grand High Priest, 
Nebraska, of 224, North Eighteenth Street, Omaha, Nebraska, U.S.A., on the 8th June. 
Our Brother was received into Masonry, in 1856, in St. John's Lodge No. 13, Peru, 
Illinois, and on his removal to Nebraska some years later, joined the Capitol Lodge 
No. 3, of Omaha. His deep interest in the Craft generally found a particular outlet in 
connection with the Masonic Home at Plattsmouth, of which he was really the founder. 
Only three days before his death he attended a meeting of Grand Lodge and obtained 
an appropriation of $20,000 for the endowment of the Home. He joined the Corres- 
pondence Circle in June, 1902. 

Thomas Montgomery, Grand Secretary of Minnesota, of St. Paul, Minnesota, 
U.S.A., on the 1st July. He joined the Correspondence Circle in May, 1893. 






204 



Transactions of the Quatuor Goronati Lodge. 



Robert Barclay Shaw, of 94, Commerce Street, Glasgow. He joined the 
Correspondence Circle in Juno, 1895, and was a life member. 

Alfred 0. Hemming 1 , of St, Agnes, Pinner, Middlesex. He joined the Corres- 
pondence Circle in March, 1902. Ho was a descendant of the Rev. Samuel Hemming, D.D., 
who was appointed Senior Grand Warden in 1813. 

Thomas Bowman Whytehead, P.G.S.B.; P.Pr.G.W., North and East Yorks; 

of Acomb House, York, on the 5th September. He was elected a joining member of the 
Lodge on 7th April, 1886. His work in connection with this Lodge is too well known 
to need repetition. He served as W.M. in the year 1900, and was the author of a 
number of valuable works, many of which related to Freemasonry under the Grand 
Lodge of York. 

Henry Krauss, Past District Grand Master, P.Dis.G.Sup., Burma, of Chichester 
Boad, Chester, on the 17th September. He joined the Correspondence Circle in 
May, 1906. 

Arthur Edward Hallas, of 2, Henrietta Street, Spalding, accidontly drowned 
on the 11th September. He joined the Correspondence Circle in March, 1905. 

H. Kemp, of 7, Thavies Inn, Holborn Circus, London, E.C., on the 31st August. 
He joined the Correspondence Circle in May, 1901. 




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ARS QUATUOR CORONATORUM. 

COMPLETE _ SETS OF THE TRANSACTIONS.— Very few complete sets of Ars Quatuor Coronatoriim, vols. I 
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The principal contents of these volumes are as under, but many shorter articles, as well as reviews, notes and queries, 
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Vol. X., 1886-1888, not sold separately. On Some Old Scottish Customs, R. F. Gould ; The Steinmetz Theory Critically 
Examined, G. W. Speth ; An Early Version of the Hiramic Legend, Prof. T. Hayter Lewis ; Freemasonry and Hermeticism, 
Rev. A. F. A. Woodford ; On the Orientation of Temples, Sir G. Warren ; Connecting Links between Ancient and Modern 
Freemasonry, W. J. Hughan; The Religion of Freemasonry illuminated by the Kabbalah, Dr. W. W. Westcott; English 
Freemasonry before the Era of Grand Lodges, R. F. Gould ; Threefold Division of Temples, W . Simpson ; The Unrecognised 
Lodges and Degrees of Freemasonry, etc., /. Tarker; A Word on the Legends of the Compagnonnage, Part L, W. H. Rylands; 
Two New Versions of the Old Charges, Gf. W. Speth ; Scottish Freemasonry before the Era of Grand Lodges, G. W. Speth ; 
The Roman Legend of the Quatuor Coronati, #. Russell Fortes ; An Attempt to Classify the Old Charges of the British Masons, 
Dr. Begemann; Masters' Lodges, J. Lane; " Quatuor Coronati" Abroad, G. W. Speth; Scottish Freemasonry in the Present Era, 

E. Macbean ; Notes on the Relations between the Grand Lodges of England and Sweden in the last Century, 0. Kupferschmidt. 

Vol. II., 1889. The Worship of Death, W. Simpson ; The Compagnonage, Part n. ; Hogarth's Picture, " Night," W. B. 
Rylands; Foundation of Modern Freemasonry, G. W. Speth; Freemasonry in Rotterdam 120 years ago, /. P. Vaillant; 
Origin of Freemasonry, B. Cramer ; Grand Lodge at York, T. B. Whytehead ; Free and Freemason, F. F. Schnitger ; &o. 

Vol. III., 1890, not sold separately. The Antiquity of Masonic Symbolism, R.F.Gould; Evidence of the Steinmetz 
Esoterics, F. F. Schnitger; A Symbolic Chart of 1789, G. W. Speth; Masonic Character of the Roman Villa at Morton, Isle of 
Wight, Col. J. F. Crease, C.B. ; Masonry and Masons' Marks, Prof. T. Hayter Lewis; Masons' Marks, Dr. W. Wynn Westcott; 
Masons' Marks, F. F. Schnitger ; Mummers and Guisers, W.Simpson; Mosaics at Morton, S. Russell Forbes ; Freemasonry in 
Holland, F. J. W. Crowe ; The Grand Lodge of Hungary, L. de Malcsovich ; Brahminical Initiation, W. Simpson ; ' A Masonic 
Curriculum, G. W. Speth ; Freemasonry in America, C. P. MacCalla ; A Forgotten Rival of Freemasonry : The Noble Order of 
Bucks, W. H. Rylands ; Naymus Grascus, Wyatt Papworth ; Formation of the Grand Lodge of Scotland, E. Macbean. 

Vol. IV., 1891. The Druses and Freemasonry, Rev. Haskett Smith -, Freemasonry in Austria and Hungary, (continued in 
Vols. V. to IX.,) L. de Malczovich; Freemasonry in Holland, Dr. H. W. Dieperink, J. P. taillamt, F. J. W. Crimes The Swastiea, 
Mrs. Murray Aynsley ; Martin Clare ; Albert Pike, R. F. Gould ; Masonic Landmarks among the Hindus, Rev. P. J. Oliver Minos ; 
Unidentified MSS., W. J. Hughan ; The Alban and Athelstan Legends ; Naymus Grecua, C. C.Howard; Masonic Musicians' 
Dr. W. A. Barrett} A Masonic-built City, Dr. S. Russell-Forbes; Old Lodge at Lincoln, W. Dixon; The W. Watson MS.] 
Dr. Begemann ; Legend of Sethos, Sir B. W. Richardson ; Cobhani Church, W. M. Bywater ; Roval Arch Masonry, W. J. Hughan'; 
An Early Home of Masonry, W. F. Vernon, &o. 

Vol. V., 1892. The Noose Symbol, W. Simpson ; Freemasonry in Holland, J. P. Vaillant, Dr. Dieperink, J. D. Oortrnan. 
Gerlings; Masonic Clothing, F. J. W. Crotoe; The Craft Legend, Dr. Begemann; Masonic Genius of Robert Burns, 
Sir B. Ward Richardson ; Freemasons and the Laws of the Realm, W. Foolcs ; Thomas Manning-ham, R. F. Gould ; The Proper 
Names of Masonic Tradition, Rev. 0. J. Ball ; Date of Origin of Grand Lodge (Ancients) 1751, John Lane ; The Masonic Apron 
W. H. Rylands ; The Assembly, R. F. Gmdd, &o. 

Vol. VI., 1893, not sold separately. W. M. Williams, Sir B. W. Richardson; The Tabernacle, Rev. G. H. Maiden, 
Dr. W. W. Westcott; Sikh Initiation; Consecration of Parsee Priest, W. Simpson; The Tracing Board in Oriental and 
Medieval Masonry, C. Purdon Clarice; Ancient Stirling Lodge; Old Charges, W. J. Hughan; Rev. W. Stukeley; Dr. Robert 
Plot, R. F. Gould ; The Assembly, G. W. Speth, Dr. Begemann ; Masonic Clothing, F. J. W. Crowe, &c. 

Vol. VII., 1S94, not sold separately. From Labour to Refreshment, W. F. Vernon; Continental Jewels and Medals 

F. J. W. Crowe; The Rosicrucians, Dr. W. Wynn Westcott; Masters' Lodge at Exeter, W. J. Hughan; Master Masons to Crown 
of Scotland, E. Maclean; The True Text of MS. Constitutions, W. H. Upton; Random Courses of Scotch Masonry, J". Mclntyre 
North; Medical Profession and Freemasonry, R. F. Gould, &c. 

Vol. VIII., 1895. The Arch and Temple in Dundee, Thomas A. Lindsay; The Hon. Miss St. Leger, E. Conder jun ■ 
Notes on Irish Freemasonry, Dr. Chetwode Crawley; Some Masonic Symbols, W. H. Rylands; Duke of Wharton and the 
Gormogons, R. F. Gould; The Cabiri, G. Fits Gibbon; Early Lodges and Warrants, J. Lane; The two Saints John Legend 
Dr. Chetwode Crawley ; Death and the Freemason, E. J. Barron, &o. 

Vol. IX., 1896. Notes on Irish Freemasonry, Dr. Chetioode Crawley; The Masons' Company, E. Conder, jun.; German 
Freemasonry, G. Grevner, C. Wiebe, C. Kupferschmidt ; Law of Dakhiel, S. T. Klein; A Curious Historical Error, Dr W. Barlow- 
Bibliography of the Old Charges, W. J. Hughan, &c. ' 

Vol. X., 1897. Sir B. W. Richardson, R. F. Gould ; Free and Freemasonry, G. W. Speth ; Furniture of Shakespeare Lodge 
T. J. Ratney; Lodge at Mons, G. Jottrand; Masonic Contract, W.J. Hughan; Masonic Symbolism, Rev. J. W.Horsley ■ The Great 
symbol, S. T. Klein; The Three Degrees, W. J. Hughan; J. H. Drnmmond, R. F. Gould; Masonic Medals, G. L. Sh'acUes : The 
Sirkwall Scroll, Rev. J. B. Craven, &c. 

VOL. XL, 1898. Bodleian Masonic MSS., Dr. Chetivode Crawley; Hidden Mysteries, S. T. Klein; Two Degrees Theory 
3. W. Speth; Order of the Temple, J". Yarher; Freemasonry in Greece, N. Philon; Charles n. and Masonry, E. Conder, jun'- 
Batty Langley on Geometry, Henry Lovegrove ; Robert Samber, E. Armitage ; Sussex Notes, W. if. Rylands ; The John T Thorc 
MS., W. J. Hughan, &c. ' y 

x w r J°\ XU £ 18 ? 9 - . T - H - Lewis ' C - Pur d™ Clarke; English Lodge at Bordeaux, G. W. Speth; Intimations of Immortality 
J. W.Horsley; West African Secret Societies, H. P. FiU-Gerald Marriott; Leicester Masonry, G. W. Speth; Descriptions of King 
Solomons Temple, 8. P. Johnston ; Jacob Jehndah Leon, W .7 .Chetwode Crawley; Establishment of Grand Lodge of Ireland 
W- Begemann; W. Simpson, E. Maclean; Vestigia Quatxsr Coronatoreim, G. Purdon Clarke. 





Vol. XIII., 1900. The York Grand Lodge, John Lane, W. J. Bughan ; The Chevalier Barnes, B. F. Gould ; Prince Hall's 
Letter Book, W. B. Upton; The 31st Foot and Masonry in West Florida, R. F. Gould; Quatuor Coronati in Belgium. 
Count Goblet d'Alviella ; Relics of the Grand Lodge at York, T. B. Whytehead ; The Sackvihe Medal, Dr. W. J. Chetivode Crawley ; 
Chivalric Freemasonry in the British Isles, Sir Charles A. Cameron; Inaugural Address, E. Gander, jun. ; &o. 

VOL. XIV., 1901. The Alnwick Lodge Minutes, W. B. Rylands; The 47th Proposition, T. Greene, W. H. Rylands; 
Military Masonry, R. F, Gould ; The Miracle Play, M. Dander, jun.; The " Settegast " Grand Lodge of Germany, G. W. Speth ; 
In Memoriam— G. W. Speth: Sir Walter Beaaut, W. B. Rylands; Naymus Grecus, G. W. Speth; Marcus Grsecus Eversus, 
Dr. Chetwode Crawley ; Leicestershire Masonry, E. Gander, jun. ; Remarks, &c, on the " Sloane Family," Dr. W. Begemann j 
The "Testament of Solomon," Rev. W. B. Windle ; Antony Sayer, A. F. Calvert; Inaugural Address, Gotthelf Greiner ; 
" Wheeler's Lodge," Dr. Chetwode Crawley ; &c. 

Vol. XV, 1902. Sir Peter Lewys, B. F. Berry ; Sir John Doyle, R. F. Gould; Theodore Sutton Parkin, R. F. Gould; 
Building of Culham Bridge, W. B. Rylands ; Solomon's Seal and the Shield of David, Rev. J. W. Borsley; The Gormogon Medal, 
G. L. Shackles ; Coins of the Grand Masters of the Order of Malta, G. h. Shackles; Samuel Beltz, E. A. Ebhlewhite ; Two French 
Documents, W. B. Rylands; The Wesleys aid Irish Freemasonry, Dr. Chetwode Crawley; Summer Outing, F. J. Relman; 
Charter Incorporating the Trades of Gateshead, W. H. Rylands; The Reception (Initiation) of a Templar, E. J. Castle] 
Inaugural Address— Secret Societies, E.J. Castle; Early Irish Certificates, Dr. Chetwode Crawley; The Old Swalwell Lodge! 
J. Yarker ; Craft Guilds of Norwich, J. C. Tingey ; &c, &o. 

Vol. XVI., 1903. Some Notes on the Legends of Masonry, W. B. Rylands ; Masonic Certificates of the Netherlands, 
F. J. W. Crowe; The Degrees of Pure and Ancient Freemasonry, R. F. Gould; A Curious Old Illuminated Magic Roll, 
W. J. Bnghan; Order of Masonic Merit, W. J. Bughan; Notes on Irish Freemasonry, No. VII., Dr. Chetwode Crawley; 
William of Wykeham, E. Gander, jun.; Three Great Masonic Lights, R. F. Gould; Philo Musics? et Architecture Societaa 




- -eemasonry .« 

Gounod s Opera, Irene the Queen of Sheba, John T. Thorp; The Ionic Lodge, No. 227, London, W. John Songhurst; Knights 
Templars, F. B. Goldney; Speth Memorial Fund; Chichester Certificates, 18th century, John T. Thorp; Summer Outing, 
June, 1903, W. John Songhurst; The Chevalier D'Bon, W. J. Chetwode Orawley; The Magic Roll, Dr. W. Wynn Wesicott, &o. 

Vol. XVII., 1904. Colours in Freemasonry, F. J. W. Grows; Dr. Robert Fludd, E. Armitage; Minutes of an Extinct 
Lodge, E. A. J Breed; Budrum Castle, Admiral Sir A. B. Markham ; The Very Ancient Clermont Chapter ; The High Grades 
in Bristol and Bath, J. Yarker; The "Chetwode Crawley" M.S., W.J. Bughan; Irish Certificates, S. 0. Bingham, W. John 
Songhurst; Accounts of Re-building St. Paul's Cathedral, Canon J. W. Borsley, Andrew Oliver ; Summer Outing, Worcester, 
W.John Songhurst; The Grand Lodge of Ireland and the Grand Lodge of Pennsylvania, Dr. Chetwode Crawley; A Glance at the 
Records of Two Extinct Hull Lodges, G. L. Shackles ; Templaria et Hospitallaria, L. de Malcsovich • Inaugural Address— The 
Government of the Lodge, Canon J. W. Borsley ; Notes on Irish Freemasonry, No. VIII., Dr. Chetwode Crawley ; &c, to. 

Vol. XVIII., 1905. The Rev. James Anderson and the Earls of Buchan, J. T. Thorp ; The "Marencourt" Cup and 
Ancient Square, E. F. Berry ; The Rev. Dr. Anderson's Non-Masonic Writings, Dr. Chetwode Crawley ; Speculative Members 
included in Bishop Cosin's Charter incorporating the Trades of Gateshead, 1671, St. Maur ; The Kipperah, or Bora; An 
Unrecorded Grand Lodge, B. Sadler; Origin of Masonic Knight Templary in the United Kingdom, W.J, Bughan; Jean 
Baptiste Marie Ragon, W. J. Songhurst ; Moses Mendez, Grand Steward, J. P. Simpson; Mock Masonry in the Eighteenth 
Century, Dr. Chetwode Crawley ; Masonic Chivalry, J. Littleton; Some Fresh Light on the Old Bengal Lodges, Rev. W. K. 
Firminger ; A Newly Discovered Version of the Old Charges, F. W. Levander ; An Old York Templar Charter, J. Yarker; The 
Naimus Grecus Legend, I., E. B. Dring ; Summer Outing— Chester, W. J. Songhurst; Contemporary Comments on the 
Freemasonry of the Eighteenth Century, Dr. W. J. Chetwode Craioley ; Rev. Fearon Fallows, M.A., W. F. Lamonby ; Installation 
Address, G. L. Shackles; A Forgotten Masonic Charity, F. J. W. Crowe; &c, &c. 

Vol. XIX., 1906. Old City Taverns and Masonry, J. P. Simpson; The Carolus of our Ancient MSB., J. Yarker ; The Sirr 
Family and Freemasonry, B. Sirr; The Naimus Grecus Legend, II., E. B. Dring; Seals on " Antients " Grand Chapter 
Certificates, J. T. Thorp; The Lodge of Prudent Brethren, B. Guy; Templaria et Hospitallaria, L. de Malczovich; A Unique 
Engraved List of Lodges, "Ancients," a.d. 1753, W. J. Bughan; The Sea Serjeants, W. B. Bextall ; "Demit" and Jewel of 
Ancient Lodge, G. L. Shackles; King Solomon and the Queen of Sheba, F. J. W. Crowe ; J. Morgan, and his "Phoenix 
Britannicus," B. Sirr; Order of the Knights of the Holy Sepulchre of Jerusalem, E. de Malczovich; Studies in Eighteenth 
Century Continental (so-called) Masonry, Rev. W. E. Firminger; The Equilateral Triangle in Gothic Architecture, Arthur 
Bowes ; Summer Outing, Shrewsbury and Ludlow, W. John Songhurst; Notes on the Grand Chaplains of England, Canon 
Borsley; Eighteenth Century Masonic Documents, Archdeacon. Clarke; Gnosticism and Templary, E. J. Castle; An Old 
Engraved Apron, St. Maur; Notes on a Curious Certificate and Seal, Win. Wynn Westcott; Arab Masonry, John Yarker; 
&c, &c. 

Vol. XX., 1907. John Cole, W. John Songhurst; On Masonic History, John Yarker; Some old London Taverns and 
Masonry, J. P. Simpson; Proceedings against the Templars, 1307-11, E. J. Castle; A Belgian Daughter of the Grand Lodge 
of Scotland, Count Goblet d'Alviella; Freemasom-y Parodied in 1754 by Slade's "Freemason Examin'd," J. T. Thorp; 
Notes on the Metal Work of St. Paul's Cathedral, London, and Jean Tijou's"Designs and Ironwork therein, Chas. J. R. Tijou ; 
Templaria et Hospitallaria, Ladislas de Malcsovich ; 

In progress. 



MASONIC REPRINTS. 

OF these Masonic Reprints, consisting mainly of exquisite facsimiles, a few copies in each, case of the following volumes 
are still in stock. Vols. I., II., III., IV. and VIII. are oat of print. 

QUATUOR CORONA.TORUM ANTIGRAPHA. 
Volume I. (out of print contains: — 

Facsimile and Transcript of the " Masonic Poem " MS., Bib. Reg. 17 A. 1. (British Jfitseisw). This MS. is the 
earliest document (circa 1390) in existence, in any tongue, relating to Freemasonry. It was first published in 1840 
by J. Orchard Halliwell with a facsimile of four lines, and again in 1844 with a facsimile of the first, page. This 
was at once translated into several languages, causing -great interest throughout the Craft. 

Facsimile and Transcript of " Urbanitatis " Oott. MS., Caligula A. EL, fol. 88. (British Museum). 

Facsimile and Transcript from " Instructions for a Parish Priest," Cott. MS., Claudius A. II., fol. 127. (British 
Museum). These two old MSS. contain passages identical witli some of those which appear iu the " Poem." 

"The Plain Dealer," No. 51, Monday, September 14th, 1724. Au article on the Freemasons, concluding with the 
celebrated letters on tbe " Gormogons." This is reproduced from tho copy presented to the Lodge by Bro. 
Ramsden Riley, and only one other copy is known to exist. Portions of the article were printed in "The Grand 
Mystery," 2nd edition, 1725. 

" An Ode to the Grand Khaibar," 1726. Tin's reproduction is also made from the copy iu the Lodge Library, 
presented by Bro. T. B, Whytehead, no other copy being known to exist. The Khaibarites were apparently a some- 
what similar Society to the Gormogons, and were equally the rivals of the Freemasons. 

"A Defence of Masonry." The Free Mason's Pocket Companion, 2nd edition, 1733. (£?■■ ! • ,>il<ind Library), 

" Brother Euclid's Letter to the Author." The New Book of Constitutions, ... by James Anderson, D.D., 
London, . . . 1738. (Grand Lodge of England Library). 

A Commentary on the " MMonic Poem," " Urbanitatis," and " Instructions for a Parish Priest," by Bro. R. F. Gould. 

Maps and Glossary. 

Iu Vols. II. to VT. is reproduced a series of tho MS. Constitutions or " Old Qh&rgeSj" which fully represents tho 
various "families" into which all known copies of these interesting documents have been classified by 
Dr. Eegemauu. 

Volome II. (<mf of print) contains : — 

Facsimile and Transcript of the " Matthew Cooke MS." Add. M3., 23LM8 (British Mttseuw), with Commentary 
thereon by Bro. G. W. SpBth. This MS. is believed to have been written about the beginning of the 15th century. 
It is next in point, of interest to the " Regius MS," (Masonic Poem) published in Yol. I. and ia piobajjly fiiiud to it 
in interest. 

Facsimile aud Transcript of the " Landsdowne MS." No. 98, art 4S, f. 276 b. (British Museum). The late Mr. Bond 
estimated the date of this MS. at about 1600, but as it ia believed to have formed part ol' the collection of Lord 
Burghiey, who died A.o. 1598, its age is probably greater. 

Facsimile aud Transcript of i h.- "Harleian MS." So. 11)42. (British Museum). The question of the date of this MS. is 
all-important and has given rise to much discussion. Mr. Bond and others ascribe it to the beginning of the 17th 
century, though other commentators such as Bro. Gould believe that the contents are seal with this 

theory. 

Volume ITI. (out of print) contains: — 

Facsimile of the " Harleian MS." No. 2034, fo. 22. (British Museum). With Introduction and Transcript. This MS. 
1 7th century anil contains, besides the usual legends and laws, a carious list of payments made "to be a 
mason," also the Freemasons' oath in the handwriting of Randle Holme, the herald and antiquary. 

Facsimile of the " Sloane MS." No. 3S4S. ( British Museum). W ith Introduction and Transcript. 

Facsimile of the "Sloane MS." No. 3323. (British Museum). With Introduction and Transcript. The dates of 
these two MSS. are 1646 and 1649 respectively. 

Facsimile of the "William Watson MS." Roll. (Masotdc Library, Province of West Yorkshire, Wtikt'jield). With 
Transcript, and Commentary by Bro. G. C. Howard, For many reasons this is one of the most interesting and 
important in the series of "Old Charges" which has yet been discovered. It is dated 1687, and is the only one 
shewing signs of derivation from the celebrated " Matthew Cooke MS." 

Facsimile (one page) of the "Cama MS." With Introduction and Transcript. This MS. is ia the possession of tbe 
Lodge, and has not before been published in any form. It supplies a link loug missing between the " Grand Lodge" 
and " Spencer" families of these old writings. 



Volume IV. (out of print) contains : — 

Facsimile of the "Grand Lodge No. 1, MS." Roll. (Grartd Lodge Library). With Introduction and Transcript. 
This Roll is dated 25th December, 1583, is the oldest one extant with a date attached, presumably the third or 
fourth oldest known, aud its text is of especial value, insomuch that in Dr. Begemann's classification it gives its 
name to the most important family of these documents and to the most important branch of that family. 

Facsimile of the " Grand Lodge No. 2, MS." Roll. (Grand Lodge Librury). With Introduction and Transcript. 
Tho great value of this MS. apart from its beauty, ties in the fact that it corroborates the test of, the Harleian 1942 
MS. (see Vol. II.), whose authority has been severely called in question by some students. 

Facsimile of the " Buchanan MS." Roll. (Grand Lodge Library). With Introduction and Transcript. This MS. 
has once before been printed (in Gould's " History.") Its date would presumably be about 1670. 

Facsimile of "The Beginning and First Foundation of the Most Worthy Craft of Masonry . . . 

Printed for Mrs. Dodd . . . 1739." With Introduction. This print is so rare thttt in addition to the 
copy iu the Library of Grand Lodge, from which our facsimile is taken, only two others are known to exist, and both 
of these are in the U.S.A. 

Facsimile (two pages) of the " Harris No. 2 MS." (Bound up with a copy of the "Freemasons' Calendar for 1781," 
in the British Museum, Ephemerides, pp. 2493, gaa.) With Introduction aud Transcript, Although of so late a date 
the additions to the ordinary test presented by this version are of great interest and curiosity. 



ter, gun. 



™™. ™ X1V -'^- T ?f -"° wlcb Lo ^ge Minutes, W. X. Rylands; The 47th Proposition, T. Greene, W. H. Rylands; 
Military Masonry, R. F. Gould ; The Miracle Play, E. Courier, gun. ; The " Settegast " Grand Lodge of Germany, G. W. Sveth ■ 
In Meniomm— G. W. Speth: Sir Walter Besaut, W. H. Rylands; Naymus Greens, G. W. Speth; Marcus Grtecus Eversus! 
Dr. Chetivod-e Crawley Leicestershire Masonry, E. Gander, gun.; Remarks, &e., on the " Sloane Family," Dr. W.Beqemann- 
^5, Testament of Solomon,*' Bee. W. E. Windle; Antony Sayer, A. F. Calvert; Inaugural Address, Gotthelf Greiner 
Wheeler a Lodge, Dr. Chetwode Crawley; &e. 

v • 1 t VoL A V V, 1902 o Sir Peter Lewys, ff. F. Berry ; Sir John Doyle, B. F. Gould; Theodore Sutton Panin, R. F. Gotdd; 
Building of Culham Bridge, W. H. Rylands ; Solomon's Seal and the Shield of David, Rev. J. W. Horsley; The Gormogon Medal 
G. L. Shackles; Coins of the Grand Masters of the Order of Malta, G. L. BhacUes; Samuel Beltz, M. A. MbUewhite, Two French 
Documents, W. H Rylands- The Wesleys aid Irish Freemasonry, Dr. Chetwode Crawley, Summer Outing, F. J. Relman.; 
Charter Incorporating the Trades of Gateshead, W. H. Rylavds; The Inception (Initiation) of r* Templar, E. J. Cattle- 
Inaugural Address- Secret Societ.es, E.J. Castle; Early Irish Certificates, Dr. Chetwode Crawley The Old Swalwell Lod°-e 
J. Yarker; Craft Guilds of Norwich, J. C. Tingey ; &c, &o. " ° 




William of Wykeham, E Gander , gun.; Three Great Masonic Lights, R.F.Gould; Philo Musics et Architecture Sooietaa 
ApolhniB. F Go«W; A French Prisoners' Lodge, F.J. W. Crowe; The Maffio Scroll (text and facsimile); Royal Templar 
Certificate of 17/9 J Yarher ; The Patent of a Russian Grand Lodge, 1815, X Yarher; A Curious Carbonari Oextifiraite 
F. J. W. Crowe- A Pompe Funebre," John T. Thorp; Order of St. John of Jerusalem, W. M. Mylcmck ; Freemasonry in 
Gounod s Opera Irene the Queen of Sheba, John T. Thorp ; The Ionic Lodge, So. 227, Loudon, W. John Sandhurst; Knights 
Templars , F-H. Goldney ; Speth Memorial Fund; Chichester Certificates, 18th century. Jul,,, T. Thorp; Summer Outing, 
June, 1903, W- John Songhurst ; The Chevalier D'Eon, W. J. Chetwode Crawley; The Magic Boll, Dr. W. Wyim Wevtcatt, &c 

Vol. XVII., 1904. Colours in Freemasonry, F. J. W. Crowe; Dr. Robert Fludd, E. Armitage; Minutes of an Extinct 
Lodge, E. A. J Breed ; Budrum Castle, Admiral Sir A. H. Marhham ; The Very Ancient Clermont Chapter ; The Hi«'h Grades 
m Bristol and Bath, J. Yarher ; The "Chetwode Crawley" M.S., W. J. Hughan ; Irish Certificates, ,3. C. Bingham, W John 
Bonghurst; Accounts of Re-building St. Paul's Cathedral, Canon J. W. Horsley, Andrew Oliver ; Summer Outin°- Worcester 
W. John Songhurst ; The Grand Lodge of Ireland and the Grand Lodge of Pennsylvania, Dr. Chetwode Crawley ■ A Glance at the 
Records of Two Extinct Hull Lodges, G. L. Shackles ; Templaria et Hospitallaria, L. de Malcsovich; Inaugural Address— The 
Government of the Lodge, Canon J. W. Horsley, Notes on Irish Freemasonry, No. VIII., Dr. Chetwode Crawley ; &c, &o. 

_ Vol. XVIII., 1905. The Rev. James Anderson and the Earls of Bnehan, J. T. Thorp-, The " Marenoourt " Cup and 
Ancient Square, II. F. Berry ; The Rev. Dr. Anderson's Non-Masonic Writing, Dr. Chetwode Crawley, Speculative Members 
included in Bishop Cosin's Charter incorporating the Trades of Gateshead. 1071, St. Haur ■. The Kippera.li, or Bora; An 
Unrecorded Grand Lodge, H. Sadler; Origin of Masonic Knight Templarv in the United Kingdom, W.J, Hughan- Jean 
Baptiste Marie K agon, W. J. Songhurst ; Moses Mendez, Graud Steward, J.' P. Stepson , Mock Masonry iu the' Eighteenth 
Oentury, Dr. Chet-uidde Crawley; Masonic Chivalry, J. Unlet en ; Some Fresh Light on the Old Bengal Lodges Rev W K 
Fmmnger; A Newly Discovered Version of the Old Charges, F. W. Levander ; An Old York Templar Charter J. Xa/rker- The 
Naimns Greens Legend, J„ E. H. Dring ; Summer Outing— Chester, If. J. Bonglmrst; Coutemporarr Comments on the 
Freemasonry of the Eighteenth Century, Dr. W. J. Ch ,:Uu ; Rev. Fearon Fallows, M.A., W. F. Lamonhy ■ Installation 

Address, G. L. Shaclcles; A Forgotten Masonic Charity, F. J. IF. Crowe; &c, &c, 

Vol. XIX., 1906. Old City Taverns and Masonry, J. P. Simpson ; The Carolus of our Ancient MSS., J. Yarher ; The Sirr 




Ancient Lodge, G. L. Shackles; King Solomon and the Queen of Sheba, F. J. W. Crowe; J. Morgan, and his "Phoenix 
Britanmcus,'- H. Sirr; Order of the Knignts of the Holy Sepulchre of Jerusalem, L. de Malczovich; Studies in Eighteenth 
Century Continental (so-called) Masonry, Rev. W. E. Firminger ; The Equilateral Triangle in Gothic Architecture, Arthur 
Bowes ; Summer Outmg, Shrewsbury and Ludlow, W. John Songhurst ; Notes on the Grand Chaplains of England, Canon 
Horsley, Eighteenth Century Masonic Documents, Archdeacon Clarke; Gnosticism and Templary, E. J. Castle-, An Old 
Engraved Apron, St. JUaur ; Notes on a Curious Certificate and Seal, Wm. Wynn Westcott; Arab Masonrv, John Yarher; 
&c, &c. 

Vol. XX., 1907. John Cole, W. John Songhurst; On Masonic History, John Yarher; Some old London Taverns and 
Masonry, J. P. Simpson; Proceedings against the Templars, 1307-11, E. J. Castle; A Belgian Daughter of the Grand Lodge 
of Scotland, Count Goblet d'Alviella; Freemasonry Parodied in 1754 by Slade's "Freemason Examin'd," J. T. Thorp; 
Notes on the Metal Work of St. Paul's Cathedral, London, and Jean Tijou's" Designs and Ironwork therein, Chas. J. R. Tijou ; 
Templaria et Hospitallaria, Ladislas de Malcsovich; 

In progress. 





-s-3jc Ars **■ 





uatuor ^oroiatoram 

BEING THE TRANSACTIONS OP the 

QUATUOR CORONATI LODGE NO. 2076, LONDON. 



FROM THE ISABELLA MISSAL. 




1 



BRITISH MUSEUM, ADD. MS8, 18,851 
CIRCA, 1500 A.D. 



EDITED FOB TEE COMMITTEE BY W. H. BYLANB8, F.8.A., P.A.G.D.O., 
and W. J.. SONGBURST, A.G.D.O. . 



VOLUME XX. PART 3. 



CONTENTS. 



The Scottish Lodge at Narnur 
Sir Walter Soott as a Freemason 



Summer Outing, Bury St. Edmund's and 

Ely 221 

Another French Prisoners' Lodge ... ... 226 

Proceedings, 4th October ... ... ... 230 

Exhibits 231 

The Great Lodge,Swaffham, Norfolk, 1764- 

1785 232 

TheBainMS 249 



PAGB. 
.. 205 
.. 209 



Proceedings against the Templars in Prance 

' and England for Heresy, etc., A.D. 1307-11 269 

Proceedings, 8th November 

Exhibits 

Inaugural Address 

Dr. Dodd, Grand Chaplain . 

Reviews .... 

Notes and Queries ... 

Obituary 



343 
345 
346 
352 
356 
366 
372 



H. Keble, Printer, Margate. 
1907. 






THE QUATTJOB, COK.ONATI LODGE 19*0. 2076, LONDON, 

was warranted on the 38th Novemher, 1884 9 in order 

1. — To provide a centre and bond of union for Masonic Students. 

2. — To attract intelligent Masons to its meetings, in order to imbue them with a love for Masonio research. 

3.— To submit the discoveries or conclusions of students to the judgment and criticism of their fellows by means < 
papers read in Lodge. 

4. — To submit these communications and the discussions arising thereon to the general body of the Craft by publishing 
at proper intervals, the Transactions of the Lodge in their entirety. 

5. — To tabulate concisely, in the printed Transactions of the Lodge, the progress of the Craft throughout the World. 

6.— To make the English-speaking Craft acquainted with the progress of Masonic study abroad, by translations (i 
whole or part) of foreign works. 

7.— To reprint scarce and valuable works on Freemasonry, and to publish Manuscripts, &c. 

8. — To form a Masonic Library and Museum. 

9. — To acquire permanent London premises, and open a reading-room for the members. 



and 







The membership is limited to forty, in order to prevent the Lodge becoming unwieldy. 

No members are admitted without a high literary, artistic, or scientific qualification. 

The annual subscription is one guinea, and the fees for initiation and joining are twenty guineas 
respectively. 

The funds are wholly devoted to Lodge and literary purposes, and no portion is spent in refreshment. The membe; 
usually dine together after the meetings, but at their own individual cost. Visitors, who are cordially welcome, enjoy tl 
option of partaking — on the same terms — of a meal at the common table. 

The stated meetings are the first Friday in January, March, May, and October, St. John's Day (in Harvest), and tl 
8th November, (Feast of the Quatuor Coronati). 

At every meeting an original paper is read w hich is followed by a discussion. 

The Transactions of the Lodge, Are Quatuor Goronatorum, are published towards the end of April, July, and Decembi 
in each year. They contain a summary of the business of the Lodge, the full text of the papers raad in Lodge together wii 
the discussions, many essays communicated by the brethren but for which no time can be found at the meetings, biographie 
historical notes, reviews of Masonic publications, notes and queries, obituary, and other matter. They are profusely illustrati 
and handsomely printed. . 

The Antiquarian Reprints of the Lodge, Quatuor Goronatorum Antigrapka, appear at undefined intervals, and consist - 
facsimiles of documents of Masonic interest with commentaries or introductions by brothers well informed on the subjeo 
treated of. 

The St. John's Card is a symbolic plate, conveying a greeting to the members, and is issued on or about tl 
27fch December of each year. It forms the frontispieoe to a list of the members of the Lodge and of the Correspondence Cirol 
with their Masonic rank and addresses, and is of uniform size with the Transactions with which it is usually bound up as i 
appendix. 

The Library has now been arranged in the new offices at No. 61, Lincoln's Inn Fields, London, where Members of boi 
Circles may consult the books on application to the Assistant Secretary and Librarian. 
To the Lodge is attached an outer or 

CORRESPONDENCE CIRCLE. 
This was inaugurated in January, 1887, and now numbers over 2900 members, comprising many of the most disti 
gaished brethren of the Craft, such as Masonic Students and Writers, Grand Masters, Grand Secretaries, and more thi 
300 Grand Lodges, Supreme Councils, Private Lodges, Libraries and other corporate bodies. 
The members of our Correspondence Circle are placed on the following footing : — 

1. — The summonses convoking the meetings are posted to them regularly. They are entitled to attend all the meetin 
of the Lodge whenever convenient to themselves, but, unlike the members of the Inner Circle, their attendance is not evi 
morally obligatory. When present they are entitled to take part in the discussions on the papers read before the Lodge, and 
introduce their personal friends. They are not visitors at our Lodge meetings, but rather associates of the Lodge. 
2. — The printed Transactions of the Lodge are posted to them as issued. 
8. — The St. John's Card is sent to them annually. 

4. — They are, equally with the full members, entitled to subscribe for the other publications of the Lodge, such as tho 
mentioned under No. 7 above. 

5. — Papers from Correspondence Members are gratefully accepted, and as far as possible, recorded in the Transaction 
6. — They are accorded free admittance to our Library and Heading Rooms. 

A Candidate for Membership in the Correspondence Circle is subject to no qualification, literary, artistic, or soientif 
His election takes place at the Lodge-meeting following the receipt of his application. 

Brethren elected to the Correspondence Circle after the end of the current (1907) financial year will pay a joinii 
fee of twenty-one shillings to include the subscription to the following 30th November. 

The annual subscription is only half-a-guinea (10s. 6d.), and is renewable each December for the year next followii 
Brethren joining us late in the year will suffer no disadvantage, as they will receive all the Transactions previously issued in t 
same year. 

It will thus be seen that, without the payment of any joining fee and for only half the annual subscription, the membe 
of the Correspondence Circle enjoy all the advantages of the full members, except the right of voting in lodge matters a; 
holding office. 

Members of both Circles are -requested to favour the Secretary with communications to be read in Lodge and subi 
quently printed. Members of foreign jurisdictions will, we trust, keep us posted from time to time in the current Masonio histc 
of their districts. Foreign members can render still further assistance by furnishing us at intervals with the names of m 
Masonic Works published abroad, together with any printed reviews of such publications. Communications may he address 
to the Secretary in English, German or French. 

Members should also bear in mind that every additional member increases our power of doing good by publishi 
matter of interest to them. Those therefore, who have already experienced the advantage of association with us, are urged 
advocate our cause to their personal friends, and to induce them to join us. Were each member annually to send us one n< 
member, we should soon be in a position to offer them many more advantages than we already provide. Those who can help 
in no other way, can do so in this. 

Every Mason in good standing throughout the Universe, and all Lodges, Chapters, and Libraries or other corpori 
bodies are eligible as Members of the Correspondence Circle. 

LIFE MEMBERSHIP. — By the payment in one sum of Twelve years Subscription in advance, i.e., six guine: 
individual Brethren may qualify as Life Members of the Correspondence Circle. Corporate Bodies may qualify as Life Memtx 
by a similar payment of Twenty -five years Subscription. Expulsion from the Graft will naturally entail a forfeiture of Memb 
Bhip in the Correspondence Circle, and the Lodge also reserves to itself the full power of excluding any Correspondei 
Member whom it may deem to be Masonically (or otherwise) unworthy of continued membership. 



Aes Quatuok Coeohatorum. 










(- /.I 



1 // / 

HilUrC ■'O.MC -~ 



7 7(('//i& 




y 



V /.*, 



vst/// 





AkS QtTATDOR CoRONATORUM. 



I 




Transactions of the Quatuor Goronati Lodge, 



205 



THE SCOTTISH LODGE AT NAMUR. 

BY BRO. FRED J. W. CROWE, F.R. Hist. S., P.G.O. 




READ with peculiar interest Count D'Alviella's valuable paper on the 
above subject, as by a piece of good fortune I am able to throw some 
additional light on the matter. A few years ago, in the course of my 
certificate collecting, I acquired two old diplomas of this very Lodge. 

The first is as follows : — 

Numen — Lumen. 

Les Tres Respectable Maitre, Passe Maitres, Surveillants, autres Officiers 
et Membres de la Loge Ancienne ditte de la Parfaite Union a l'Orient de 
Namur, a tous nos legitimes f wires sur la surface de la terre^ Salut par la 
Ntombre Connu, Savoir faisons que le nome Gerrar Jean Pyman, natif de 
Deventer, age de Vingt Cinq ans, s'etant presente a nous pour etre Recu 
dans la noble et ancienne Societe des Francs-Macons, Convaincti de son 
merite, Nous le tres-Respectable Maitre, passe Maitre, Surveillants, &c, 
&o. ; en Vertu des Constitutions, nous Octrojees par la mere Loge 
D'Ecosse, a L'Orient D'Edimbourg, avons le dit Gerrar Jean Pyman Recu 
membre de la noble et ancienne Societe des Francs-Macons, et l'avons eleve 
au Grade de Maitre, selon les uses et Coutumes pratiquees de tous terns, 
en foi de quoi nous luiavons fait expedier le present Certificat. Signe du 
tres Respectable, de deux Passe-MaitreS, des Surveillants et de lui meme 
| : no decipiemur : \ Contresigne de notre Secretaire, et Selle de nos 
seeaux ordinaire. Donne en Plaine Loge a l'Orient de Namur, ce 81 Mai 
5779 

0. J. Pyman Mahy 

Mormal, Secretaire. A. Marnin. Malotau de Fooz. 

Pr. Surv. Grand El a. D'Autrebande D'AnMe. S d . Surv 

Grand Elu. 
The translation is : — 

The emanation of the Deity is Light. 1 

The Very Respectable Master, Past Masters, Wardens, other Officers and 
members of the ancient Lodge entitled of the Perfect Union, at the Orient 
of Namar, to all our lawful brothers on the surface of the earth, greeting 
by the number known [to us] Be it known that the named Gerrai? Jean 
Pyman, native of Deventer, aged twenty-five years, having presented 
himself to us in order to be received into the noble and ancient Society of 
, Freemasons, being convinced of his merit, we the very respectable Master, 
Past Masters, Wardens, etc., etc., by virtue of the Constitutions granted to 
us by the Mother Lodge of Scotland [i.e., the Grand Lodge] at the Orient 
of Edinburgh, have received the said Jerrar Jean Pyman, as a member of 
the noble and ancient Society of Freemasons, and have raised him to the 

1 This is one of the untranslateable alliterations CQnimon in Mediaeval Latin, but the rendering 
here given conveys the idea. 



, 



206 



Transactions of the Quatuor Coronati Lodge. 



grade of Master, according to the usages and customs practised in all 
times, in faith of which we have granted him the present certificate. 
Signed by the very Respectable, by two Past Masters, the Wardens, and 
also by himself (we will never be deceived) Counter-signed by our Secre- 
tary, and sealed with our ordinary seal. Given in Open Lodge at the 
Orient of Namur 31 May 5779 [1775]. 

The date 5779 is undoubtedly correctly rendered 1775, as, from a proof I shall 
give later, the members adhered to the Scottish custom of adding 4004 to the vulgar era. 

There are two seals on light blue ribbon. That on the left shows a celestial 
crown, sun, moon, seven stars, palm branches, and rainbow surmounted by what is, 
presumably, a dove. The motto reads " Numen □ JJiSn Lumen." The other is a 
large and handsome seal, in tin box, with the crest and arms of the G. L. Scotland, and 
motto, " Nostrum Dominus Deus Prassidium." 

The second certificate runs thus : — 

De l'Orierit d'un Lieu tres-St . . . tres-Fort ... & tres Eclaire 
. . . ou regnent le Silence, la Paix, & l'Egalite. 

A tous les Respectables Grands-Maitres Salut :• :• :• Nous 
venerable-Maitre de la Loge de St. Jean, sous le titre de la Parfaite- 
union a, l'Orient de Namur (Loge Legitimement constitute par la 
Metropole Loge d'Edimbourg au grand Orient D'Ecosse) accompagne de 
nos chers Preres faisant nombre competant pour composer une Loge 
reguliere, juste, & parfaite, savoir faisons, certifions & attestons que Notre 
Cher Frebe Gerabd-Jean Pyman, de Deventer age de 25 ans, Ofncier au 
Regiment du Prince Frederic D'Orange duement initie aux Mysteres des 

deux premiers Grades de notre Ordre apres un scrupuleux Examen de 

sa Conduite, Vie & Mceurs, tant en Loge que hors de Loge, a ete par Nous 

eleve au Grade de Maitre selon les Us & Coutumes pratiques de tout terns. 

En foi de quoi lui avons fait expedier ces Presentes ; signees de notre main, 

du Passe-Maitre, des Surveillants & principaux Officiers • contresignees de 

notre Secretaire & scellees de nos Sceaux ordinaires. 

Si Mandons a tous les Vbnerables des Loges regulieres repandues sur la 

surface de la terre, de la reconnoitre pour tel, & lui faire bon accueil; leur 

promettant d'en user de meme envers tous les Macons, qui se presenteront, 

munis de leurs Patentes. 

Donne en pleine Loge le 5 de May de l'Ere Macone 5780 

Mahy p ar l a tres— Respectable Loge 

Mormal Secretaire. 
Malotaux de Fooz 8 : B: G : passe Maitre. 
Q. F. Pyman. 

WAutrebande D'Anhee 8 : B : : et 

A : d: T : P : E : premier Surv. 

A. Mamin 8 : B : : A : d : T : P : F : . 
Tresorier. 
K : Hottingner, Orateur, 
G. 8. Hay Sec* 8* et Grand Fllu de 15. 

In English : — 

From the East of a Place very Holy, very Strong, and very Light, where 
reign Silence, Peace, and Equality. To all the Respectable Grand Masters, 




The Scottish Lodge at Namut. 



207 



. Greeting '.- '.■ '.• "We the Venerable Master of the Lodge of St. John, 
under the title of the Perfect-Union at the Orient of Namur (a Lodge 
regularly constituted by the Metropolitan Lodge of Edinburgh at the Grand 
Orient of Scotland) together with our dear Brethren, making a competent 
number to compose a Lodge regular, just, and perfect, make known, certify 
and attest that our dear brother Gerard Jean Pyman, of Deventer, aged 
25 years, officer in the regiment of Prince Frederic of Orange, duly 
initiated into the mysteries of the two first Grades of our Order, after a 
scrupulous examination of his Conduct, Life, and Manners in the Lodga, 
and out of the Lodge, has been by Us raised to the grade of Master 
according to the Use and Customs practised in all times. In faith of which 
we have issued to him these Presents, signed by our hand, and those of 
the Past Master, Wardens, and principal Officers, countersigned by our 
Secretary, and sealed with our ordinary Seal. We request all the Masters 
of Regular Lodges spread over the surface of the earth, that they 
recognize him and give him a good welcome ; and we promise to accord 
the same treatment to all Masons who present themselves furnished with 
the same Patents. 

Given in open Lodge the 5th of May in the era of Masonry, 5.780 [1776], 

The proof that my dates are correct I found in the endorsement in the top left- 
hand corner. " Exhibe & vu en Loge La Bien Aimee a Amsterdam ce ll e jour de 
Septb re de l'an de Lumiere 5776. Ant: Myhus. Secret." It is obvious that the 
certificate could not have been seen four years before it was granted, so the real dates 
must be 1775 and 1776 respectively. There is another endorsement on the back, as 
follows: — " Gerie inde Loge La Bien Aime, Amsterdam, 8 February 1786 — Kersie 
Kersies, Adjunct Secretaris." 

The whole of the certificate, except the date and signatures, is in print. Two 
seals are appended. That on the left is attached to a little bunch of ribbons of red, 
blue, yellow, green, and black. The impression is very bad, but I can just distinguish 
a double-headed eagle on a Maltese Cross, sword handles, and the motto " Nee plus 
ultra." Another motto at the bottom is undecipherable. The other seal is on yellow 
and blue ribbons. In the centre are the arms of the Grand Lodge of Scotland 
surrounded by an heraldic mantle and the motto, " Nostrum Dominus Deus Proesidium." 
The use of the " High Grades " seal and motto on a Craft certificate of this date is 
unusual to me. 

The mention of the Rose Croix, and Grand Elect degrees shows that there must 
have been a Chapter of High Grades attached to the Lodge before it was transferred 
to the authority of the Austrian Netherlands. 

The letters A : d : T : P : E, puzzled, me a good deal. The Belgian Chapters 
conferred the degrees of Apprentice, Companion and Chevalier Eccossais, Grand 
Architect, Knight of the Temple, Grand Elect of Fifteen, and S. P. Rose Croix, but 
none of these quite fit the letters in question. Bro. Songhurst has, however, most 
kindly traced them for me, and they imply "Adjutant du Tabernacle des Parfaits Elus." 

As to the signatures, Thomas Bonaventeur Malotaux was Seigneur de Fooz et de 
Wespion. His name appears as Senior Warden in Cunningham's Charter of 1770, and 
Bro. D'Alviella says that towards 1786 his name is still conspicuous on the Lodge roll, 

Dautrebande d'Anhee (Jean Dominique) was an ironmaster, and his name 
appears in 1786. 



208 



Transactions of the Quatilor Ooronati Lodge. 



Mormal was named as Secretary in Cunningham's Charter, and Bro. D'Alviella 
states that the appearance of his name in my certificates of 1775-6 removes the last 
doubt that he was the mysterious " M" who signed the " Observations " to the Marquis 
de Gages, which our learned Brother has reproduced in the Ars.. 

Mahy (Ignace Francois Dieudonne) was Canon of the Church of St. Martin, at 
Liege, and " M " accused him of being " a Jesuit," because he considered he had been 
guilty of double dealing in the Lodge, not that he was really a member of the Society 
of Jesus. 

Mamin is mentioned as Treasurer by "M." 

The Regiment to which Bro. Pyman belonged was named after Prince Frederick 
of Orange-Nassau, and garrisoned in the Austrian Netherlands. 

Count D'Alviella sends a very interesting wood-cut, here reproduced, which was 
used at the head of all documents issued by the " Parfait Union " whilst it remained 
the " Mother Lodge " of the now defunct " Rite Ecossais Primitif," in Belgium. 

That rite evidently had a connection with the Temple and with Heredom, and on 
the pillars are both Templar and Malta crosses. 




Prim:, .Scot.. Rit, In. BelCtIO. 




Ars Quatuor Ooeonatobl'M. 




frau^zJ7c0$ 




Portrait op Sir Walter Scott in 1805. 
From an Engraving in the British Museum, by Heath, after Saxon. 






Transactions of the Quatuor Ooronati Lodge. 



209 



SIR WALTER SCOTT AS A FREEMASON. 

AN ACCOUNT OF HIS CONNECTION WITH THE FEATEENITT- 

BY BRO. ADAM MUIR MACKAY, P.M. 
Lodge St. David No. 36, Edinburgh, 



Erection of Lodge St. David. 
Initiation of Scott's Father. 
Initiation of Robert Scott. 



Chapter I, . ;. 

Hyndford's Olose. Walter Ferguson. 

Fleeted an Office Bearer. 
Death of Scott's Father. 




HE Lodge in which Sir Walter Scott -was initiated into Freemasonry 
was constituted on the 2nd of March, 1738, under a Commission 
granted by the Rt. Hon. George, Earl of Cromarty, M.W. Grand 
Master of the Grand Lodge of Scotland. The original name of the 
Lodge, " Candngate Kilwinning from Leith," was changed in 1756 to 
" St. David," at which it now remains, its present number on Grand 
Lodge Roll being 36. • 

The first meetings were held at the Laigh Coffee House, Canongate, Edinburgh. 
In 1745 the Lodge removed to the Convening House of the Corporation of Hammermen, 
also situated in the Canongate, and in 1753 to the Convening House of the Corporation 
of Cordiners, or Shoemakers, in the Potterrow Port. It was at this latter place that 
Walter Scott, W.S., the father of the novelist, was made a mason. ....'. 

In 1757 the brethren purchased a hall in Hyndford's Close, Netherbow, High 
Street, where the meetings were held for over a century. Other Masonic bodies, 
including the Royal Order of Scotland, and the Royal Arch Chapter, now " Edinburgh " 
No. 1, held their earliest meetings there, and it was there that Sir Walter Scott and 
many other eminent Scotsmen were made Freemasons. 

The entry and stair leading to the Lodge-room was at the head of the Close, on 
the west side, and was then a favourite residence. Sir Walter Scott's mother, Anne 
Rutherford, daughter of Dr. John Rutherford, Professor of Medicine in the University 
of Edinburgh, passed her girlhood there, and Scott, when a lad, was often at his mother's 
old home, visiting his ancle, Dr. Daniel Rutherford. . Forty years afterwards, Sir Walter 
having occasion to correspond with Lady Anne Lindsay, authoress of the. ballad of 
" Auld Robin Gray," whose mother, Anne, Countess of Balcarres, had been a neighbour 
of the Rutherfords, told her : • 

" I remember all the locale of Hyndford's Close perfectly, even 
" to the Indian screen with. Harlequin, and Columbine, and the harpsi- 
" chord, though I never had the pleasure of hearing Lady Anne play 
" upon it. I suppose the close, once too clean to soil the hem of your 
" ladyship's garment, is now a resort for the lowest mechanics — and 
" so wears the world away. ... It is, to be sure, more picturesque 
" to lament the desolation, of towers on hills and haughs, than the 
" degradation of an Edinburgh close ; but I cannot help thinking on the 



' 



210 Transactions of the Quatuor Coronati Lodge. 

" simple and cosy retreats where worth and talent, and elegance to boot, 
" were often nestled, and which now are the resort of misery, poverty 
" and vice." 1 

Notwithstanding the " degradation " to which Sir "Walter alludes, the Lodge 
continued to meet at Hyndford's Close until the end of 1860. In 1838 the Lodge-room 
was re-painted and re-decorated by Bro. David Ramsay Hay, one of the members. 
Bro. Hay was distinguished for his efforts to raise the character of decorative painting, 
and for his writings on form and colour, and it was to him that Scott intrusted all the 
" limning and blazoning " of the interior of Abbotsford. 

From the date of its institution, Lodge St. David was 'prosperous, and meetings 
were held regularly, with the exception of the period dating from June, 1745, to 
December, 1746, when the R.W. Master considered it inadvisable to summon the 
members owing to the Jacobite Rebellion. The height of prosperity was reached in the 
session of 1754. In that year 107 names were added to the roll, and of that number 92 
were initiated. Much of this prosperity was due to the influence of the R.W. Master, 
Bro. "Walter Ferguson, a writer in Edinburgh, initiated in 1752. Bro. Ferguson was 
owner of portions of the land on which the new town of Edinburgh was built, including 
the whole of St. James' Square. When the said Square was in process of building, the 
following incident is stated to have taken place between Sir "Walter Scott's father and 
the R.W. Master's son, Captain James Ferguson of the Royal Navy, initiated in 1753 
when a Midshipman on the " Success " Man-of-War. An attempt was being made to 
procure water by sinking wells for it, despite the elevation of the ground. Mr. Scott 
happened one day to pass when Captain Ferguson was sinking a well of vast depth. 
Upon Scott expressing a doubt if water could be got there : " I will get it," quoth the 
Captain, " though I sink to hell for it !" " A bad place for water," was the dry remark 
of the doubter. 

The Fergusons and the Scotts were connected by marriage through the ancient 
border family of Swinton of Swinton. " A family," writes Sir Walter, " which 
"produced many distinguished warriors during the middle ages, and which, for 
"antiquity and honourable alliances, may rank with any in Britain." 

Of those who were made Masons in 1754, thirty are designated "Writers," the 
profession to which the R.W. Master belonged, and among them was Sir Walter Scott's 
father. He was initiated on the 4th of January, the first meeting held that session, and 
was recommended by the R.W. Master, Bro. Walter Ferguson. The following is an 
extract from the minute. 

" The Lodge being convened on an Emergency .... there 
" was presented to the Lodge a Petition for Anthony Ferguson, Mercht. 
" in Edinburgh, Walter Scott & John Tait, Writers in Edinburgh, 
" Craving to be made Masons & admitted Members of this Lodge, and 
" being recommended by the Right Worshipfull Master, the Desire of 
" their Petition was unanimously granted and they were accordingly 
" made Masons, and each paid his full Dues to the Treasurer . . ." 

Bro. Scott was born on the 11th of May, 1729, and was the eldest son of Robert 
Scott, farmer at Sandy Knowe in the vicinity of Smailholm Tower, Roxburghshire, a 
descendant of Sir Walter Scott, of Harden. The Scotts of Harden, again, came, in the 
fourteenth century from the stock of the Buccleuchs. He was educated for the pro- 
fession of Writer to the Signet, to which Society he was admitted in 1755. " Through 

1 Lord Lindsay's " Lives of the Lindsays." 







Sir Walter Scott as a Freemason. 



211 



" his family connection he obtained a good practice, which partly owing to his punctilious 
" manner subsequently decreased. Singularly conscientious, he would, according to Sir 
" Walter, have sacrificed his own interest to that of his client, and though economical 
" to the verge of penury, would, in carrying out any duties entrusted to him, have been 
" content to suffer loss." 1 

His portrait is drawn for us by his son under the disguise of Saunders Fairford 
in " Redgauntlet." 

Bro. Scott stepped quickly into prominence in the Lodge, and before receiving 
the second Degree acted as Junior Warden, in the absence of that official, on the 25th 
and 30th of January, and also on the 4th of February. On the 20th of March he was 
passed F.C., and two days later was raised to the Degree of M.M. He again acted as 
Junior Warden, pro tempore, on 29th March and 3rd April, and on 10th April as Depute 
Master. At the Festival of St. John the Evangelist, 27th December, 1754, within a 
year of his initiation he was elected and installed Senior Warden. The minutes of the 
meetings at this period were signed by the R.W.Master and Wardens, and Bro. Scott's 
signature, as Junior Warden, pro tern., 1754, and as Senior Warden in 1755, appears in 
the Minute Book nineteen times. 

For many years after the institution of the Lodge it was customary to select 
what was termed a "leet" of three brethren for the office of R.W.Master, their names 
being submitted and a vote taken, if necessary, at the Annual Festival on winter St. 
John's day. Scott was nominated one of the leet for the Mastership, at a meeting held 
on 10th December, 1755. The minute states that : 

• • • • The BA Worshipfull " (Bro. James Ewart, Accountant, Royal 
Bank) proposed the Worshipfull Br. James Walker D'.M 1 '. for one " (of the leet) " which 
" the Lodge unanimously agreed to. The Wardens " (Bros. Walter Scott and John 
Gray) " proposed the R'. Worshipfull himself for another And the Bretheren of the 
" Lodge named the Worshipfull Brother Walter Scott Senior Warden for the third. 
" All the three being unanimously approved of by the Members ...'." 

At the annual Festival on 27th December the brethren unanimously agreed to the 
election of the R.W.Master's nominee, and the Depute Master, Bro. James Walker, 
physician, was installed in the chair. 

The next record of interest in connection with Sir Walter Scott's father occurs 
thirty years afterwards, on 7th December, 1785, when, in the absence of the R.W.Master 
he occupied the chair. 

" The Brethren being conveened, B r . Walter Scott Esq r . took the 
" Chair & the Lodge being regularly opened & constituted, a petition 
" was presented for Mess rs . Robert Scott, Ohicherter Cheyne (both 
" sailors) and John Johnston Craving to be made Masons & Members 
" of this Lodge ; and the two former, viz., Mess rs . Scott & Cheyne being 
" recommended by the R.W. Br. Scott, & Mr. Johnston by Br. W m . 
" Allan the desire of the petition was unanimously granted, and by 
" direction from the Chair the Ceremony was performed by Br. 
" Paterson . . . ." 

This Minute is signed " Walter Scott." 

The two sailors recommended by Bro. Scott would, in all probability, be of some 
social standing and it is quite possible that the Robert Scott referred to was Sir Walter's 
elder brother. He retired from the naval service after the peace of Paris (Versailles, 

1 Genealogical Memoirs of tlie Scott Family. Rogers. 



m 



212 Transactions of the Quatuor Coronati Lodge. 

1783) and would likely be staying at home at this period. It is quite possible that this 
meeting was held specially at the request of Bro. Scott for the purpose of initiating his 
son and Mr. Cheyne. 

Sir Walter Scott, in a memoir of his early life, written in 1808, gives an interest- 
ing sketch of his brother Robert : — 

" My eldest brother (that is, the eldest whom I remember to 
" have seen) was Robert Scott, ... He was bred in the King's 
" service, under Admiral, then Captain William Dickson, and was in 
" most of Rodney's battles. His temper was bold and haughty, and to 
" me was often checkered with what I felt to be capricious tyranny. 
" In other respects I loved him much, for he had a strong turn for 
" literature, read poetry with taste and judgement, and composed verses 
" himself which had gained him great applause among his messmates. 
" Witness the following elegy upon the supposed loss of the vessel, 
" composed the night before Rodney's celebrated battle of April the 
" 12th, 1782. It alludes to the various amusements of his mess. 

" No more the. geese shall cackle on the poop, 

No more the bagpipe through the orlop sound, 
No more the midshipmen, a jovial group, 

Shall toast the girls, and push the bottle round. 
In death's dark road at anchor fast they stay, 

Till Heaven's loud signal shall in thunder roar, 
Then starting up, all hands shall quick obey, 

Sheet home the topsail, and with speed unmoor." 

" Robert sang agreeably — (a virtue which was never seen in me) 
" — understood the mechanical arts, and when in good humour could 
" regale us with many a tale of bold adventure and narrow escapes. 
" When in bad humour, however, he gave us a practical taste of what 
" was then man-of-war's discipline, and kicked and cuffed without 
" mercy. I have often thought how he might have distinguished 
" himself had he continued in the navy until the present times, so 
" glorious for nautical exploit. But the peace of Paris cut off all 
" hopes of promotion for those who had not great interest ; and 
" some disgust, which his proud spirit had taken at harsh usage from 
" a superior officer, combined to throw poor Robert into the East India 
" Company's service, for which his habits were ill adapted. He made 
" two voyages to the Bast, and died a victim to the climate . . ." 

Subsequent to 7th December, 1785, there is no further reference in the Lodge 
minutes to Sir Walter Scott's father. 

" The death of this worthy man, in his 70th year, after a long 
" series of feeble health and suffering, was an event which could only 
"be regarded as a great deliverance to himself. He had had a 
" succession of paralytic attacks, under which mind as well as body 
" had by degrees been laid quite prostrate ' l 
He died on the I2th of April, 1799, and was buried in the Greyfriars Churchyard, . 
Edinburgh. At the left hand entrance to the iron door immediately to the west of New 

' Life of Sir W. Scott. J. G. Lockhart. 




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Sir Walter Scott as a Freemason. 



213 



Greyfriars- Church, there is a granite memorial, interesting from its unique brevity and 

national importance : — 

In front of this Tablet 

Lie the Bemains 

of 

Walter Scott, Esquire, W.S. 

Father of 

Sir Walter Scott 

with those of Several Members of the same Family. 



Chapter II. 

Sir Walter Scott. Earl of Dalkeith, Grand Master. 

James and John Ballantyne. Joseph Gillon. Initiation of Sir Walter. 

He recommends a candidate. His attendance at the meetings. 



Sir Walter Scott when initiated into Freemasonry was thirty years of age. He 
was born in the College Wynd, Edinburgh, on the 15th of August, 1771, and was 
educated at the High School. Previous to entering the University, in November, 1783, 
he spent some weeks in Kelso, where he attended daily the public school. It was there 
that he became acquainted with the brothers James and John Ballantyne, with whom 
he subsequently entered into partnership in the printing and publishing business of 
Ballantyne and Co. In his fifteenth year he was indentured as an apprentice to his 
father. On the expiry of his apprenticeship, in 1790, he resolved to follow another 
branch of the legal profession ; and having passed through the usual studies, was 
admitted, in 1792, a member of the Faculty of Advocates. On 16th December, 1799 he 
was appointed to the Sheriffdom of Selkirkshire, and in the same month married Charlotte 
Margaret Carpenter, daughter of John Carpenter of Lyons. 

At an Emergency Meeting, held on Monday, the 2nd of March, 1801, Walter 
Scott was initiated, passed, and raised in Lodge St. David. The minute of this meeting 
does not give the name of his proposer, but doubtless the fact of his father having been 
long and intimately connected with the Lodge was an inducement to him to join it. 
There were also other reasons which may have influenced him. The M.W. Grand 
Master in 1801, The Earl of Dalkeith, afterwards Duke Charles of Buccleuch, who 
claimed " St. David's " as his mother Lodge, " had been participating in the military 
patriotism of the period, and had been thrown into Scott's society under circumstances 
well qualified to ripen acquaintance into confidence." 1 The Bros. James and John 
Ballantyne also were frequent attenders at the Lodge, and Scott had been brought much 
into contact with them in connection with the publishing of the " Minstrelsy of the 
Scottish Border," the first two volumes of which were issued from the Kelso Press, in 
January, 1802. The following extract from a Minute of Meeting held on 18th March, 
1800, is interesting. 

"... It ought not to be passed over how much was contributed to 
" the entertainment of the Lodge by brethren Ballantyne of the Kelso 
" Lodge to whose social dispositions, elegant manners and musical 
" powers the Lodge of St. David's are no strangers. The R.W. Master 

> Life of Sir "W, Scott. J. G. Lockhart. 



■ * 






+ ** 



Transactions of the Quatuor Goronati Lodge. 

| " called on the brethren to drink to the health of these two respectable 

• " visitors, particularly to that of Brother James' Ballantyne who had 
, " formerly been ... of this Lodge and who now held the office 

♦ " of ... in the Kelso Lodge. . . . The toast was drunk with 

"the greatest possible applause and was returned in a handsome and 
" appropriate address from Mr. James Ballentyne." 

I There is no reference in the records to the office held by Br.o. James Ballantyne 

in the Lodge. He was R.W. Master of Lodge " Kelso," Kelso, now No. 58, in 1802, and 
in August, 1814, was appointed representative of that Lodge at the meetings of the 
4 Grand Lodge in Edinburgh. He .has been described as a kind-hearted and talented 

> man, a good critic, and a friend highly esteemed by Scott. His brother John's aptitude 

for business has been seriously questioned, he was manager of the printing 
establishment. In the jovial, literary and artistic society which he frequented, his racy 
humour and endless stories never failed to be appreciated. 

It was on Scott's suggestion that the Ballantyne's settled in Edinburgh to engage 
| in the printing business. A letter sent by Scott to James Ballantyne refers to that 

* matter. It is also interesting from the fact that it makes reference to another 

t acquaintance of Scott's, Bro. Joseph Gillon, a member of Lodge St. David, and R.W. 

1 Master in 1805-6 and 7. 

I " To Mr. J. Ballantine, Kelso Mail Office, Kelso. ' 

$ " Castle Street. 22nd April, 1800. 

" Dear Sir 

. . . . I am still resolved to have recourse to your press 
" for the Ballads of the Border which are in some forwardness. 

" I have now to request your forgiveness for mentioning a 
" plan which your friend Gillon and I have talked over with a view as 
" well to the public advantage as to your individual interest. It is 
" nothing short of a migration from Kelso to this place .... 

" Three branches of printing are quite open in Edinburgh, all 
" of which I am convinced you have both the ability and inclination to 
" unite in your person 

" It appears to me that such a plan, judiciously adopted and 
" diligently pursued, opens a fair road to an ample fortune. In the 
" meanwhile, the ' Kelso Mail ' might be so arranged as to be still a 
" source of some advantage to you ; and I dare say, if wanted, pecuniary 
" assistance might be procured to assist you at the outset, either upon 
" terms of a share or otherwise ; but I refer you for particulars to 
" Joseph, in whose room I am now assuming the pen, for reasons too 
" distressing to be declared, but at which you will readily guess. I 
" hope, at all events, you will impute my interference to anything 
" rather than an impertinent intermeddling with your concerns on the 
" part of, dear Sir, 

" Your obedient servant, 

" Walter Scott."* 

The Joseph Gillon here named was a solicitor of some eminence, a man of strong 

abilities and genuine wit and humour, for whom Scott, as well as Ballantyne, had a 

warm 'regard. Calling on him one day at his office, Scott said, " Why, Joseph, this 

1 Wfe>f Sir W, Scott. J. G. Lockhavt, 



«■'*•" *•.» 



I 



Sir Walter Scott as a freemason. 215 

place is as hot as an oven." " Well," quoth Gillon, " and isn't it here that I make my 
bread ?" He was initiated on 21st January, 1800, and was, the same evening, appointed 
Secretary of the Lodge, was Junior Warden in 1801, and Depute Master in 1802 and 3. 
He became E.W. Master in 1805, from which position he retired on 24th June, 1808. 
The intemperate habits alluded to at the close of Scott's letter gradually undermined 
his business, his health and his character; and he was glad, on leaving Edinburgh some 
years afterwards, to obtain a humble situation about the House of Lords. Scott, 
casually meeting him on one of his visits to London, expressed his regret at 
having lost his society in Edinburgh ; Joseph responded by a quotation from the Scotch 
Metrical Version of the Psalms : — 

" rather in 

" The Lord's House would I keep a door 

" Than dwell in the tents of sin." 



The minute of the Emergency Meeting held on Monday, the 2nd of March, 1801, 
reads as follows : — 

" There having been many applications for entries in the Lodge, 
" the present evening was appointed for that purpose, when the 
" following Gentlemen were admitted apprentices, Andrew Ross, George 
" M c Kattie, Walter Scott, John Campbell. The Lodge was afterwards 
" successively opened as a Fellow Craft's and Master's Lodge when the 
" following Brethren were passed, and raised to the degrees of Master 
" Masons, viz'., The said Andrew Ross, George M c Kattie, Walter Scott, 
" as also John Tod, James Luke, George Morse, Hugh M c Lean, William 
" Dunlop, Lieut. George Pott, Lieut. George Dunlop, Patrick Erskine, 
" James Hope, Bruce Rob 4 . Nairn e, John Ramsay, Alex 1 . Kedie, David 
" Anderson, James Dewar, Robert Walker. The ceremony was gone 
" through on this occasion with very great accuracy and solemnity by 
" the Right Worshipful Master, who afterwards took the chair. And 
" the Lodge being joined by some of the other brethren, continued 
" together for some time in the usual amusements of the Craft. It may 
" be here added, that from the institution of the Lodge of St. Davids to 
" this present time, there has not been an instance of so great a number 
" being on one occasion entered masons. 



The last paragraph in the minute is misleading, and would have been more correct 
if it had stated that there had not been an instance of so great a number being on one 
occasion passed and raised. Sir Walter Scott's name is recorded in the books of the Grand 
Lodge of Scotland under date, 31st July, 1802. The recording of the names of entrants 
appears to have been very irregular at this period, the list previous to that containing 
Scott's name being sent in to Grand Lodge in 1799. 



a 






The R.W. Master of Lodge St. David in the year of Sir Walter Scott's initiation 
was Bro. Houston Rigg Brown, of Messrs. Brown and Company, Coachmakers, Abbey 
Hill, Edinburgh. He was initiated in 1795, and held the office of R.W. Master from 






1800 to 1804. On 24th June, 1808, he was re-elected to the Chair, on the resignation 
of Bro Joseph Gillon, and continued as R.W. Master until the end of 1819. He took 
great interest in the affairs of the Lodge, and twenty years after leaving the Chair, on 
12th November, 1839, was entertained by the brethren at a Masonic Festival held in his 
honour. 









• 



J. Campbel Secy." 



» 



216 Transactions of the Quatuor Coronati Lodge. 

The next record of interest in connection with Sir Walter is a minute of meeting, 
held a year later, and summoned at his special request. Itis dated 23rd March, 1802.:— 

" At the desire of Walter Scott, Esq., Advocate, a meeting of a 
"few of the Brethren was called to be present at the entry of a 
" Gentleman from England, Dewhurst Bilsborrow of Dalby house. He 
. " was in common form duly admitted apprentice, passed Fellow Craft 
" and raised to the degree of Master Mason. At the entry of this 
" Brother a good deal of new apparatus was procured, which added very 
" much to the solemnity of the occasion." 

Ho reference is made in the minutes during Scott's lifetime to his being again 
present at any of the meetings of the Lodge. Unfortunately, the minute book following 
that in which his. initiation is recorded, dating from 27th December, 1807, to 21st 
December, 1832, was very badly kept, there being many blanks in the volume, the 
most serious extending from December, 1814, to December, 1820. The unfortunate 
differences with the Grand Lodge of Scotland during the years 1807 to 1813, which 
resulted in the temporary secession from that body of several of the Lodges in Edinburgh, 
including Lodge St. David, was partly the cause of this, a subsequent minute stating 
that "the book was so long in the hands of the Grand Lodge having the legal minutes 
" engrossed " 

An interesting reference to Scott having frequently attended the meetings was 
made in 1841, when a motion was submitted by the Secretary, Bro. John D. Douglas, to 
change the name " St. -David " to " Sir Walter Scott's Lodge." Speaking in favour of 
the change, the Secretary said : — 

" • • • • The circumstances of his father (Walter Scott, 
" W.S.) being a very zealous member, as well as Office Bearer would 
" almost account for his choice of this particular Lodge, independent of 
" the reputation which it at that time, and has ever since enjoyed. He 
" seemed to have entered considerably into the spirit of the meetings, 
" by attending them frequently and in bringing forward members to be 
" initiated. It is unfortunate, however, that the records were so 
" slovenly compiled at that time and for many years after as to prevent 
" us now from ascertaining the actual part he took in promoting the 
" prosperity of the Lodge, but I am credibly informed that he was 
" often called on to add his mite to'the harmony of the evening, when 
" he would electrify his audience by some quaint story illustrating the 
" character and customs of his countrymen, or by the powers of his wit Jf 

" and humour shedding around him a halo of pleasure which there was 
" no man of his day more capable of doing .'..." 

The motion to change the name of the Lodge was' defeated by a majority. 
Several of the older members were present and took part in the discussion, among 
others being Bro. Alexander Deuchar of Morningside, initiated in St. David's in May, 
1801, two months after Scott was made a Mason. Bro. Deuchar was R.W. Master of 
the Lodge of Edinburgh, Mary's Chapel, N.o. 1., during the years 1810 to 1814, 1824-25 
and 1834. He published a work on heraldry which he dedicated to Sir Walter. 



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Sir Walter Scott as a Freer. 



217 



Chapter III. 

Sir Walter lays Foundation Stone at Selkirk. 

Elected Honorary Member of Lodge at Selkirk. Death. 

Sir Walter, the 2nd Baronet. Walter Scott Lockhart Scott. 

The Scott Monument, Edinburgh. 



In 1805 Scott's first great work, the "Lay of the Last Minstrel," was published. 
The poem of " Marmion " appeared in 1808, and the " Lady of the Lake " in 1810. In 
1805 also, about seven chapters of the story of " Waverley " had been written, but, dis- 
couraged by one of his critical friends, to whom he had shown the manuscript, Scott 
threw the work aside. Accidently coming across the fragment, in 1814, he completed 
it in three weeks, and in July of the same year it was given anonymously to the public. 
In rapid succession the other novels were written, and no fewer than eighteen 
comprising about sixty volumes, appeared in eleven years. The second, " Guy 
Mannering," appealed in 1815, and in 1816 followed "The Antiquary" and the first 
series of the " Tales of my Landlord." 

On June 4th of this year, Scott, in the absence of the Provincial Grand Master 
of the district, the Most Noble the Marquis of Lothian, laid the foundation stone of a 
new Lodge-room at Selkirk, and was elected an Honorary Member of the Lodge there, 
" St. John," now No. 32 on Grand Lodge roll. The following appears in the records of 



that Lodge 



' June 4. 1816. This being the day appointed for Laying the Foundation 

' Stone of the Free Masons hall, a most numerous meeting of the 

' Brethren along with a respectable deputation from Hawick and 

' visiting Brethren from Peebles & Jedburgh went in procession 

' according to the order of Procession inserted on the 143 d & 144th 

'page hereof, when the stone was laid by Walter Scott Esquire 

' of Abbotsford Sheriff Depute of the County of Selkirk, who, after 

'making a most eloquent and appropriate Speech, Deposited in the 

' Stone the different Coins of his Majestys Beign, with the Newspapers 

of the day, and the Inscription as inserted on the 145 th page hereof. 

The Bev a . Mr. James Nicol of Traquair gave an excellent prayer well 

adapted for the occasion. After the ceremony of laying the Stone 

was over the Brethren returned to the Town hall, and on the motion 

of Brother Walter Hogg the unanimous thanks of the Brethren was 

■' voted to Mr. Scott for the honour he had conferred upon the Lodge 

; ' by his presence and laying the Foundation Stone. On the motion 

' of Brother Andrew Lang the unanimous thanks of the Brethren was 

' also voted to the Bev d M r . Nicol for the obliging manner he had con- 

' sentedto come to this place to act as Chaplain and for his conduct 

' throughout. On the motion of Brother James Robertson Mr. Scott 

was admitted an Honorary Member with three Cheers. 

The meeting then walked to Mr. Minto's Inn where they dined and 

' spent the evening with the utmost conviviality, Mr. Scott filling the 

" Chair to the satisfaction of all present." 









f 



218 Transactions of the Quatuor Coronati Lodge. 

The Inscription deposited in the Stone was as follows : — ■ 

B.D.O.M. 

Walter Scott Esquire of Abbotsford 

Sheriff Depute of Selkirkshire 

Laid 

This foundation Stone 

of the Free Mason's Hall 

Selkirk 

Upon the 4 th day of June 

In the year of our Lord 1816 

And the reign of G- III. K of Great Britain 

56" 1 year 

And of the Era of Masonry 5816 

James Inglis & David Laidlaw 

Contractors of the Work 

Q.D.B.Y. 

Writing next day to the Duke of Buccleuch, the Grand Master, of 1801-02, Scott 
made reference to the laying of the Foundation Stone in the following terms : — 

" Abbotsford, June 5 th , 1816. 1 
"My Dear Lord 

" .... I was under the necessity of accepting the honour 
" done me by the Souters, 2 who requested me to lay the foundation-stone 
" of a sort of barn which is to be called a Free Masons Hall. There 
" was a solemn procession on this occasion, which, that it might not 
" want the decorum of costume, was attended by weavers from Hawick, 
" shoemakers from Jedburgh, and pedlars from Peebles, all very fine in 
" the scarfs an d trinkums of their respective lodges. If our musical band 
" was not complete,' it was at least varied, for besides the town drum 
" and fife, which thundered in the van, we had a pair of bagpipes and 
" two fiddles, and we had a prayer from a parson whom they were 
" obliged to initiate on the spur of the occasion, who was abominably 
" frightened, although I assured him the sanctity of his cloth would 
" preserve him from the fate of the youngest brother alluded to by 
"Burns in his 'Address to the Deil.' . . 

" Believe me, my dear Lord Duke, ever your truly honoured and 
" obliged 

"Walter Scott." 

Subsequent to the laying of the foundation stone at Selkirk no records of 
importance have been brought to light in connection with Sir Walter and the Order. 
The Lodge of Melrose No. I 2 possess two letters written by him conveying apologies for 
inability to attend certain meetings, one undated, and the other written in 1825, being 
his declinature to lay the foundation stone of the Chain Bridge across the Tweed at 
Melrose. 

The announcement of Scott having been made a Baronet appeared in the Gazette 
of 1st April, 1820. Sir Walter was the first Baronet created by King George IV. 



1 Familiar Letters of Sir Walter Scott. Edinburgh. 

2 Souters of Selkirk— Freemen or Burgesses. 



D. Douglas. 



i *'' A, 




Sir Walter Scott as a Freemason. 



219 



On 16th June, 1821, Lodge St. John, No.- Ill, Hawick, held a meeting to 
" consider the propriety of a public procession at laying the foundation stone of a sett 
of Subscription Rooms about to be built in Hawick." The minute book of that Lodge 
contains the following entry : — 

"A deputation was appointed to wait upon Sir Walter Scott of 
" Abbotsford, at his country seat, to request the honour of his company 
" at the approaching festival, and to preside upon the occasion." 

Sir Walter does not appear to have accepted the invitation of the Hawick 
brethren. 

The failure of the printing business of Ballantyne & Co. took place in 1826. 
Scott's liabilities as a partner amounted to nearly £150,000. Determined that his 
creditors should be paid to the last farthing he refused to be a party to a composition 
or to accept of any discharge. He pledged himself to devote the whole labour of his 
subsequent life to the payment of his debts, and he fulfilled the pledge. In the course 
of four years his works yielded nearly £70,000, and, ultimately, his creditors received 
every farthing of their claims. This arduous labour cost him much. In February, 
1830, he had an attack of an apoplectic nature, from which he never thoroughly 
recovered. After another severe shock in April, 1831, he was at length persuaded to 
abandon literary work. At Abbotsford, on the 21st September, 1832, in the sixty-second 
year of his age, he died, surrounded by his family and with the murmur of the Tweed 
in his ears. Five days later the remains of Sir Walter Scott were laid in the sepulchre 
of his ancestors in the old Abbey of Dryburgh. 

An invitation to attend the celebration of the First Centenary of Lodge St. 
David, held on 19th February, 1839, was sent to Sir Walter's eldest son, the Second 
Baronet of Abbotsford, then Lieutenant-Colonel of the 15th Dragoons. The minute 
book states : — 

" The following was directed by the Committee to be sent to Br. Sir 
" Walter Scott, Bart., presently in town."— "At a meeting of the 
" Committee of the Lodge Edin 1 ' Saint David held this day, (9 th Feb 1 ?) 
" in consideration of our illustrious and lamented Brother the late 
" Sir Walter Scott having been made a Mason in this Lodge and 
" having a high respect for his Son Brother Sir Walter Scott presently 
"residing in Edin 1 '. it was unanimously resolved to intimate to that 
" Brother that a Convivial Meeting of this Lodge would be held here on 
" Tuesday the 19th instant at 8 o'clock evening, in Commemoration of 
" the Centenary of the Lodge and respectfully to request the honor of 
" his company on that occasion. The Committee accordingly appointed 
" the B,W. Sub. Master Brother J. B. Douglas and the Secretary of the 
"Lodge Bro. J.D.Douglas to wait on Brother Sir W. Scott to receive his 
" answer." 

There is no record of his having been present at the Centenary Meeting, and it 
is to be regretted that the foregoing extract does not mention the Lodge to which he 
belonged. This year, 1859, he proceeded to India with his regiment, which he subse- 
quently commanded. At Bangalore, in August, 1846, he was smitten with fever, 
culminating in liver disease. Having sailed for home, he died on board the ship 
" Wellesley," near the Cape of Good Hope, on 8th February, 1847, aged forty-six. 

Walter Scott Lockhart, younger son of John Gibson Lockhart and Sophia; elder 
daughter of the Novelist, succeeded to the estate of Abbotsford on the death of his 



I 



9 



220 Transactions of the Quatuor Goronati Lodge. 

uncle, and assumed the name and arms of Scott. He was a Lieutenant in the 16th 
Lancers and was a member of Lodge Canongate Kilwinning No. 2, Edinburgh. He 
died at Versailles on the 10th January, 1853. 

Lodge St. David subscribed towards the erection of the Monument to Sir Walter 
Scott, in Princes Street, Edinburgh, and was present, on 15th August, 1840, at the 
laying of the foundation stone of that structure by the Grand Master, Sir James 
Forrest, of Comiston, Lord Provost of the City. A detailed account of the proceedings 
is engrossed in the Lodge Minute Book, including the following paragraph : — 

" By kind permission of the Bight W. Master (Bro. John Donaldson 
" Boswall of Wardie, Captain R.N.) as Deputy Governor of the Royal 
" Order of Scotland, and the other Members present, the Brethren 
" belonging to St. David's Lodge were allowed the use of the ancient 
" and beautiful Jewels, as well as crimson Sash belonging to the Order. 
" The Phoenix Society of Tailors also lent their Sashes in terms of their 
" kind offer detailed in the Minute of the 28 July last, so that every 
" member who joined the Lodge in Procession was clothed in a Green 
" and Crimson Sash, the first over the right and the second over the 
" left shoulder." 

The Lodge was also present at the inauguration of the Monument on the 15th 
August, 1846. New clothing was obtained for the occasion, and a new Banner unfurled 
for the first time, having on the one side the inscription 

St. David's Lodge 

Sir Walter Scott, Bart. 

Initiated 

2nd March, 1801. 



and on the other 



Inauguration of the Scott Monument 
- 15th August, 1846. 










Aks Quatuok Coroxatorom. 



BL T EY ST. EDMUND'S. 



Plate I. 





5 R 






-^ 




Transactions of the Quatuor Coronati Lodge. 



221 



SUMMER OUTING, JULY, 1907, BURY ST. f DMUND'S & ELY. 

BY BRO. W. JOHN SONGHURST, A.G,B.C, Secretary. 




HE little town of Bury St. Edmund's presented a gay and animated 
appearance when we arrived on Thursday, 4th July; for the Historical 
Pageant, which was to take place during the following week, was 
being brought to perfection by daily rehearsals under the direction 
of its organizer, Mr. Louis K. Parker. About 2,0Qft performers were 
taking part, — men, women, boys and girls, — all (Jrawn from the 
town and the immediate neighbourhood, and whether representing 

principal or minor characters, all working enthusiastically for the success of the great 

undertaking. 

Through the streets they passed to- their homes from the grounds of the 
Abbey :— Ancient Britons and Morris Dancers, Danes and Monks, Roman Soldiers and 
English Barons, Monarchs and Peasants. They formed a somewhat incongruous 
medley it is true, but they gave a colour and picturesqueness to the old town which 
none of us would have wished to miss. • 

From one point of view the period was unpropitious for our Outing, as the 
coming Pageant had attracted many other visitors, and suitable accommodation was 
not easy to procure. It therefore became necessary, for the first time, to set. a limit 
upon our numbers, and the list was accordingly closed when eighty names appeared 
thereon. 

The Angel Hotel, which was to be our headquarters, could not take even this 
number, but several of the local brethren most kindly provided beds at their own 
houses, where, it is hardly necessary to say, every possible arrangement was made for 
our comfort. 

As is usual on these occasions, some of the local brethren, being themselves 
members of our Correspondence Circle, played the double role of host and guest, but 
the following are the names of those who journeyed to Bury in order to take part in 
our proceedings. Most of these brethren travelled from London, 'but some were able 
to make their way direct without passing through the Metropolis : -Bros. Hamon le 
Strange, P. G.D, Pr. CM. (Norfolk), Hunstanton; G. Greiner, P.A.G.D.C., London; 
W. John Songhurst, A.G.D.C, London; Howard J. Collins, P.Pr.G.D, Birmingham ;' 
Henry Hyde, Leytonstone ; Francis G. Swinden, P.D.G.S.B., Birmingham; Walter H. 
Brown, G.Stew, London; Rev. R. T. Gardner, P.Pr.G.Ch. (Bucks.), London; David 
Hills, Beckenham; J. A. Tharp, London ; W. A. Tharp, London; J. W. Stevens, 
Pr.G.Tr. (Surrey), London; J. M. Bruce, P.Pr.G.P. (Nbrth'd.), Newcastle-on-Tyne ; r'. 
Colsell, London; H. W. Tharp, Leicester; Col. J. H. S. Craigie, P.Dis.G.W., London; 
Harry Tipper, P.A.G.P., London; J. P. Simpson, London; W. Wonnacott, London; 
H. H. Montague Smith, London; W. B, Fendick, P.G.St.B., London; W. Howard 
Flanders, Latchingdon; J. Johnson, London; Dr. S. Walshe Owen, London; W. S. 
Lincoln, London; W. Hammond, London; T. J. Railing, P.A.G.D.C., Colchester; 
Rev. H. T, C, de Lafontaine, Pr.G,Ch. (Bucks,), London; G, S, Criswick, London '; 






222 



Transactions of the Quatuor Coronati Lodge. 



Theo. Michel], P.Dis.G.Sup.W. (Madras), London; Col. G. Walton Walker, 
Dep.Pr.G.M. (Staffs.), West Bromwich ; M. Thomson, London; J. H. Retallack- 
Moloney, P.Pr.G.Sup.W. (Essex), London; H. P. L. Cart, London • W. B, Hextall, 
P.Pr.G.W. (Derby), London; C. L. Edwards, P.Dis.A.G.Sec. (Arg. Rep.), St. Alban's ; 
J. P. Davies, P.Dis.G.O. (Bombay), Secunderabad; J. Procter Watson, Bombay ; C. B. 
Robinson, P.Dis.G.S.W., Bombay; T. Pearson, Belford ; A. Darling, Berwick-on-Tweed ; 
J. W. Gieve, P.A.G.D.C, Portsmouth ; H. W. Noakes, Crowborough ; L. A. Engel, 
London; G. C. Williams, London; W. Findlay, Newcastle-on-Tyne ; T. S. Jackson, 
Beckenham; J. Thompson, London ; T. A. Bayliss, P.Pr.G.D. (Worcs.), King's Norton ; 
P. W.' Brazil, London; P. J. Asbury, London; A. Joyce, Birchington-on-Sea ; J. T. 
Thorp, P.A.G.D.C, Leicester; A. H. Pitcher, Swazieland; W. Metcalfe PGStB 
Cheshunt; Arthnr W. Chapman, P.Pr.S.G.D. (W. Yorks.), London; A. Monk' 
Pr.A.G.D.C. (Middlesex), London; G. J. Gissing, Kingston-on-Thames ; Rev. J. Holme 
Pilkington, P.G.Ch., Pramlingham; C. P. Silberbauer, Capetown; Col. Sir John E 
Bingham, Bart., P.Pr.G.W. (W. Yorks.), Sheffield; W. D. Cornish, London; G. E. 
Denny, London ; J. Bryant, Southsea ; C. J. Wilkinson-Pimbury, London; R. Orttewell, 
Maldon; W. C. Mannering, London; J. S. Stacy, London; C. J. Rawlinson, Enfield; 
W. Busbridge, P.Pr.J.G.D. (Kent), Plumstead; G. D. Traylen,*Bombav; A. Y. Mayell, 
London ; and Dr. A. E. Wynter, Westbury-'on-Tyne. 

A large party assembled in the evening at the Athenamm where a Lodge of 
Emergency was opened by Bro. the Rev. J. Holme Pilkington, P.G.Ch., Deputy 
Provincial Grand Master, assisted by the officers and members of the Royal St. 
Edmund's and Abbey Lodges. A most cordial welcome was extended to our party and 
a pleasant time was subsequently spent in making ourselves personally acquainted 
with the local brethren. 

Priday morning was devoted to an examination of the principal objects of 
archaeological and Masonic interest in the town, prominent amongst these being Moyses 
Hall, the Guild Hall, the Masonic Hall, and the Churches of St. James and St Mary 
Moyses Hall, which dates from the twelfth century, is said to have been at one time 
nsed as a Jewish Synagogue, but it is now the property of the Corporation and forms 
the home of the Borough Museum. Our thanks were cordially tendered to the Curator 
Mr. Horace Barker, for placing his time and extensive knowledge at our disposal, not 
only at the Museum itself but during the whole of our morning's walk. At the Guild 
Hall, our good Brother the Mayor (Alderman Owen A. Clark) had given instructions 
for the civic regalia to be laid out for our inspection; while at the Masonic Hall we 
also found much to interest us. There have been at various times six Lodges meeting 
in this town, in addition to those at present in existence :— 

No. 78, constituted at the Fountain in 1731; erased 1739 



81, 
108, 
358, 

437, 



» >. Golden Fleece in 1731 ; erased 1754, 
" » » Seven Stars, Long Brackland, 1732 ; erased 1754, 

„ „ Fakenham, in 1765, and removed to the Angel, Bury, 

in 1789 ; erased 1829, 

„ Bury in 1772 ; „ 1853, 

while the present Shakespeare Lodge No. 284, which was constituted at Norwich in 
1792, and was afterwards attached to the Warwickshire Regiment of Militia, met at 
Bury in 1800. The White Horse Inn was evidently the home of one of the Bury Lodges 
m the middle of the eighteenth century. The building is now owned by Bro. Charts. 






i* 



AKS Q[ t ATUOR CoiiONATORUM. 

BURT ST. EDMUND'S. 



Plate II. 




G, K* Coofiiaa. Photfl 



Gornliill and Movses Hall. 




G. S. Cousins, Photo. 



The Crypt, Movses Hall. 



Ars Quatuor Cokonatorum. 
BURY ST. EDMUND'S. 



Plate III. 




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Plate IV. 





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Plate V. 







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BurAmer Outing. Aah 

H. Sullen, who lias kindly allowed me to give a reproduction of a picture of the sign 
which appeared upon the house down to 1780, when it ceased to be used as a Hostelry. 

The present Lodges, Nos. 1008 and 1592, are of comparatively modern creation 
having been warranted in 1864 and 1875 respectively, and it is unfortunate that very few 
relies of the earlier bodies have; been preserved. We were, however, able to inspect 
a set of tracing boards dated 1805, and a pair of fine columns which probably belonged 
to the Royal Edwin Lodge No. 437, and on the walls of the Lodge room are placed the 
Armorial Bearings of several members of the Royal Edmund Lodge No. 358 who were 
prominent in Masonry in their day. Among these may be mentioned the Rt. Hon. 
Lord Petre, whose arms are dated August 31st, 1772; Rewland Holt, D.G.M 1774." 
James Ward, " R.W.M. Royal Edmund Ledge, and G.T. for the County of Suffolk 
A.M. 5777"; H. T. Symons, P.M., 1822; and the Rev. G. A. Browne, Grand Chaplain 
of England in 1815. Some of us were permitted to inspect the Minute-book of an 
extinct R.A.. Chapter, which contains much valuable information. The book is at 
present in private hands but it is hoped that the owner will permit a more thorough 
examination and that an account of the Chapter will be forthcoming in the pages of 
A.Q.O. The name of Waller Rodwell Wright frequently appears in the book but this 
is not surprising when one remembers that he was for a time Recorder of the town. 

Our visit to the fourteenth and fifteenth century Churches of . St. James and, 
St. Mary was under the excellent guidance of Bro. the Ven. Archdeacon Hodges, who 
pomted out the many interesting features, those which probably remain most prominently 
in our minds being the fine "Notyngham Porch" (1439) and the tombs of Drury, 
Carew, and Mary Tudor, sister of Henry VIII. 

For a description of the Abbey ruins as they exist to-day, I must refer my ■> 
readers to the excellent hand-books which have been published. Several artists have. ■■ 
at different times given their ideas of the appearance of the buildings before their 
demolition, but there is so little to guide them that their pictures must not be taken 
as absolutely authentic. If we may judge by the photographs we saw in the town 
the drawing by W. K. Hardy seems to be generally preferred locally, but for the 
sake of comparison I have reproduced (from a photograph by Palmer Clarke) a 
water-colour drawing by Arthur Lankester, which shews the Church more in the 
style of Ely Cathedral. Practically nothing has been attempted towards tracing even, 
the positions of the Monastic buildings, but Archseologia. (vol.in.) contains a good plan 
of the Church, and also a view of the west front shewing three houses built in the 
arches of the three great doors. These were published in connection with some 
" Remarks on the Abbey Church of Bury St. Edmund's in Suffolk. By Edward King ■ 
Esquire,, in a letter to the Rev. Mr. Norris, Secretary." The letter appears on p 31l' 
and is dated from John Street, Bedford Row, February 2nd, 1774. In the next volume 
(p. 119) is a further letter, which states that " Mr. Godbold, of Bury in Suffolk 
"with great care, and much trouble, traced the foundations pf the building, in such 
" manner as to bring to light the true and original plan of that, ancient structure " 
The plan shews that the Church was cruciform with an apse at the east end, and small 
apsidal chapels in the transepts. The letter mentions that while he was engaged on 
this work, Mr. Godbold found the lead seal of R.anulph, EaiTof Chester (temp. King ! 
Stephen). Some small additional exploration has been done in recent years in con- 
sequence of the discovery at Douai of a MS. which indicated the positions of five 
Abbots" tombs in the Chapter House. These tombs were found exactly as described, * 
and stone slabs with inscriptions now mark the places of burial. ' 



I 



224 



Transactions of the Q,uaiuor Coronati Lodge. 






■ '* 



I have, to express my thanks to Mr. G. S. Cousins of Bury for permission to 
reproduce his photographs of the Gateway and Norman Tower, as well as those of 
Moyses Hall. 

After Lunch we were enabled by the courtesy of J. Wood, Esq., to inspect 
Hengrave Hall, built about 1525 by James Estowe, "Master Mason," for Sir Thomas ■ 
Kytson. It subsequently passed into the possession of the Gage family, but 
unfortunately much of the original mansion was demolished at the end of the eighteenth 
century. It is believed to have been used as a temporary shelter for the Monks of Bury 
after the Dissolution. 

On our return to the Town we made our way through the ancient Abbey 
Gateway to the Pageant ground, seats having been provided for us to witness a full- 
dress rehearsal of this wonderful spectacle. The scattered elements we had observed 
in the streets on the previous evening were now in their proper places as representatives 
of those who had done their share in the making of the history— not only of Bury St. 
Edmund's— but of that of England itself. The incongruity disappeared, the performers 
fitted together as in a mosaic, and we sat amazed at the conception and at the 
execution of the display. The main episodes were connected with the revolt of the 
Britons under Queen Boadicea ; the pathetic story of St. Edmund, King and Martyr; 
the history of the Monastery to the time of Henry I. ; the Abbacy of Samson, sp vividly 
pourtrayed iu the chronicle of Jocelin of Brakelond, familiar to some of us through 
Oarlyle's "Past and Present"; the meeting of the Barons, who forced King John to 
ratify " Magna Charta " ; the Parliament of Henry VI. and murder of Humphrey, Duke 
of Gloucester ; and the final Dissolution of the Monastery. } 

It was a surprise to most of us to find, when the great "March Past " was * 

concluded, that we had been sitting for three hours ; and so much had the spectacle 
interested us that some of the Brethren at once decided to extend their holiday in order ''* 

to have an opportunity of seeing it again. I 

As spectators we all felt that the Pageant had been good for us. Our spirit of * 

patriotism was aroused by the contemplation of the deeds of those to whom in the * V 

present day we are so much indebted for the preservation of the freedom, the rights and 
the privileges which are among the glories of our native land ; while, as regards the 
performers, who had been drawn from all classes of society and who had worked for so 
long in a common cause, there must have been in addition a binding together of the 
various strata which go to form a community, and this should have a lasting effect on 
the happiness and prosperity of the town. 

In the evening we were entertained by the local brethren at an excellent Smoking 
Concert organized by our versatile Brother, Owen A. Clark. 

Saturday was spent at Ely, ample time being afforded for a thorough examination 
Of the renowned Cathedral and the remains of the ancient Monastic buildings. Here 
again I must refrain from attempting to give any detailed description, which indeed is 
hardly necessary in view of the fact that Bro. Wonnacott has once more come to my 
aid and has placed his excellent photographs at my disposal for the illustration of my 
notes. Many brethren welhknown in the Province of Cambridge assembled at Ely to 
welcome us, and the members of the St. Audrey Lodge No. 2727 were most generous 
in their hospitality. 

In the evening we had the pleasure of entertaining our Bury brethren in the 
Athenaeum, a short concert having been arranged by Bro. Harry Tipper. Several other 
of our members also kindly assisted, and among the brethren who favoured us with their 



I 



> 




AES QUATUOB COROXATORUM. 



ELY 



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Aes Quatuoe Coronatorom. 
ELY. 



Plate VIII. 




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AES QuATUOR COKONATORUM. 

ELY. 



Plate IX. 







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P4 






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I t£ 



Transactions of the Quatuor Coronati Lodge. 

persons that the Grand Master and others had confessed errors, he did 
not know what, against the Order. 

No. 3. Aymericus received about 20 years at Tort LezentortJ in the diocese of 
Limoges. After the Receptor had placed the mantle on him, the 
Receptor, in the presence of the other brethren, told him to deny Jesus. 
After remonstrance he denied Jesus thrice, not intending by that to 
deny Jesus Christ his Creator as he said, &c, and to spit three times 
on the ground, which he did once or twice. Asked if there was any 
cross or if he told him to spit in contempt, he answered no. The Grand 
Master and others are said to have confessed something he knew not 
what against the Order. 

No. 4. Poncius. He and a brother, Helias, were received together about 
30 years at Lobertz, in the diocese of Limoges. Present, amongst 
others, his Father's brother. The Receptor first gave him the mantle, 
and then Helias and their two brethren led him towards the horn of 
the altar in an obscure place, and told him to deny Jesus, &c. He 
was then 10 or 12 years old, and he denied Jesus, but he did not under- 
stand by that, Jesus Christ, not that he did anything there to the 
' prejudice of his sold. Afterwards they told him to spit three times on 

the ground. Asked if there was any cross there or if the spitting was 
in contempt, he said no. He had heard said that the Grand Master 
and others had confessed errors, he knew not what, against the Order. 

No. 5. Johannes received about 9 years at Cambarello ( ? Chamberry). After 
the mantle, two brethren tookhim near the fonts, and one of them told 
f him to deny Jesus thrice, and he denied with mouth, and he understood 

| them- to mean Jesus Christ, and he so believed it and still believes it. ' 

He was then told to spit three times on the ground which he did, but 
there was no cross there nor was he told expressly to spit in contempt, 
&c. And he had heard the Grand Master and others had confessed 
errors, he knew not what, but he rather believed what they confessed to 
have been against the Order. 

No. 6. Hugo received about 8 years with another brother, Helias, at Buxeria, 
in the diocese of Limoges. After the mantle had been given them, two 
brethren led him to an obscure corner of the Chapel, where one of them 
told him to deny, &c, and to spit three times on the ground, which he 
did, and two other brethren took Helias also to another part of the 
Chapel, and, he believed, made him deny and spit. He heard the Grand 
Master had confessed, he knew not what, against the Order. 

To the honour of the Bishop of Limoges, it does not appear that any of these 
witnesses had been put to torture. 

On the 5th March, 1311, Raynardus de Pruino, one of the four defenders, was 
brought before the commissioners with two other priests, a knight and two servino- 
brethren, who had all been condemned by the Council of Sens to perpetual imprison- 
ment (ad murum perpetuum). The three priests, in addition, had been degraded from 
all the lesser and greater orders, deprived also of privilege of clergy and of the Templar 
habit. These five witnesses appear to have been sent by mistake, for though they were 
sworn they were not examined, It must have been a painful scene for the Commis* 



* <f # 










226 



Transactions of the Quatuor Goronati Lodge. 



ANOTHER FRENCH PRISONERS' LODGE. 

BY BRO. FRED. J. W. CROWE, F.R.Hist.Soc, etc., P.G.O. Eng. 




I] HAVE again the pleasure to announce the discovery of another Trench 
Prisoners' Lodge, being the twenty-eighth, and its meeting place at 
the "Orient of Dartmoor," that is to say what is now termed 
Princetown. The French Officers who were taken prisoners were in 
most cases allowed their liberty on giving their parole not to attempt 
to leave the country, and, as told by the records of the Lodges already 
known, as well as from notes in newspapers, parish records, etc., they 
spread themselves over the greater parts of England and Scotland, and founded, 
doubtless, many more Lodges than have yet been traced. Prisoners below the ranks of 
Commissioned Officers were not allowed this freedom, and so had to be otherwise 
provided for. Up to 1805 six third-rate prison ships were stationed in Plymouth Sound, 
at an annual cost to the country of £18,000, and to these hulks there were sent batches 
of fresh prisoners weekly. Owing to the confined space and other causes the mortality 
amongst them was great, whilst there were also many escapes from durance. The Govern- 
ment became nneasy because of the presence in this way of so large a number of their foes 
m close proximity to the dockyard and arsenal of one of our most important naval bases, 
and in June of that year the site of Dartmoor Prison was offered them by the 
authorities of the Duchy of Cornwall. The buildings were commenced in December, 
1805, and the first batch of prisoners arrived in 1807. 

Some interesting particulars of the prisoners and their life are given in a work by 
a former prisoner, entitled : — . 

" La Prison de Dartmoor, ou Recit Historique des infortunes et evasions 
Des Prisonniers Francais en Angleterre sous l'empice depuis 1809 
Jusqu'en 1814. 

par 

L. Oafcel, 

Paris, chez les principaux libraires 
1847." 

For the loan of this rare book I have to thank Mr. W. H. L. Wright, F.I.A., 
Borough Librarian of Plymouth. 

There were six buildings, each intended for 1500 men, 500 on each floor, but at 
one time during the Peninsular War there were 11,000 occupants, and when Catel wrote 
he says there were 10,000. 

The prison was about one mile in circumference, and the courtyard was divided 
by a wall 12ft. high. On either side of the "market court" were two large buildings, 
one a hospital, and the other for officers of merchantmen, as well as of the Navy, who 
had the misfortune to fail in their attempts to escape. There were also detached 
buildings for the Governor (usually a naval Captain) and his officers. Three walls, 
30 feet high and 20 feet apart, surrounded the prison, and watch-towers, 10 metres 
apart, were built on the top of each wall, whilst sentries patrolled the walls day and 
night. As an additional precaution bells were hung at small intervals on a wire 
supported by springs just above the wall, so that the least movement of a prisoner 



AfiS QuATUOB CoROKATORUM. 





Another French Prisoners' Lodge. 



227 



attempting to escape would set them ringing. Inside the walls again (15 metres) was 
a screen of iron bars, 10 metres high, surmounted by lamps every 5 metres, which were 
carefully trimmed and lighted every night. One would imagine that escape under such 
conditions was impossible, but the successful attempts were numerous, especially during 
the times of mistUnd rain for which Dartmoor is still famous. 

The prisoners fought duels on the slightest pretext, their principal weapons being 
halves of scissors or compasses tied to wooden handles, but one (Souille) is related to 
have fought with his fists, and, being beaten, the fight was continued with razor-blades 
tied to sticks. 

They grouped themselves into six principal classes : — 

1st— The " Lords " — those who got money from their families or from trafficking 

in the prison. 
2nd— The " Laborieux," who worked at making small articles. 
3rd — The " Indifferents," who did nothing, but resigned themselves to the 

English Government's rations. These daily rations consisted of 21 ounces 

of bread ("detestable"), 2 ounces of "tough meat," and water in 

abundance ("not appreciated"). 

4th — The " Minables" — gamblers, selling even their shirts and rations to gratify 
their mania. 

5th — The " Kaiserlics," who were also gamblers, and sold their provisions, 
shirts and shoes, going barefoot all the year round. They also sold their 
annual outfit as soon as they received it. This consisted of yellow 
trousers, yellow vest with TOTO printed on it in 4 inch.black letters, a 
striped shirt, and clumsy shoes. 

6th — The most extraordinary class were called " Romaines " because they lived 
in the highest part of each building, styled " The Capitol." These are 
described as " wretches who went as naked as Worms." To be admitted a 
Romaine they had to comply with the following rules : — 
1. — Possess no clothing. 
. 2. — Consent to the sale of their hammock, the proceeds to be spent in 
tobacco for the use of all the Associaties. 
3. — To retain only the coverlid of their hammock, with a hole in the 
middle to put the head through, and even this was to be con- 
sidered the common property of the Society, to be used by any 
member when obliged to go out. 

There were either 250 or 500 of these Romaines (the author gives both numbers), 
and some of them were young men of good families, who sent them money every 
quarter. When this became due they borrowed clothes to go and get it, and then 
usually left the Society, always giving a donation of 25 francs for potatoes and tobacco, 
but they were generally back within a fortnight. Oddly enough the author relates that 
when travelling in Picardy, in 1829, he met a " spiritually minded and eloquently spoken 
■Cure," whom he recognised as a former Romaine. 

Some of the prisoners were very dexterous with their hands and made small 
"ornaments of various kinds, many of which I have myself seen in Devonshire houses. 
One sailor, named Gamier, from St. Malo, spent a year in making a tiny ship only two 
inches long, in which every detail was perfect, and the gnns, etc. could be raised and 
lowered. This work of art was sold for 2,500 francs. Another less justifiable pursuit 



228 



Transactions of the Quatuor Coronati Lodge. 



was the forging of Bank of England notes, which they passed off on the country people 
who supplied the prison market. 

The picture of the Dartmoor Prison in its early days is from a copy of a plate in 
an old Devonshire work, entitled "Vancouver's Agricultural Survey of Devon," 
used as an illustration to Mr. Eden Phillpotts' charming novel, "An American 
Prisoner," the block of which, with his consent, has been most kindly lent me 
by Messrs. Methuen & Co., the publishers of the book. 

How a Lodge could be held in anything like privacy in these crowded buildings 
is rather a mystery, but the fact remains that such was the case, and presumably in 
" higher degrees " also, from the letters appended to the signatures. 

The certificate is entirely hand-drawn and written, and reads as follows : — 



f Seal. J 




A.\ _L.\ G.\ D.\ A.-. D.\ L'U.. 

V, Square 11 

sous les auspices ^t=-sS^ Du Gt/ - °-'- de Frai "3 e - 

La R.\ L.\ de la Reunion a, l'Or.\ de Dartmoor 
A Tous les MM.-. R.\ Sur la Surface de la Terre. 
Salut — Force — Union. 



\ 



-5 CD 



Desirant faciliter l'entree des LL.\ regulieres a, ceux de nos 
PP.-. qui se sont rendus dignes d'y etre admis, dans la 
confiance qu'ils repandront dans tous les lieux qu'ils parcourront, 
l'esprit de paix, de Concorde et d'amitie fraternelle qui fait 
l'essence de notre Ordre, et rendant un juste temoignage aux 
qualites Mac. a, l'amenite da Caractere et aux Vertus sociales 
du 0.-. P.-. J" Felix Lefort, natif de Troissereux, Dept. de l'Oise, 
Serg! Major au 2™ R e gt. d'Artillerie de Marine, App.\ C.\ & 
M.\ de cette L.\ lui avons accorde le present Certificat. Prions 
tous les MM.-, reguliers de lui faire 1' [accueilj fraternel qu'ils 
recevraient de nous en pareil cas, et de l'admittre apres examen, 
aux travaux de son age, ainsi qu'il est de coutume d'en user 
envers [les PP.-.] qui se [presentent] munis de Certificat 
authentique. 



En foi de quoi lui avons delivre le present Certificat le 17™. e jour 
du 3>?. e mois de l'an de L.\ V.-: L.\ 5814. 



2<i Surv. 
Fs Parizot 
Ch. d'Or. 



H. Dufouz 
S.P.E. + 



Castel 
Ch. d'Or. 



J. Manry 
Ch. d'Or. 

Cafiton 
Ch. d'Or. 



Lacheverie 
Ch. d'Or. 



Le Veueb'.e 

Bernand (?) 

Ch. d'Or. 

0. Manely 
Ch. d'Or. 



Pourriere 
Ch. d'Or. 

Pre Lasalle 
Ch. d'Or. 



ler Surv. 
A ne Soubirant 
"Ch. d'Or. 



Pincle 
Ch. d'Or. 



Timbre et Soelle par 
nous garde du Timbre 
et Sceaux de la E. L. 

Oiliest F. Brancheu 

Ch. d'Or. E. 

Ben Duhalle 
R. C. 



Par Mandemenfc 
de la E. L. 

J* Le Gouster 
Elu. 

G. Guillet 
Ch. d'Or. 



3 2 ^ 

I-SP 



Augte Maron S re 
Ch. d'Or. 

K. Saintgilly 
E. S. 




ARS QuATUOR CORONATORUM. 




G.'.A ■ Li. 

| l|Lr ^-M^\&t avwpicKt / ■ ^ x v o^ i;, ,e.^, J u -m, 

' *aitil - c 'osce - tin con. 







■■/' f< i 






c 



■ < / , • 



1 t 




Certificate issued by French Prisoners of War at Dartmoor 1814. 



Another French Prisoners' Lodge. 



229 



Or in English — 

To the Glory of the Great Architect of the Universe. Under the auspicies 
of the Grand Orient of France. The Respectable Lodge of the Reunion 
at the Orient of Dartmoor. 

To all, Regular Masons spread over the surface of the Globe 
Health — Strength — Union. 

Being desirous of facilitating the entry into Regular Lodges of those of our 
Brethren who have made themselves worthy of being admitted therein, in the 
confidence that they will diffuse in all places where they may travel, the spirit 
of peace, of concord and of fraternal friendship, which is the essence of our Order, 
and bearing true testimony to the Masonic qualities, to the agreeable character 
and to the social virtues of our dear Brother J 1 ?. Felix Lef ort, native of Troissereux, 
Department of Oise, Sergt.-Major of the 2^ Reg*, of Marine Artillery, Apprentice, 
Companion and Master, of this Lodge, we have granted to him the present 
Certificate. We pray that all regular Masons will give him the fraternal 
[welcome] they would receive from us in similar case, and admit him after 
examination to the labours of his degree, as is customary towards [those 
Brethren] who [present themselves] furnished with authentic certificates. 

In faith of which we have delivered the present Certificate to him, 
this 17^ day of the 3? month in the year of the True Light 5814. 

The signatures are somewhat difficult to decipher, but I think I have most of 
them accurately. I think there can be little doubt that a Rose-Croix Chapter, with 
its intermediate grades was attached to the Lodge, as two signatures have S.P.R. + 
and R.C. respectively, three are Elu, and the remainder Knights of the East or 
Ch. d'Or. The general condition of the document is excellent, but some holes are burnt 
as if by an acid, and the ribbon and seal are unfortunately gone. I cannot trace any of 
the signatures in Catel's book, but out of 11,000 prisoners the number he mentions by 
name is so small that this should cause no surprise. 

I may add that Mr. Basil Thompson, late Governor of the Prison, to whom I am 
also indebted for information, is writing a history of this moorland prison-fortress, 
which will be well worthy of perusal. 





Transactions of the Quatuor Coronati Lodge. 
The Secretary called attention to the following 



23l 



EXHIBITS. 
By Bro. P. J. Dudgeon, London. 

M.M. Certificate, issued in Amsterdam in 1853 to Jacobus Fritz van Oppen. 

R.A. Certificate, issued by Grand Chapter of England to the same Brother on 13th January, 
1858, as a member of the Chapter of Prudence No. 12, to which he was admitted 17th November, 1856. 

Certificate, issued to Bro. J. V. van Oppen, by the Thistle Lodge of Mark Masters, No. 3 London, 
held under warrant from the Supreme Grand Royal Arch Chapter of Scotland, dated 3rd July, 1857, 
and signed by Thomas Alexander Adams, Mk. Mr., James Richmond Sheen, S.W., Joseph Cotterell, J.W., 
William Gaylor, G.S.E., for Grand Recorder. 

By Bro. L. A. Engel, London. 

M.M. Certificate, issued 17th January, 1852, by the Lodge " Les Amis du Commerce et la 
Perseverance Reunis " of Antwerp, under the Grand Orient and the Supreme Council of Belgium, to 
Dr. Abraham Mayer. 

Certificate, of 18°, issued by the same Lodge to the same Brother in 1855. 

Diploma, issued by the same Lodge to the same Brother "pour pendant l'epidemie cholerique de 
5859 avoir prodige gratuitement des soins a un grand nombre de malades pauvres, habitant le quartier 
repute le plus insalubre de la ville.'' 

Collar, worn by same Brother as a member of the 18°. 

Tunic and Sash, worn by same Brother as a member of the 30°. Presented to the Lodge, 

By Bro. J. Walter Hobbs, London. 
Small Masonic Mug. 

By Bro. W. B. Hextall, London. 

Special Centenary Jewel, of the Albion Lodge No. 9. 
By Bro. A. Davis, Croydon. 

Gold Finger Ring, with " seal " in French Prisoners' work. 
By Bro. John Church, London. 

Large glass Tankard, probably German. The engraved design is practically the same as that 
shown on page 94 ante, but in the form of a coat of arms, with lions as supporters, and a coronet 
above. Below is the date, 1805, beneath which is a figure which appears to be intended for a hackle. 

Large Carriage Lamp, silvered brass, with square and compasses in the front glass. It is 
suggested that this may have been one of a set used on a funeral carriage. 

By The Lodge. 

Banner, of the extinct Holy Temple Lodge No. 412, Longtown, Cumberland. Bequeathed to the 
Lodge by the late Bro. James Smith, of Markinch, N.B. 

Two Squares, metal gilt, engraved with Masonic emblems. 

Scotch P.M. Jewel. 

Old diamond-shaped Mark Jewel. 

Past Master's Apron and Collarette (tartan), worn by a member of a Scotch Lodge in India. 

Royal Arch Apron and Sash, made reversible, so as to be used also for the Red Cross of 
Babylon. 

Old E.T. Apron and Sash. 
Rose-Croix Collar, and Collarette. 
30° Collarette, Scotch. 



A hearty vote of thanks was passed to the exhibitors and donors. 



The W.M. read the following paper : 



232 



Transactions of the Quatuor Goronati Lodge. 



THE GREAT LODGE, SWAFFHAM, NORFOLK, 1764-1785. 

-By J?. IV. Bro. HAMON LE STRANGE, P.G.D.; 
Prov. G.M., Norfolk; W.M. 2076. 




T the date of the publication of the " History of Freemasonry in 

Norfolk," eleven years ago, I had not been, able to discover any 

original documents relating to the Lodge at Swaffham ; even the 

Registers of Grand Lodge were blank, and the returns there merely 

showed that it had paid in altogether the sum of £23 2s. up to the 

time of its erasure in 1791. Such information, respecting it as I had 

been able to gather was procured entirely from the Memoirs of its 

founder, Captain Richard Gardiner, published in 1782, a year after his death, under the 

title of " Memoirs of the Life and Writings (prose and verse) of R — ch — rd G — rd — n — r 

Esq™, alias Dick Merry Fellow, of serious and facetious memory." 

Richard Gardiner, who was born in 1723, was the son of the Rev. John Gardiner, 
LL.D., for thirty years Rector of Great Massingham, Norfolk, and domestic chaplain to 
the Earl of Orford. He was educated at Eton and Cambridge, and also studied at the 
University of Gottingen, where many young Englishmen of good family completed their 
education in the time of the House of Hanover. After serving some years in the Army 
until the Peace of Aix-la-Chapelle in 1748, he tried the Church, but never proceeded 
farther than Deacon's Orders. In 1757 he rejoined the Army, and subsequently com- 
manded a company of Marines on board the " Rippon," man-o'-war, and was present at 
several actions in the West Indies in 1759, of which expedition he subsequently 
published an account. 

On his return to England in 1761 he married, and finally retired from the Army 
after the Peace of Paris in 1763, when he settled at the small market town of Swaffham 
in West Norfolk. Here he had leisure to indulge his social and literary tastes, and 
became the principal agent in founding the Lodge, which is the subject of the present 
Memoir. 

By a happy accident, the original volume, in which the minutes of the Lodge 
were entered at great length from its foundation in 1764 to 1785, turned up last year in 
the possession of a lady who presented it to the " Ceres " Lodge No. 2879, in which 
Freemasonry had been re-established at Swaffham, in the first year of the present 
century. 

The volume commences with a very full account of the " Proceedings on the Con- 
stitution Day, December 17th, 1764," and these give such a graphic description of the 
ceremonial of constituting a Lodge by Deputation from the Provincial Grand Master, 
and not by Grant of a Warrant, as is done to-day, that I make no apology for transcrib- 
ing them in full. 

"PROCEEDINGS. ON THE CONSTITUTION DAY. 

"Deer. 17th, 1764, A.L. 5764. 

" The Provincial Grand Master, Edward Bacon, Esq?., Recorder and Member of Parliament for 
"the City of Norwich, having appointed monday Dee r . 17th as the day to Constitute a new Lodge of 
"ffree & Accepted Masons/ to be held at the Crown Inn at Swaffham in the County of Norfolk, and 
" being himself obliged to be absent by reason of his attendance at London as one of His Majesty's 
" Commissioners of Trade and Plantations, Deputed the R ; W : Benjamin Nuthall Esq r6 , Alderman of 




Aes Quatuor Coronatoeum. 



1 

1 




GREAT LODGE at the Crown Canitiuited Decip^ 




i^ajh^bm, t^.J4ZKa,rd, fy-tzrd&n&r- KJ#sz#for 



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OFFICERS atjA^ < '^(m^ZiU07t of Sh& LODGE 




Me mbeh s 

H t.mn&TtutZondMmlfirt 
fhiit .Zonae- Eda TAfetn-TforfMibftti 







Members 

j4cCmi&&£.fr(rrr%,e(fi£trIl0de£o 
Ban- 7$aAaJlK*jf r £>J>. GJX, 

TM 1 . MutiU&tOTi } 
CAtb. CAaMtvtcfc* A . A£. 
Jdd.TtuiUor.S.W.Z, 



Taylor. 



lAyjtat.. 



*£rtf/i07yy Ret/urn* Af. D. 

TAomad Brvoke- A£. D .' 
General JFrtm&e GrtuK/. 

JfC^w. Zarti JilaMnew 1 
Grand- JMaJ&r trf~2fa44m*i J 

EdtutvrtlB.at&nEsffE ) 






Summons op Swatfham " Great Lodge.' 
(About two-tliirds full size.) 



I'ke Great lodge, Swaffham, Norfolk, i?64-l?8o. 



233 



" the Borough of Lynn Regis, to represent him at Swaffham on the said monday Deer. 17th 1764 and 
"Delegated to him a proper Authority to convene a Lodge at the Crown Inn, and to Constitute the 
" members into a body in due form. 

" Accordingly on Monday Morning Deer. 17th The s<J E: W: Benjamin Nuthall Esq having con- 
" vened a Lodge of ffree and Accepted Masons open'd it in due fform at Ten o' the clock. The Morning 
" wag ushered in with Ringing of Bells, hiring of Guns, and other Demonstrations of Public Joy, and at 
" break of day The Union fflag with pendants and streamers was hoisted on top of the Church. At 
"Nine a Gun was ffired at the Crown as Signall for the Brethren in different parts of the Town to hold 
"themselves in readinefs to repair to the Lodge. At Ten three Guns were ffired as a signal for the 
" Brethren to clothe, & the Lodge being open'd, a Deputation preceeded by a band of Musick was sent 
" to the White Hart Inn with an Invitation to the Master, Wardens, & Brethren of the Duke's Head 
" Lodge at Lynn there afsembled, & to escort them to the Crown. Being there arrived a second Deputa- 
" tion, consisting of the Master and Wardens of the Whyte Lion Lodge at Lynn with two Stewards, and 
" preceeded by a Band of Musick, was sent to escort the New Elected Master of the New Lodge from 
" his own house to the Crown, and being there arrived, and standing among the ffellow Crafts, the 
" R : W : Benjamin Nuthall Esqre D : P : G : M : ordered the Constitution Roll and Deputation to be read, 
" which was as follows : — 

" Edward Bacon, P.G.M. 

" To all and every our Right Worshipful, Worshipful and loving Brethren. We, Edward Bacon, 
" Recorder of the City of Norwich, and one of its Representatives in Parliament, Provincial Grand 
" Master of the Antient and Honorable Society of ffree and Accepted Masons for the Province of 
" Norfolk and Norwich, send Greeting. 

" Know Ye that We, of the Great Trust and Confidence reposed in our Right Worshipfull and 
" well beloved Brother Benjamin Nuthall, of the Borough of Lynn Regis in the County of Norfolk 
"Esquire, At the humble Petition of Richard Gardiner Esqre, Captain of His Majesty s fforces and 
" Member of the Hon : and Loyal Society of the Blue and. Orange 

"William Pawlett Esqre Captain of ffoot, and member of s^ Society. 

" James Nelthorpe Esqre. 

" Sr Clement Trafford Knt. 

" John Money 



" Henry Dashwood 
" William Mason 
" Thomas Bayley 
" John Warren, M.A. 
" Thomas Holt 
" William Jerningham 



Esqui" 



Esqr 



" Thomas Middleton, Captain in his Majesty's ffoot guards. 

" Philip Case, Mayor of Lynn. 
- " ffrancis Mowatt, Adjutant to the Norfolk Militia. 

" Charles Chadwick, M.A. 
" and others, Do hereby Constitute and Appoint him the said Benjamin Nuthall, for Us and in Our 
" Name to convene our said Brethren who have signed the said Petition, and in due fform to constitute 
" them into a Regular Lodge of ffree and Accepted Masons, and that they do observe perform and keep all 
" and every the Rules, Orders and Regulations contained in the Book of Constitutions (except such as 
" have been, or may be, repealed or altered at any Quarterly Communication or other General Meeting 
" duly authorized), Also with all such other Rules, Orders, Regulations and Instructions as shall from 
" Time to Time be transmitted thro' Us by the Right Honhle Cadwallader Lord Blayney, the present 
" Right Worshipful Grand Master, or by any of his Succefsors, Grand Masters for the Time then being 
" Hereby willing and requiring you the said Benjamin Nuthall as soon as conveniently may be, to send 
" to Us an account in writing of what you shall do by virtue of these Presents. Given at Our House at 
" Westminster under our Hand and Seal of Masonry this tenth day of December A : D : 1764 A ; L • 
"5764. 

" By the Right Worshipful the Provincial Grand Master's Command 
" Prs Frank P.L.T. 

"This Constitution being read the R: W: the D: P: G: M: ordered the new elected Master 
" Richard Gardiner, Esqre, Captain in His Majesty's fforces, to be brought up to him from amongst the 



23* transactions of the Quaiuor Coronati to&gk. 

" ffellow Crafts, & after a suitable prayer on the occasion by Our Eevd. Brother Joseph Charles A.M. and 
" after the Master's Charge had been read to him and administered, proclaimed 

" Richard Gardiner Esqre 

" Master of the Great Lodge at the Crown at Swaffham, and proceeded to invest him with the Master's 
" Jewel accordingly. 

" The new appointed Master was then saluted properly by all the Members present, soon after 
«' which he directed William Pawlett, Esqr., Captain in His Majesty's fforces, then standing amongst 
" the' ffellow Crafts, to be brought up to him, and having named the said William Pawlett Esq™ his 
" Senior Warden, invested him with the Senior Warden's Jewell in the following Manner : 

" Brother William Pawlett 

" ' By virtue of the Authority Derived to me from the R : W : the D : P : G : M : I do appoint you 
" Senior Warden to this new constituted Lodge, and, having no doubt of your discharging that Office 
" with Honour to yourself and to the Brethren, I do invest you with the Senior Warden's Jewel 
" accordingly.' The Master then put the Jewel pendant to a. White Ribbon about- his neck. 

" In like manner he appointed & invested the other officers of the New Lodge, who were as 
" follows : 

" James Nelthorpe, Esqre. Junior Warden. 
" Si 1 Clement Trafford Treasurer. 

" Mr. John Money, Gent. Secretary. 
" The ceremony being performed the R : W : Benjamin Nuthall Esqr after a Second Prayer by 
I' Brother Charles, adjourned the Lodge, & ordered a procefsion of the Brethren to set forward "to the 
" Church, to hear Divine Service, it being now Eleven o' the Clock. 

" Accordingly seven guns were fired, as a Signal, where the procefsion pafsed in the following 
" manner : 

" 1. Attendants to clear the way. 

" 2. Band of Musick. 

" 3. Two Stewards, with their Wands, & Red Ribbons. 

" 4. Duke's Head Lodge, two and two. 

" 5. White Lyon Lodge, two and two. 

" 6. New Lodge, two and two. 

" 7. Officers of the New Lodge. 

" 8. Officers of the Grand Lodge. 

" 9. Two Standard Bearers. 

" 10. Cushions bearing the Bible, & Book of Constitutions. 

" 11. P.G.S., with the Deputation. 

" 12. D.P. Grand Master, with the new Master on his left hand. 

" 13. Marshall with the Staff. 

" In this Order the Procefsion p'afsed from the Crown Inn acrdss the Market Hill to Church; 
" before the several Lodges were carried their respective Banners and Standards : the Brethren were 
" all new cloathed, and the Officers wore their proper Jewels, bearing White Wands in their, hands. 

" On their arrival at the Church door, they opened to the Right & Left, forming a paf sage for the 
" R : W : the Deputy Provincial Grand Master, who, preceded by the Brethren bearing the Cushions of 
" Green Sattin with the Bible and Book of Constitutions, and having the New Master on his Left Hand, 
" carrying a blue Wand tipt with.Gold, with the Master's Jewel pendant to a Garter blue Ribbon round 
" his neck, and his apron fringed with Gold, and lined with Garter blue, entered the Great Door of the 
" Church, followed by the several Lodges two and two in proper Order. 

" As soon as the Brethren were seated our Rev<J. Brother John Warren A.M. began Divine 
" Service, and tho' the Church- was greatly crowded, his vbice, clear & exprefsive, was heard distinctly 
" in all parts of it. Prayers being ended, a most excellent Sermon on the occasion was preached by our 
" Revd- Brother Charles Chad wicke A.M. from the following words : 

" ' Edify one another.' " 
" Divine Service being ended the Brethren returrted in the same order to the Crown, exceptiug 
" that the New Master now walked on the right hand of the D.P. Grand Master. On their coming out 
" of Church the Guns were ffired & the Bells rung. 





The Great Lodge, Swaffham, Norfolk, 1764-1785. 235 

" On their arrival at the Crown, the Brethren opened to the Eight & Left for the New Master 
" & the D.P. Grand Master, who passed thro' them to the Lodge Boom, where the Brethren, being all 
" afsembled, & the Lodge Resumed, The B : W : the New Master gave a Charge to the Members of the 
" New Lodge, at the same time exprefsing the Thanks of the New Lodge to the D.P. Grand Master, 
" The Master & Wardens of the White Lion Lodge, The Master & Wardens of the Duke's Head Lodge, 
" and all the visiting Brethren for their attendance in So numerous a Body on the solemnity of the 
" Day; after which the R.W. the New Master adjourned the Lodge for Refreshment, and a Deputation 
" preceded by a Band of Musick, reescorted the Duke's Head Lodge back to the White Hart. 

" Dinner being over in the Afsembly Room, the Brethren returned to the Lodge Room, and the 
" Lodge being Resumed, the King and the Craft, The Right HonWe and Right Worshipful Lord Blaney, 
" Grand Master of Masons, the Deputy Grand Master and Officers of the Grand Lodge, The Provincial 
" Grand Master, Edward Bacon, Esqre, His Representative, The R : W : Benjamin Nuthall, Esq™ & 
" other Masons Toasts were Drank in the Man.er of Masons, and under a discharge of Thirteen pieces 
" of Cannon at each Toast. 

" Present in the Lodge. 
" R : W : Richard Gardiner, Esq'' Master in the Chair. 

" W : William Pawlett Senior Warden. 

" W : James Nelthorpe Junior Warden. 

" Bro : Sir Clement Trafford Treasurer. 

" Bro : John Money Secretary. 

" Bro : William Mason •> 

„„ TT _ , ,[ Stewards. 

.Bro : Henry Dashwood ) 

" Bro : Thomas Bailey 1 

« t> tt ™ » n, r [-Members of the New Lodge. 

Bro : John Warren, A.M. J 6 

" Representatives of the Grand Lodge and Visitors 
" R : W : Benjamin Nuthall Esqre- D ; P : G : M : 

" R : W : Jenkins Marther Leet, Master of the White Lion Lodge at Lynn. 
" W : John Chadwick S : W : "» 

"W: Joseph Taylor J:W: j <* White Lion Lodge. 
" Bro : Thomas Somersby, Marshall. 
" Bro : Charles Chadwicke, A : M : Preacher. 
" Bro : Joseph Charles, A : M : 
" Bro : Thomas Hendrey. 
" Bro : Thomas Case. 
" Bro : John Bagg. 
" Bro : William Bagg. 
" Bro : Thomas Hickman. 
" Bro : William Brown. 
" Bro : Thmana Day. 
" and many oilier Brethren. 

" At 5 in the afternoon a Deputation was sent from the Crown to the White Hart wth a Mefsa^e 
" from the New Lodge to the Master, Wardens and Brethren of the Duke's Head Lodge afsembled there 
" ' That the Master, Wardens, Officers and Brethren present drank their Healths and prosperity to their 
" Lodge,' which Compliment being returned, and the business of the day finished, the R : W : the Master 
" closed the Lodge in due fform at 7 o' the Clock. 

" In the evening there was a Brilliant Afsembly of the Ladies, whither the Brethren repaired 
" and danced in their Aprons and Jewels to the number of Two and Twenty Couple of Dancers. The 
" whole of the Day's Solemnity was conducted with great Regularity, and the Day passed with the 
" Unanimity and Harmony remarkable among Masons." 

The first .Regular Meeting, or, as they then called it, the first General Lodge 
Night, of the new Lodge took place on the 7th January, 1765, when the R.W. Master 
Richard Gardiner, opened a Master's Lodge, consisting of five members, and proceeded 
to raise " onr Rev d . Bro : John Warren, who had been previously pafsed a Fellow Craft 
to the Hon ble degree of a Master Mason." The Lodge was then closed, and the. 



«■*» • 



236 



Transactions of the Quatuor Coronati Lodge. 



Master opened an Entered Apprentice's Lodge, at which it was resolved that in future 
every Member made a Mason should pay £5 5s. on his making, and half a guinea more 
when Raised. Lieut. Robert Pennington " in consequence of a previous nomination " 
(it is not clear when this could have taken place) was balloted for, elected a member of 
the Lodge, and admitted to the first Degree, being properly introduced by the D.J.W. 
Two other candidates were proposed and ordered to be balloted for at the next General 
Lodge Night ; and the Earl of Orford, Lord Lieutenant of the County, and Lord 
Montford, were elected members of the Lodge, and ordered to be made Masons the first 
opportunity. The first Monday in every month was ordered to be for the future the 
General Lodge Night. Three absent members were fined 2/6 each. 

The next meeting recorded is that on the Second General Lodge Night, 4th 
February, 1765 ; but it appears from the first Minute that a " Convened Lodge," or, as 
we should now call it, a Lodge of Emergency, had been held, at which a candidate had 
been nominated who was now elected and admitted to the first Degree. Certain Rules 
and Regulations for the well governing of the Lodge were read, approved and ordered 
to be entered in a Book " for the entry of Bye-laws of this Society." These are not set 
out at length in the Minutes, but a printed copy of them is pasted into the fly leaf at 
the commencement of the volume. They run as follows : — 

GENERAL RESOLUTIONS OF THE GREAT LODGE. 

I. 

" That all Members do attend the Duties of the Lodge the first Monday in every Month. 

II. 
" That every Member who is absent on the General Lodge Night' shall be fined, unlefs he gives 
" Notice of his Non- Attendance to the Secretary at least one week before the Meeting. 

III. 

" That every New Candidate shall attend within the space of six months after he is elected a 
" Member of the Lodge ; in case of Failure, his name to be struck off the List, and his Election to be 
" declared Null and Void. Penalty to the Member who proposed him Five Guineas. 

IV. 
" That no Member of any other Lodge shall be admitted a Member of this Lodge without a 
" Ballot ; one black ball to reject ; visiting Brothers may be admitted once without a Ballot, but 
" no more. 

T. 
" That on the General Lodge Night, the Junior Warden shall see the Bill upon the Table at 
" ten o'clock, and the Master shall close the Lodge at eleven or sooner. 

VI. 

" That every Member who swears an oath in the Lodge, shall pay one Shilling ; and if he talks 
" Politicks, shall drink a Half Pint Bumper of salt and water ; and if he comes to the Lodge in Liquor, 
" shall pay a Gallon of claret for the Use of the Lodge ; and if he is riotous, he shall be sent to 
" Coventry. 

VII. 

" That no Candidate shall be proposed or ballotted for but on General Lodge Night ; and that 
" no Candidate shall be proposed and ballotted for at the same Lodge. 

VIII. 
" That a New Master and Officers shall be annually elected on the first Monday in June, and 
" shall be installed at the Anniversary Feast of this Lodge, held on S* John's Day June 2#h 
" following. 

At the 3rd General Meeting, on the 4th March, 1765, no business was transacted, 
beyond the balloting for a Candidate who was rejected by one Black Ball ; three 
absentees were fined 2s. 6d. 



"**<£& 







The Great Lodge, Swaffham, Norfolk, 1764-1783. 



237 









A Convened Lodge held on the 18th March, was opened as a Master's Lodge 
. with four present, and two fellow-crafts were " raised to the highest degree of Masonry." 
The Master's Lodge was then closed and an Enter'd Apprentices' Lodge opened; 
among those present being " Bro : Rob* Crowe, ff : C." ; a candidate was admitted to the 
first and second degrees. Some additions were made to the Bye-laws, and it was 
resolved " That for the future the Members are to meet on all Lodge Days at 4 o'clock, 
at wh ch time a dinner will be provided for them." 

At the next meeting in April appeared the first indication of what subsequently 
gave rise to considerable trouble in the Lodge, namely what we should now consider the 
arbitrary way in which they dealt with members for non-attendance. A letter was 
ordered to be written to a Brother requiring his attendance on the next General Lodge 
Night, as he had never made his appearance since the day of the Constitution. The 
Brother's answer to this letter was subsequently read to the Lodge, and, not being 
considered satisfactory, his name was erased from the List of Members. 

The Company of Comedians in the town having petitioned the Lodge to bespeak 
a Mason's Play, one was accordingly bespoke for the 6th May, 1765, on which day the 
Lodge was adjourned for refreshment and resumed after dinner, when, " being joined by 
" the R : W : the Master and Wardens of the "White Lion Lodge, The Master and Wardens 
" of the Duke's Head Lodge at Lynn, and by other Brethren of both Lodges properly 
" cloathed, went in procefsion to the Theatre to see the Play of 'Love for Love,' asked 
" by desire of the Lodge. The Play being over the Lodge return'd to the Crown 
" in the same order as they went." The following epilogue, written by the Master, 
Captain Gardiner, and spoken by Mrs. Dyer after the play, was, by resolution of the 
Lodge entered in the Minute Book. 



EPILOGUE. 

While Royal Splendour & Theatric State 

On Princely Barry & King Garrick wait, 

How little can we hope our Humble Stage, 

Void of all Pomp, can yonr applause engage ? 

(for which amongst you, Ladies, can discern 

A Covent Garden in a Swaffham Barn ? 

Yes, 'tis a Barn — yet, ffair ones, take no right, 

Our's is no play— we hold a Lodge to-night; 

And should our building want a slight repair, 

You'll see we've ffriends amongst the Brethren there — 

Reply the Scalds, with Miserable ffrown 

" Masons repair ! — they'd sooner pull it down— 

" A sett of Ranting, Rumbling Roaring Bellows, 

" Who meet to sing Old Rose and Burn the Bellows — 

" Champaigne & Claret, Dozens! in a Jerk 

" And then, Lord ! how hard they've been at work ! 

" Employ, but them, & till the Day of Doom 

" You ne'er shall get a new Afsembly Room ; 

" Then for the Secret, of their own wise making, 

" H . . . ., and B . . . . and Grand Master J . . . 

" Poker and Tongs ! The Sign ! The Word ! The Stroke ! 

" 'Tis all a Nothing, and 'tis all a Joke ; 

" Nonsense on Nonsense ! let them storm & rail, 

" Here's the whole History of their Mop and Pail ; 

" ffor 'tis the sense of more than half the town, 

" Their Secret is — A Bottle at the Crown," 



238 



Transactions of the Quatuor Goronati Zodge. 



But not so fast, ye enemies to Light, 
I, tho' no Mason, am their firiend to-night, 
And, with your leaves, 'tis somewhat strange, I trow, 
To slander that which none of you can know. 
We Women, tho' we like good Masons well, 
Sometimes are angry that they will not tell ; 
And then we flaunt away from rout to rout, 
And swear, like you, we've found the Secret out. 
But Oh, vain Boast ! to all Enquiring Eyes, 
Too deep the Mine, where that bright Jewel lies ; 
That Masons have a Secret is most true, 
And you ! ye Beauties, have a Secret too : 
And if the Masons are so rigid grown, 
To keep their Secret to themselves alone, 
Be silent in your Turns, 'tis that allures, 
Silence— and bid the Masons— find out yours. 
Thus far conjecture in the comic way, 
But let not fancy lead your thoughts astray ; 
The Ties of Honour only Masons bind, , 
ffriends to each other and to all Mankind ; 
True to their King, and for their Country bold, 
They flew to Battle like their -Sires of Old ; . 
Banish'd the Trowell for the Barbed Spear, 
And where loud Cannon thunder'd, formed the Square ; 
Gallant and Gay, at Minden's glorious Plain, 
And the -proud Moro, storm'd alas ! in vain ; 
In Peace, with Honest Hearts they court the ffair, 
And most they Triumph, when they Triumph there ; 
Their actions known, their bitt'rest foes approve, 
ffor all that Masons ask is — Love for Love, 
fiinis. 

The Minutes of the 3rd June, 1765, record that "the Lodge proceeded to the Election 
" of Officers for the year ensuing, & the Election for Master was taken in the following manner ; every 
" member present wrote the name of the member he voted for on a piece of paper, and put it in the 
" Balloting Box, and when all had given their Ballot, the Box was carried to the Master by the Junior 
" Warden, who delivered it to the Secretary; theSecretary took out the Ballots, and having read them, 
" the present Master appeared to be elected, Nem : Con : . The Master rose from his Chair and returned 
"his thanks to the Lodge for the honour they had done him. The W: William Pawlett Esq™, S enr . 
" Warden, was then elected Deputy Master." The Master then nominated his Wardens, the 
other Officers being elected by the Lodge ; among them were two Stewards, a Marshal, 
but no Deacons. 

The Anniversary Night was kept on the 1st July, when the Brethren adjourned 
to the Assembly Room for dinner, and on their return to the Lodge-room the Master, 
"in consequence of his re-election," took the Chair without any further Ceremony, and 
proceeded to instal and invest his Officers. Some of the details of the ceremony are 
worth preserving. 

" The B : W : the Master having nominated W™. Mason Esqre and Henry Dashwood Esqre his 
" Wardens for the ensuing year, and Bro : Mason advancing up to the Chair, the Master put the Senior 
" Warden's Jewel pendant to a red Ribbon about his neck, at the same time addressing him in the follow- 
" ing manner : ' Bro : William Mason, by virtue of the Authority Derived to me from my re-election to 
'"this Honourable Chair, I do appoint you senior warden to this great lodge, having no doubt of 
" ' your discharging that Office with equal credit to yourself and advantage to the Brethren.' To Bro : 
Crowe, as Marshal, was delivered "the Staff of Office. On Thomas Holt, of Redgrave, ' 
Suffolk, who had been elected a Member, claiming admittance, the Master replied that 



i 



!• * 



the Great Lodge, Swaffham, Norfolk, 1764-1785. 2g9 

''a Member must come in." He was then introduced and received the first Degree. 
The Master then proposed the E'. Hon ble . and E 4 . "Worshipful Lord Blayney, Grand 
Master of Masons, and, "being a Peer, he was elected viva voce by a Unanimous Vote 
of the Lodge." 

Another Member who was admitted to the first degree that evening was Francis 
Dalton, the younger, of West Bilney. He appears to have misconducted himself in 
some way, for on the next night the Lodge took his behaviour into consideration, and 
passed a resolution that " he was within the full meaning of the 9th Order and Eule in 
" the Book of Byelaws of this Lodge, and, as such, is hereby esteemed to be 

"AT COVENTEY." 

At the next meeting a letter was received and taken into consideration " from our 
" unfortunate brother at Coventry ; " the opinion of the Members being severally asked, 
beginning with the youngest, they resolved " That the said letter is no submifsion to 
"the Lodge, and that Mr. ffranois Dalton continues at Coventry." In the Minutes 
of subsequent meetings his name is generally entered among those of the Absent 
Members who were fined, but in his case instead of the fine, 2/6, appearing after his 
name, the words At Coventry- are appended. At Coventry he remained for two-and- 
a-half years, but on the 7th December, 1767, the Brethren apparently relented, for a 
resolution is entered " that Mr. Secretary do Issue out a Summons requiring the attend- 
ance of our Bro : Dalton from Coventry on the Anniversary." The pardon came too 
late, for, at the next meeting "the E : W : the P. Master acquainted the Lodge that our 
" late worthy Bro : France (sic) Dalton Esq 1 ', died much lamented on Monday Dec 1 '. 
" 28 t]l of a ffractured thigh by a ffall from a young Horse who suddenly reared up and 
" tumbled backwards upon him." 

To go back to the 1st July, 1765, the Minutes of that meeting concluded with a 
fine specimen of flowery writing : — 

"The tmsinefs of the Lodge being over, and the Master acquainted that a bright Constellation 
" of Beauties had adorned the Hemisphere this evening in Honor of Masons, aad Masonry, and was 
" seen hov'ring over the Afsembly Room, directed the Brethren to repair to a proper place of Adoration 
"in their proper Cloathing, and, it being now near nine o' the Clock, c]o 3 ed the Lodge in due fobm." 

Then, as now, Swaffham seems to have been addicted to the worship of 
Terpsichore, for, only two months later the following Eesolution is recorded, " That the 
" Lodge gives the Dear Ladies a Ball on Monday the 21 st October next." This resolu- 
tion was passed, by the way, at the house of the Junior Warden, to which the Master 
had adjourned the Lodge in the middle of the meeting. They also passed some regula- 
tions as to Dinners, which throw light on the customs of that day. 

" I. That for the future Dinner be on the table exactly at 4 o'clock each Lodge Day, and that 
" the Tyler gives notice to the Wardens one Quarter of an hour before it is taken up. To wait Dinner 
" for no Body. 

" II. That the Tyler for the future shall come into the Dining Boom with his Sword exactly 
"as the clock strikes six, leaving a Brother to tile the Lodge Boom in his absence, and shall acquaint 
" the Senior Warden with the hour ; the Senior Warden with an Audible Voice shall inform the Masteb 
" that ' the Duties of the Lodge require the Attendance of the Members in the Lodge Room,' upon 
" Which the Master and Members are to retire immediately. 

" III. That after the above notice of the Senior Warden if the Master and Wardens do not 
" return to the Lodge Room in ffive Minutes, they shall be fined a Gallon of Claret each for the beneat 
" of the Lodge." • 

The Members further directed the Secretary to^purchase a Lottery Ticket for the 
benefit of the Lodge ; from a subsequent entry it seems that it did not win a prize, 



240 



Transactions of the Quatuor Ooronati Lodge, 



On the 17th December, 1765, the Master " Notified to the Lodge the Great Loss 
"that Masonry had sustained by the death of his Imperial Majesty of Germany, 1 and 
" by that of his Royal Highness William Duke of Cumberland, our High, Mighty, and 
" Illustrious Brothers, and condoled with the Lodge on those Melancholy events to the 
" Craft in general." Three months later, on the 3rd March, 176G, he congratulated the 
Brethren on the " Great addition - of Honour to the Craft in general by the late admifsion 
" of two Royal Brothers, His Royal Highness Edward Duke of York, and His Royal 
"Highness Henry Duke of Gloucester." 

At the Anniversary Feast on June 24th, 1766, the fine for non-attendance on a 
General Lodge Night, without giving a week's notice to the Secretary, was raised from 
2/6 to 5/-, " no excuse to be admitted but the Illness or Death of some Relation in his 
" family, and that to be declared on the Word of a Mason on his next appearance at the 
" Lodge." A significant order was made " that all Letters wrote to the Secretary by 
"the Members be sent to him Post Paid." At this meeting the Master, Captain 
Gardiner, was absent for the first time, because, as he informed the Lodge at the next 
meeting, 

"he had attended the R 4 Hon ble and R' W: Lord Blayney Grand Master of 
" Masons and the Grand Lodge at their Anniversary Feast on St. John's Day, held at 
" the Grey Hound at Greenwich ; that his Lordship was pleased to Signify his Great 
" Approbation of the proceedings of this Lodge, and of the Members composing it, and 
" the Spirit with which it was carried on, and, arising from his Chair, the Grand Lodge 
" and all the Members standing, Drank Health to the Master, Wardens, and Officers, 
" and Prosperity to the Great Lodge at Swaffham in the County of Norfolk, in the 
" manner of Masons, which compliment was returned by the Master, in the name of the 
" Lodge and in the manner of Masons, with thanks to the Grand Master & Grand 
"Lodge for the Honor done to this Lodge, and for his Worship's approbation of the 
" proceedings of the Members so publickly declared on this occasion." 

On the 26th September, 1766, there was a good attendance for the reception of 
the Earl of Orford, 3 Lord Lieutenant of the County ; he was admitted and received the 
two first degrees from the Master, Richard Gardiner, who then " acquainted the Lodge 
"that he had a special power from the R: W: and R: Hon: Lord Blayney Grand 
*'■ Master of Masons to admit the Earl of Orford to the three several Degrees of Masonry 
" at his Lordship's first attendance. He accordingly proceeded to open a Master's 
" Lodge, when his Lordship was rais'd to the Highest Degree of Masonry and the 

" Master's Lodge was then closed After which the R : W : The Master 

" requested leave of the Brethren to resign the Chair to our New and Hon : Brother the 
" Earl of Orford, which being granted, his Lordship was installed accordingly and 
" invested with the Master's Jewell." The Lodge adjourned for refreshment, and after- 
wards resumed to receive propositions, &c, after which the new Master " closed the 
" Lodge in Due Form, it being now: High Twelve at Noon." This appears to have 
been the only Masonic work that Lord Orford ever did; he never put in a second 
appearance at the Lodge, and Gardiner, as P.M., continued to do. the work of the Chair. 

An order was on the 17th December, 1766, that the Lodge should visit the 
" White Lion " Lodge, at Lynn, on St. John's Day, but no entry occurs as to the visit. 
The meeting of the 2nd February following had to be postponed because only four 

* 

1 Joseph II. 

2 George, 3rd Earl of Orford, and grandson of Sir Eobert Walpole, 1st Earl ; succeeded his father 
1st April, 1751, and died unmarried 5th December, 1791, when the honours reverted to his unclej Horace 
Walpole. 




He Great Lodge, Sioaffham, Norfolk, 1764-1783. 



241 



members could get there, owing to deep snow, but a Convened Lodge -was held on the 
12th, at which Crisp Molyneux, of Garboldisham, received the first and second Degrees, 
though he was not elected a member until the regular Lodge in March. At these 
meetings Lord Orford and many other members were fined for non-attendance, but, 
nevertheless, his Lordship was re-elected Master at the Anniversary Feast, in June. 
This meeting was presided over by tho Deputy Master, William Pawlett, as Lord 
Orford and Gardiner were both absent, the latter owing to illness : the Lodge adjourned 
to his house, and passed a resolution as to the payment of fines and subscriptions over- 
due ; the Brethren then returned to the " Crown," where they resumed and confirmed 
the resolution just arrived at. 

Many County gentlemen joined the Lodge about this period ; among them were 
Edmund Rolfe, of Heacham, who was " made " on the 24th September, 1767, and the 
Hon. George Hobart, who joined on the 2nd November following. The attendance, 
however, grew worse and worse, and the Minutes are full of complaints about Members 
who would neither come to the meetings nor pay their fines. 

The Anniversary Feast of June 24th, 1768, was attended by the W.M., and 
Brethren of the Royal Edwin Lodge, constituted shortly after this Lodge in the neigh- 
bouring town of Fakenham. A Deputation invited them into the Lodge Room, and a 
procession was formed at High Twelve, which crossed the Market Place to the house of 
the new Master, Sir Clement Trafford, and, after being hospitably entertained there, 
escorted him to the " Crown," the P.M. of the Great Lodge " bringing out the Master 
"Elect in his hand." The P.M., having resumed the Chair, "proceeded to instal the 
" Master Elect having previously giving (sic) a charge to the Brethren, and having 
" proclaimed Sir Clement Trafford Master of the Gebat Lodge, who was received by 
" all the Brethren with the proper compliments of Masons, the Past Master placed 
" him in the Chair of Solomon. The new Master, being seated in the Chair, returned 
"the Brethren thanks for the honor they had done him in an Elegant & Polite Speech." 
After dinner they took into consideration their financial position, and, among other 
resolutions, passed one for the expulsion of a Brother who had neither paid his fees for 
making nor discharged his forfeits for non-attendance. The name of the offending 
Brother was forthwith erased from the list, and his Arms taken down from amongst 
those of the other Members, hung up according to seniority on the western wall of the 
Great Lodge. Three other defaulters were ordered to be sent to Coventry unless they 
attended the next Lodge, and if they failed to attend the September meeting they were 
to be expelled. Further defaulters were dealt with in August, and the stringent 
measures adopted caused several to apologise and pay up. 

On the 27th September, 1768, Sir Edward Astley, Bart., M.P. (afterwards 
Provincial Grand Master), was proposed as a Member, and it was resolved, nem. con. 
"that as the Peers belonging to the Lodge were elected without Ballot taken, the same 
" compliment be paid to the Knight of the Shire for the County." A deputation was 
sent to invite Sir Edward into the Lodge Room, and, on his claiming admission the 
Master replied, as on a previous occasion, " that a Member must come in," on which he 
was duly introduced. 

A list, entered on the Minutes of the 3rd October, shews 26 members of the Lodge, 
of whom only 7 were then in arrear. A resolution had been passed that the minutes 
should be printed and transmitted to all Members, and from the 5th December, 1768, 
to the 6th March, 1769, the Minutes were accordingly printed and are inserted in that 
form in the Book. 




242 



Transactions of the Quatuor Coronatl Lodge. 



The meeting of December 5th, 1768, was attended "by 19 members and several 
Visiting Brethren ; amongst the latter was Rowland Holt, the Senior Grand Warden of 
England, who was " saluted properly by all the members, and in the manner of Masons." 
The Secretary reported that he had purchased another Lottery ticket, and such members 
as chose to have a share in it paid in their several proportions of the purchase : it had 
no better luck than the first. 

In consequence of new Regulations from Grand Lodge requiring Returns of 
defaulters a letter was, on the 2nd January, 1769, ordered to be written to the Earl of 
Orford requesting to know whether he meant to attend the duties of the Lodge, or chose 
to retire, " it being determined by the gentlemen of the Lodge consistent with the Rules 
" of Masonry to have no Members belonging to it who shall be in the Neighbourhood 
" on General Lodge Days, and who do not then attend." It was further ordered that 
Edmund Rolfe, Esq. represent the Master, and J. T. Medlycott the Senior Warden of 
the Lodge, at the next Quarterly Communication, at the " Crown and Anchor," in the 
Strand, in case they shall be resident in London at the time. 

A convened Lodge was held on the 14th January, 1769, to receive Lord Orford's 
answer, which was conveyed in a message through the Treasurer that "His Lordship 
" had read the Resolution of the Lodge, and returned for Answer that he would attend 
" the Lodge for the future, whenever he was in the Country, and as often as was con- 
" venient.'' 

The Master thereon read to the Lodge, and received unanimous approval for, a 

Letter which he had written in reply to Lord Orford. The standpoint is different to 

ours, as now-a-dajs no amount of non-attendance alone leads to expulsion from a Lodge; 

but, judged by eighteenth century standards, I think that it will be agreed that a more 

dignified reply could hardly have been written. It runs : 

" My Lord 

" I am extremely glad to hear that your Lordship means to attend the duties of the Lodge for the 
" future. 

" It never was the Intention of the respective Members to require an Inconvenient Attendance 
" on any one ; but, when it is convenient, and Members are actually in the House, at the time of 
" holding a Lodge, in the Town, or in the neighbourhood, it is expected that they should then attend, 
" or retire altogether from the Lodge. 

" The Payments of Fines and Forfeits is no part of a Mason's duty it is common to that with all 
" other Societies, in which they are collected from absenting Members with a scrupulous exactness. 

" Attendance in the Lodge is the principal Duty of a Mason, the neglect of which will in time 
" bring on a sentence of Expulsion ; it is not the Spirit of Masonry to raise contributions on its Members, 
" and it is in particular very far from being the spirit of the Gentlemen who compose the Lodge at 
" SwafEham, by whom a continued Absence from the Lodge will ever be considered a more warrantable 
" cause of Expulsion than the bare Omifsion of remitting Fines and Forfeits. 

" Your Lordship cannot with reason take it ill that the Members of the Lodge requested to know 
" by Resolution and Ballot your Lordship's Sentiments, when you are pleased to recollect that during 
" the whole year you was Master of the Lodge, you never attended but once, and then only when 
" Captain Gardiner complimented your Lordship with a Resignation of the Chair, and placed you in it. 

" My Lord, the Gentlemen of the Lodge will be extremely glad to have the pleasure of Your 

" Lordship's Company whenever it is convenient, and in this as well as the rest I am confident that I 

" speak the sense of every Member of it. 

" I have the honour to be, 

" My Lord, 

" Your most obedient servant, 

, „ _. Clement Tkafeokd, M." 

" Swaffhani, > 

" January 14thj 1769. 

" To the Earl of Orford* 




The Great Lodge, SwaffJiam, Norfolk, 1764-1785. 



243 



This Conduct of the Lodge received the warm approval of the authorities of 
Grand Lodge, as is testified by the following letter from the Grand Secretary to the 
Master. 

" E : W : Sir 

" In consequence of a letter from Brother Gardiner to Brother Berkeley, concerning the 
" Minutes of your Lodge relating to the Earl of Orford, I waited on our most noble Grand Master,' 
" who highly applauds the zeal so conspicuous in all your Proceedings for the Honour of the Society, 
" being worthy the Imitation as well as Approbation of the whole Craft. 

" His Grace is sorry the Earl of Orford should have given room to the Brethren to censure his 
" Conduct as a Mason, but flatters himself his Lordship's regard for the Institution will prompt him to 
" give a more regular Attendance on the Duties of your respectable Lodge in future, and prevent any 
" further Reflections. 



: I have the honour to subscribe myself 



' New Bond S*. 

" Feb : 9, 1769. 
; To Sir Clement Trafford. 



: W: Sir, 
" Tour most obedient servant 
" and affectionate brother 

" Thomas French, Grand Secretary, 



Perhaps Lord Orford's good intentions as to attendance were modified by the 
attitude of the Lodge towards another member of his family, who, unfortunately, about 
the same time, was involved in a similar censure. Several members had been 
threatened with expulsion for non-attendance and non-payment of fees ; among these 
was the Hon. Thomas Walpole, M.P. for Lynn, and a cousin of Lord Orford. He failed 
to attend when summoned, or to furnish any excuse, and, consequently, at the meeting of 
the 6th February, 1769, he and another Brother were formally expelled, and the Minutes 
record that their Arms " were taken down, and being first broke in pieces, were thrown 
upon the fire and burnt." No doubt this indignity to his family was resented, and it is 
scarcely surprising that the name of Walpole is not found again in the Minute Book of 
the Great Lodge. 

About this period the Lodge began to get into debt with their host, Mr. Breese 
the Landlord of the " Crown." A minute of the 3rd April, 1769, orders, " That the 
" reckoning be called and paid before the Lodge is closed. Penalty to the Master or 
" his Deputy in the Chair to pay the whole." Letters were written to those in arrear 
and, on the 1st January, 1770, the somewhat high-handed course was adopted of 
drawing a Bill, payable to Mr. Breese, on two members who had failed to answer the 
applications made to them. 

The fiftieth General Lodge Night, on the 5th February, 1770, was presided over 
by Richard Gardiner, as D.M., and it is noticeable as the last occasion on which his 
name appears in the Minute Book of the Lodge which he had founded, and of which he 
had been the mainstay and most regular attendant. The reason, no doubt, was that at 
this period, he moved his residence from Swaffham to the village of Ingoldisthorpe, on 
the Coast of the Wash, about 22 miles distant, too far for him to drive in all weathers 
by cross-country roads. At Ingoldisthorpe he died eleven years later, on the 15th 
September, 1781, during which year no meeting of the Lodge took place, and, in fact 
it will be seen that it only survived its founder by about three years. 

Gardiner's departure from Swaffham almost broke up the Lodge, which indeed 
held no meeting for nearly six years, viz., between the 5th February, 1770, and the 18th 

' Henry, Dujce of Beaufort, 



1 



244 Transactions of the Quatuor Goronati Lodge. 

December, 1775. A memorandum at the end of the volume shews that " the Master, 
Thomas Holt, and four other members, met on the 17th July, 1775, for the purpose of 
settling the Lodge accounts : they were then in debt upwards of £50 to the Landlord, 
and this amount was apportioned among the fifteen existing members, to be paid by 
them to extinguish the debt to Mr. Breese. A meeting was held on the 18th 
December, 1775, at which three members and three visitors were present, and a full 
list of the then members only gives nine names ; Lodge was opened, and two former 
members were re-admitted. On the 27th February following, Sir Clement Trafford 
was elected Master, and a new set of Bye-laws was passed. The principal changes in 
these were, that there should only be four Quarterly meetings, that the subscription 
should be a guinea per annum, and the fees for making a Mason two guineas ; every 
member to forfeit 2s. 6d., instead of 5s., for non-attendance, " to be paid to Mr. Breese 
in consideration of the dinner provided." 

One of the re-joining members was a well-known County Magistrate, William 
Mason, of Necton, three miles from Swaifham. As he did not attend, the Brethren, on 
the 24th October, 1776, resolved, nem. con., " that if Bro. William Mason do not appear 
" at the next General Lodge, that the Lodge be then adjourned to our said Bro : Mason's 
" house at Necton, and there to be constantly held. Also that the Secretary do give 
" him notice of the above Besolution." The Lodge was closed at the somewhat unusual 
hour of " High Twelve at Night." The threat produced the desired effect, for, at the 
next meeting, Bro. William Mason appeared in his place as Senior Warden of the 
Lodge. 

During 1777 the four Quarterly meetings were regularly held, and, at the last 
one, it was ordered " that a Plate be engraved for the use of the Lodge against the 
next Lodge Night." The Engraved Summons, of which a copy is reproduced as an 
illustration to this paper, was probably made in 1766, as it contains only the names of 
members elected up to August of that year. 

Four meetings were held during 1778, but only six or seven members attended 
at each, and no initiations took place. In the following year the attendance was slightly 
better, but still no additions were made to the list of members. At the June meeting, 
in 1780, so few were present that the Election of Master was postponed until September, 
but no meeting took place for two years, until the 24th June, 1782, when seven attended, 
and two new members were made Masons. Another meeting was held on the 27th 
December of that year, at which two resignations were accepted, and notice was given of 
two proposals. A single meeting was held during 1783, on the 24th October, six members 
and one visitor being present ; the two candidates proposed at the last meeting were 
elected, and one of them was initiated. The Secretary was ordered to " get a Copper Plate 
" engraved for the takeing off Official letters to the Members when they are desired to 
" attend the Duties of the Lodge." No copy of this Plate, or of that ordered six years 
previously, has survived. 

Eleven months elapsed before the next meeting, which did not take place until 
the 20th September, 1784; five members and a visitor attended, and elected a new 
Master. The Treasurer was ordered to pay the yearly sum of three guineas to the 
General Charity of Grand Lodge, until directed to the contrary by the Lodge ; apparently 
he acted upon this Order for some years after the Lodge had ceased to meet— perhaps 
as long as he had any funds in hand — as the records of Grand Lodge show that the 
payment was continued up to November, 1788. 

The last recorded meeting of the Lodge took place on the 26th November, 1784, 
seven members being present, Evidently they had then np intention of .discontinuing 






The Great Lodge,. Sivaffham, Norfolk, 1764-1785. 



245 



the Lodge, as a candidate was elected and initiated, and John Briggs, the waiter at the 
" Grown," was "properly prepared and brought into the Lodge and admitted to the first 
" Degree of Masonry." The next Lodge was fixed for the 23rd February, 1785, bnt was 
afterwards postponed by order of the Master until the 24th June, but apparently it 
never met again. This is the last entry in the Minute Book: the Lodge seems on 
have died out quietly of inanition, and was finally erased from the Roll on the 
13th April, 1791. 

Only once in the Minute Book is the number of the Lodge given, viz., No. 329, on 
a printed List of Members, dated January 1st, 1769, which follows the Bye-laws of 
1765, already transcribed, as printed and inserted at the commencement of the Minute 
Book. This list of Members is given below as an Appendix. The number of the Lodge 
was changed to 267 in 1770, to 211 in 1780, and finally to 213 in the following year. 

It may be useful, in conclusion, to indicate some of the differences between the 
practice of that day and this. The Lodge flourished during the height of the quarrels 
between the Ancients and Moderns, and belonged to the latter, in reality the older, 
Jurisdiction, but no traces of the controversy appear- in the Minute Book. The Master 
was styled Right Worshipful, and the Deputy Master, who was also elected by the 
Lodge, was styled Worshipful. In the absence of both Master and Deputy, the Senior 
Warden acted as Deputy and presided. The Master's Jewel was worn pendant to a 
Garter Blue ribbon, while those of the Wardens had White ribbons. The Master's 
Apron was fringed with gold, and lined with Garter Blue. There was no Board of 
Installed Masters, and though the Master's Charge was sometimes read, the Installation 
Ceremony was usually of the 'slightest, scarcely more formalities being observed than 
might take place in any other Society on the occasion of changing their annual 
Chairman. Yet there are traces of some phraseology having been usually employed 
which was subsequently embodied in our Ritual at the time of the Union. The 
Wardens were appointed by the Master, but all the other Officers were elected by the 
Lodge. There were, of course, no Deacons ; some of their present duties, such as intro- 
ducing candidates, carrying round the ballot-box, &c, were performed by the Junior 
Warden, who must therefore have been free to leave his Chair. A Marshal, probably 
the equivalent of our Director of Ceremonies, and also two Stewards were appointed. 
The regular meetings were termed " General Lodge Nights," and, up to the break of 
five years between 1770 and 1775, were numbered consecutively, that of the 5th 
February in 1770 being the " 50th General Lodge Night." An Emergency meeting was 
called a " Convened Lodge." A resolution of the 6th August, 1765, directed "that for 
" the future a Convened Lodge shall be constantly held for the Transaction of private 
" Businefs on the Morning after the General Lodge Night. The Master to take the 
" Chair at 10 o' the clock." The only actual entry of such a meeting was on the day 
after the passing of the Resolution, when a Convened Lodge of Masters was opened and 
a Candidate received the second and third Degrees. The Master's Lodge was then 
closed, and an Entered Apprentice's Lodge opened, in which other business was 
transacted. There are, however, indications that other Convened Lodges were held 
without being entered on the Minutes. 

Some little light is thrown upon the vexed question of Degrees by the proceedings 
of this Lodge ; it was always opened either as an Entered Apprentice's Lodge, or as a 
Master's Lodge, and, as we have just seen, the Master's Lodge was sometimes opened 
first. It was never opened as a Fellow Crafts Lodge, though this Degree was recognized 
as a distinct one, necessary to be taken before the Master's Degree. It was usually 
conferred in an Entered Apprentice's Lodge, and frequently on the same night as the 



I 



246 Transactions of the Quatuor Ooronati Lodge. 

first Degree, but on at least one occasion, that of the 3rd September, 1765, just 
mentioned, when a Lodge of Masters had been opened, the Minutes expressly state that 
a candidate was " past a ffellow Craft and soon after raised to the Highest Degree 
" of Masonry." The Fellow Crafts seem to have sate together in some particular part 
of the Lodge Room, as more than once we hear of a Brother about to receive office as 
" standing amongst the ffellow Crafts." 

The Quorum seems to have consisted of three Brethren, as only that number were 
present on several occasions when the Lodge was opened, one being a Master's Lodge. 
The word initiated is never used, the term employed being ".admitted to the 1 st Degree," 
or "made a Mason." A curious use of the word " Cousin" occurs two or three times, 
applied, on his introduction, to a candidate who had been elected a member before the 
day on which he was " made." The Lodge was occasionally adjourned, in the middle of 
a meeting, to the private house of the Master or one of the Wardens. ' 

This concludes my sketch of the history of this eighteenth century Lodge, which 
grew up, flourished, and decayed in the short space of twenty years. The Minutes, 
which were never signed or recorded as having been read and approved, are extraor- 
dinarily full of detail and beautifully engrossed ; they give a lively picture of Masonic 
practice in a country Lodge in the early years of George III. One useful lesson they 
may, perhaps, impress upon us, that it is never desirable to overload the Bye-laws of a 
Lodge with arbitrary and vexatious regulations interfering with the freedom and 
convenience of its Members, as such restrictions tend inevitably to discourage attendance 
and to break up the Lodge. 




APPENDIX. 



1 



No. 329. 

Swaffham Great Lodge of Free and Accepted Masons. 
Constituted Dee*. 17th, 1764. 

List of Members according to Seniority. 
Jan 1 ? 1?? 1769. 

Richard Gardiner, Esq 1 -, of Swaffham, Norfolk ; M : 1764, 1765, 1766. 

2. William Pawlett, Esq 1 ., of Kenninghall ; S : W : 1764, D : M : 1765. 

3. William Mason, Esq r , of Necton ; S : W : 1765. 

4. John Money, Gent :, of Swaffham ; S. 

5. James Nelthorp, Esq 1 ', of Linford ; J : W : 1764, T. 1768. 

6. Sir Clement Trafford, of Dunton Ball, Lincolnshire ; M. 1768. 

7. Henry Dash wood, Esq r , of Swaffham, Norfolk ; J : W : 1765, S : W : 17 06. 

8. Revd John Warren, of Saxham, Suffolk ; S : W ; 1768, J : W : 1767. 

9. Capt : Robert Pennington, of Aserby, Lincolnshire. 

10. George Barton, Gent :, of Bougham, Norfolk. 

11. Thomas Holt, Esq r ., of Redgrave, Suffolk ; J : W : 1768. 

12. Robert Wensley, Esq r ., of Wisbeach, Isle of Ely. 

13. James Nelthorpe Jun 1 '., Esq 1 '; of Linford, Norfolk. 

14. Brigg Fountain, Esq re ; of Narford. 

15. Robert Knopwood, Esq r . ; of Threxton. 

16. Edmund Jenny, Esq r . ; of Bradfield, Suffolk, 










\ 









18. 
19. 
20. 
21. 

22. 
23. 
24. 
25. 
26. 
27. 



The Great Lodge, Sivaffham, Norfolk, 1764-1785. 

Patrick Blake, Esq 1 ' ; of Beecham Well, Member for Sudbury. 

Cornet Richard French, Horse Guards Blue. 

R^ d Henry Pont, of Langham, Suffolk. 

James Ward, Esq 1 ' ; of Bury S L Edmunds. 

Crisp Molineux, Esq 1 , of Garboldisham, Norfolk. 

Edmund Rolfe, Esq 1 ; of Heacham. 

John Thomas Medlycott, Esq 1 ' ; of Swaffham. 

Sir Edward Astley, Bar*. ; of Melton ; Knight of the Shire for Norfolk. 

Edward Parson, Esq 1 '; of Eiddlesworth. 

Martin Folkes Riston, Esq r ; of Eillington. 



247 



Masons who have Joined. 

28. Rowland Holt, Esq 1 '; of Redgrave, Suffolk; Senior Grand Warden, 1768. 

29. Thomas John Medlycott, Esq re ; of Thetford, Norfolk. 

30. Christopher Blake, Esq 1 ' ; of Langham, Suffolk. 



1. 

2. 

3. 

4. 

5. 

6. 

7. 

8. 

9. 
10. 
11. 
12. 
13. 



R : W 



List of Membeks admitted from othek Lodges. 

Benjamin Nuthall, Esq 1 ; D : P : G : M : March 18 th , 

William Jerningham, Esqr e ; of Gorsey d°. 

Thomas Middleton, Esq ve ; of Belsey Gastle. d°. 

Charles Chadwicke, A.M. d°. 
Joseph Taylor ; /; W : of the White Lion Lodge, Lynn. d°. 

Joseph Charles, A : M : d°. 

Anthony Rethan, M : D : d°. 
Thomas Hendry ; Master of the White Lion Lodge, Lynn. d°. 

Capt n . Thomas Bay— Norfolk Militia. April 19 th , 

Philip Case, Esq 1 '.; Mayor of Lynn. d°. 

R l . Hon ble Lord Blaney - Grand Master. d°. 

Thomas Brooke, M : D : ; London d°. 

General ffrancis Grant. d°. 



1765. 
'65. 
'65. 
'65. 
'65. 
'65. 
'65. 
'65. 
'65. 
'65. 
'65. 
'65. 
'65. 



Urn. \V. J. 1-1 UGH an ■wri'len : — 

I warmly congratulate the Masonic Historian of Norfolk on the discovery of the 
minutes of " The Great Lodge " of Swaffham, the pity being it had not been met with 
in time to be incorporated with Bro. Hamon Le Strange's valuable historical work of 
a.d. 1896. 

The particulars of the "Constitution" are both curious and interesting, especially 
the authority to constitute the Lodge by order of the R.W. the Prov.G.M., Edward 
Bacon, M.P., the Brother deputed for that purpose being Alderman Nuthall, the 
D. Prov.G.M. The document bore date 10th December, 1764, and was duly copied in 
the Minute Book. 

It is late for such an authority, the form of Warrant, with which the Craft has 
since been so familiar, dating from the previous decade. On this point, Dr. W. J, 
Chetwode Crawley's " Caementaria Hibernica," vol. i., 1895, and Bro. John Lane's 
" Early Lodges of Freemasons," (A.Q.G. 1895) should be consulted, being the best on 
the subject. I believe the earliest known copy of a regular Warrant of " Modern " 
origin is of the " Palatine " No. 97, dated 14th January, 1757, a similar document 
being issued 25th March of the same year, for the " Friendship " No. 100, Great 



m 



248 



Transactions of the (buatuor Coronati Lodge. 



Yarmouth. The " Anoients " followed the Irish usage of 1731, or earlier, but the 
" Moderns " kept to their plan until about the year noted. 

The account given of the ceremony on December 17th, 1764, is by far the most 
elaborate of its kind -which has been preserved; It is singular that the new W.M. 
was ordered " to be brought up to him (the D.Prov.G.M.) from amongst the Fellow 
Crafts," possibly simply the ordinary description, at the time, of brethren who had not 
passed the Chair of, a Lodge, as apparently nearly all the members of the Lodges 
present were at least Master Masons. I think it is probable that the Lodge met prior 
to " Constitution," just as it was customary so to do, even in my time, but, later on, 
was wisely prohibited. 

The ribbon, to which the first W.M's. jewel was attached is described as " gaiter 
blue," and that of his Senior Warden was suspended from white ribbon, but at the 
next appointment the colour of the latter was changed to red. So far as my memory 
serves me it was unusual to have a Deputy Master elected, but Deacons, though not 
provided for in the " Great Lodge," are met with about that period in some " Modern " 
Lodges, but not generally. I have much enjoyed the perusal of our esteemed Master's 
able sketch of this old extinct Lodge. 



Remarks were added by Bros. F. J. W. Crowe, H. Sadler, H. R. Heyhoe, E. H. 
Dring, J. P. Simpson, W. Wonnacott, and the Secretary, and a hearty vote of thanks 
was unanimously passed to the W.M. for his interesting paper, on the proposition of 
Bro. Crowe, seconded by Bro. Sadler. 




»-*Mfc- 



i 



Transactions of the Quaiuor Goronati Lodge. 



249 



THE BAIN MS. 

BY BRO. W. J. HUGH AN, P.G.D. 




T is most unfortunate that we know nothing of the early custody or 
history of the " Bain MS.," nor, for that matter, are we any better 
situated as respects the "Phillipps MSS.," Nos. 1 and 2, save that the 
senior document of the two was probably transcribed for Mr. Eichard 
Banckes, who was elected to the Court of Assistants of the Masons' 
Company in 1677, and whose father was Master in 1647; or it may 
have been written for the latter by Mr. William Hammond who was 
Clerk to the Company, 1677-1678. 

The discovery of the " Phillipps MSS." was due to the well directed researches 
of the late Rev. A. F. A. Woodford, M. A. (my lamented collaborator in the study of the 
" Old Charges,") and the late Bro. G. W. Speth, so long the beloved Secretary of our 
Lodge. Bro. Woodford found that the " Wilson MSS." were bought by Sir Thomas 
Phillipps, and that the present owners are the Rev. J. E. A. Fenwick and Mrs. Fenwick, 
Thurlestaiie House, Cheltenham; so he applied for permission to have what he deemed 
to be the " Wilson MS. " (noted in the manifesto of the " Lodge of Antiquity " of 
A.D. 1778) duly copied. The transcript was published in the Masonic Magazine for 
April, 1876, and in the " Archseological Library, vol i., of a.d. 1878, with a few lines in 
facsimile. 

In 1888, Bro. Speth went to Cheltenham to see the MSS. for himself, the result 
being of rather a startling character, as he discovered the MS. was not the one he 
believed it to be ; the "Wilson MSS." having been sold by Bard well & Sons, Sheffield, 
in June, 1843, whereas the one in question was obtained from Mr. Bohn two years before ! 
Another correction being also needful, as the MS. thus reproduced is the " Phillipps 
No. 2," which occurred for sale in a catalogue by John Cochran in 1829. It is most 
remarkable that these two MSS., having virtually the same text, should have been 
secured for the same Collection from different dealers. Still more interesting is it to 
know that there is another copy, of about the same date of transcription, and of the 
same family of MSS., agreeing practically with the other two, and is known as the 
" Bain MS." It cannot be traced until it occurred for sale by Sotheby, Wilkinson & 
Hodge in 1894, and is thus described in the printed Catalogue, viz. : — • 

" 1203. Freemasonry. History of Freemasonry in England, with the 
Rules and Regulations of the Craft. MS. on Vellum. Ssec. xvn." 

My old friend, Bro. Geo. Washington Bain, of Sunderland, became the purchaser, 
after whom I named it ; but during this year it has changed hands, the present owner 
being Bro. Reginald A. Wilson (son of the well-known D.Prov.G.M. of West Yorkshire), 
of West Field, Armley, Leeds, who, happily, has not altered its title, and is anxious to 
make its character known to the Craft, much to my satisfaction. 

As soon as possible it will be well to secure copies of all such documents 
remaining unpublished, and I know of no medium equal to our Lodge for that purpose. 

According to Dr. Begemann's able classification, this trio belongs to the Grand 
Lodge Family (branch a), and has as companions, the valuable " Grand Lodge MS., 
No. 1, a.d. 1583, (Library of Grand Lodge), the "Kilwinning" ("Mother Lodge 



< 



I 



250 Transactions of the Quatuor Coronaii Lodge. 

Kilwinning No. 0," Scotland), and the " Cama " (" Quatuor Coronati Lodge " Library). 
There is nothing in the text of these three MSS. under consideration requiring 
particular mention, and as they are virtually in agreement, the two " Phillipps " and 
the " Ba